Study Of Memory Recall For Affective Words English Language Essay

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This study studied memory recall for affective words in the participant's first and second languages. A total of 72 participants participated in this psychological research, of which 54 consisted of the experimental condition for recall of affective words and 18 consisted of the control group for recall of neutral words. There were three bilingual language groups for the experimental condition, Urdu-English, English-Spanish, and Arabic-English and English Neutral words for the control condition there were two hypothesis 1] Affective words will be more recallable in the first language and 2] affective words will be recallable more than Neutral words in both languages. T test was employed and for the three language groups together, the mean recall in the first language (mean= 10.72) was significantly higher than the recall in the second language, however for between languages, some results were significant and some none significant. The within- languages experimental condition compared to the control group of neutral words are analysed in this study. Finally, issues are discussed and recommendations for future research


Research suggests memory recall for affective words is higher in the first language than in the second language. Harris, Aycicegi and Gleason [2003] argue that emotion words in the first language have been experienced in a wider range of contexts than have affective words in a second language and argue that the context in which emotion words appear creates multiple traces in memory for these words and strengthens their semantic representation. Harris et al [2003]. Harris et al [2003] argue that encountering L2 emotion words activates fewer associations than would the same word in the first language.

LaBar & Phelps, 1998 in Harris et al [2003] argue that words and phrases that are acquired early will have strong connections to the amygdala because" early language develops at the same time as emotional regulation systems" [Bloom & Beckwith, 1989 in Harris et al 2003). Lieberman, 2000 [in Harris et al 2003] argue that later learned language may have a more purely cortical representation, lacking connections to subcortical areas

Schumann, 1997 [in Harris et al 2003] argues that a first language is universally learned in a highly emotional context, the context of attachment to caregivers. In contrast, second languages vary in the emotionality of their context. They can be acquired in the emotional context of attachment to caregivers and peers, or may be acquired in formal settings such as school or work, settings with fewer intense personal attachments and argues that emotional words are more remembered in the early age of language acquisition.

Harris et al [2003] argue that the early acquired language is stored with early developing emotional regulation systems. This emotional language development in the child's early years which also determines the memory recall and physiological responses is supported by Anooshian & Hertel [1994]. Bilingual subjects [Spanish- English] who had acquired fluency in their second language after 8 years of age rated 18 emotional and 18 neutral words for ease of pronunciation, implied activity, or emotionality; half of each type was presented in Spanish and half in English. During a subsequent, unanticipated test of free recall participants recalled more emotional than neutral words, but only for words that had been presented in the native language. Anooshian & Hertel [1994] argues that "this finding applied across native-language groups suggests that emotion provides a basis for language specificity in bilingual memory".

Thass-Thienemann [1973 in Altarriba 2002] introduced the idea that the context through which the mother tongue and second language is acquired affects the ways in which the language is expressed. Thass-Thienemann [1973 in Altarriba 2002] argue that "Since the learning of a second language is very formalized, rationalized, and founded upon the conflict-free sphere of the ego it is often not involved in the emotional conflicts in the way that the mother tongue is". Therefore, feelings, repressed emotions, and emotional awareness are more likely to reside in the mother tongue and are best expressed in that language [Thass-Thienemann 1973].

Kroll and Stewart [1994 in Harris et al 2003] proposed that words in L1 are directly linked to conceptual representations [the conceptual store], but that L2 words are initially learned via translations to L1 words. Early in second language learning, L2 words thus have only weak links to the conceptual store. However, as proficiency in L2 increases, the links between L2 words and the conceptual store are strengthened

Harris et al [2003 in Tiina M. Eilola, Jelena Havelka, and Dinkar Sharma 2007] conducted a study with Turkish -English bilinguals. They separated negative and positive words into different categories, and included childhood reprimands as well as taboo words. They found that emotion words produced the same or even better recollection in L2 than in L1. In this study however, language proficiency through formal language assessment was not considered.

The research conducted by Harris et al [2003] suggested that age of acquisition determines emotionality, implying that a second language learned early will be more emotional than a second language learned late; the more proficient language is generally more emotional, implying that a second language may be more emotional than a first if it is learned to greater proficiency.

The purpose of this research with relation to counselling and Psychotherapy

Paradis [2008] argues that therapy is best conducted in the stronger language in order to tap internal cognitive processes. The assessment and therapeutic treatment should be conducted in the language most compatible with the bilingual client's language proficiency and dominance [Cofresi & Gorman, 2004 in Paradis 2008].

Therapy that utilises the second language as the main form of communication may suppress the mother tongue and the affective experiences tied to it [Paradis 2008]. For example, Rozensky & Gomez, 1983 [in Paradis 2008] argue that:

"Use of the native language brings forward not only the expression of tonal affect but also appropriate physical and kinaesthetic expression."

Paradis [2008] argues that the second language remains intellectualized and somewhat distanced from feelings.

Rozensky & Gomez, 1983 [in Paradis 2008] considers that communicating in the second language demands more elaborate mental work than communicating in the first language. Extra cognitive and attentional demands are placed on the low-proficiency second language speaker and emotional expression is inhibited Rozensky & Gomez, 1983 [in Paradis 2008].

Thus when communicating in the second acquired language as it is distanced from affect and feelings, more cognitive effort is placed by the client in order to express psychological symptoms which are at risk of being misinterpreted by the counsellor or psychotherapist due to lack of emotional detachment which will hence affect intervention and also psychotherapeutic relationship and progress [Paradis 2008].

The aim of this study is will be to find out recall of emotional / affective words in the participant's first language and the second language. The whole aim and intention of this research is that when ethnic clients come for counselling and psychotherapy, express and recall their emotions, feelings and experiences of life in their mother tongue language due to emotional value and significance and attachment.

If the clients express themselves effectively in the native mother tongue language then not only they will develop an insight and find resourceful ways to intrapsychic problems, the therapist or counsellor can also understand them and support them in the quest of their subjective exploration and insight.

The ethnic clients will also be able to properly and coherently communicate their issues during the initial clinical interview for clinical assessment as well. Carlson [1979 in Paradis 2008] finds that "psychotherapy is facilitated by the use of the mother tongue"

Materials for the experimental condition

Brief, consent and debrief forms [see appendix], affective words stimuli [see appendix], and distracter [see appendix], A4 plain paper for written response

The Affective Words

14 words were selected from ANEW [Affective Norms for English Words: Instructional Manual and Affective Ratings] compiled by Bradley & Lang [1999 see reference]. The words that were selected all had high but similar levels of Valance and Arousal rates Affective Word

The selection of words

Al the words were selected with similar levels of valence and arousal Valence is a continuum specifying how negative or positive an event is, whereas arousal refers to the intensity of an event, ranging from very calming to highly exciting or agitating [Lang, Greenwald, Bradley, & Hamm, 1993; Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Russell, 1980 in Elizabeth A. Kensinger and Daniel L. Schacter 2007]. A low rate of valance or arousal would imply a low level of arousal and valence.

The words were centre aligned on a plain sheet of paper. The font was Times New Romans and Font size was 16 for ease of visibility. The words were double lined spaced. All the adjustments and preparation was done using Microsoft Word 2007. The words were translated into Spanish using Microsoft Word 2007 translator: Font Size 16, Centre aligned and double lined spaced. The Urdu words were translated by using the English - Urdu translator online at []. The Urdu words were then copy and pasted onto the word application, although font size was not 16 the Urdu words were enlarged becoming similar to the English and Spanish words in size. The Arabic words were translated by using Google translator and similar to the Urdu procedure, the words were copy and pasted onto the Word Application, centre aligned, double lined spaced font was adjusted to the size similar to the English, Spanish and Urdu words.

Distracter task

An uninformed distracter task was employed after remembering each set of word before asked to recall the words. The distracter task employed to make the experiment more effective. The distracter task was made up of mathematical sums [see appendix] and were obtained on line from

Response sheet

The participants were given an A4 blank white paper to write down the words that they could remember. Only one sheet of paper was given. When asked to recall the second time, they wrote the words on the other side of the paper


Three minutes were given to learn the words, 1 ½ minutes were given for the distracter task and three minutes were given to recall the words. A stopwatch was used to accurately assess the time of each task


For the Spanish and Arabic word experiment, participants participated from the University Centre [Blackburn College]. In the Spanish experiment, all the [N] participants were learners of Spanish. N participants were from A2 level and N participants were from Adult level 1 Spanish. 3 groups of Spanish learners participated. The first A2 group was at 12:00 pm consisted of N participants, the second group A2 was at 3:30pm consisted N participants and the third group was at 6:30 pm and consisted of N participants. 18 Arabic participants were recruited from the university centre studying a marketing course at around 7:00 pm. 18 Urdu- English Participants were recruited from Blackburn College studying English. The control condition consisted of 18 participants were all psychology students studying Bsc Applied Psychology at the University Centre Blackburn College.

Determination of first and second language of the participants

The Arabic-English bilinguals who students of marketing research at the university centre all were international students, that is, they were from United Arab Emirates to study the subject. Therefore, their first language was considered Arabic. The English-Spanish bilinguals were learners of Spanish at Blackburn College and their first language was considered English and second Spanish. The Urdu-English Participants were learners of English at Blackburn College therefore their first language was considered Urdu and second English.

Materials for the control condition

Brief, consent, and debrief Neutral words, A4 plain paper [see appendix]

Selection of the Neutral words

The Neutral words [see appendix] were selected from the Toronto Word Pool. Their selection was determined with a similar level of concreteness and imaginability. Their similarity of concreteness and imaginability was nether to high or too low [see appendix]

Dependent variable and the independent variable

The language and the types of words were the independent variable and the recall was dependent variable

Hypothesis 1

Emotive words will be more recallable in first language than second language

Hypothesis 2

In both languages there will be more emotive words recalled than Neutral words

Design of experiment

It was a mixed design experiment, that is, both related and unrelated. For the first hypothesis which was a related design was comparing participants two scores together, that is the participants first language to the participants second language but for the Hypothesis 2 which was a unrelated design participants in the control group matched through education were compared to the participants in the experimental group, that is though who recalled the emotive words in the first and second language

Procedure for the control and experimental conditions

Firstly, after introduction of the experimenter, the participants were briefed. They were each given a brief sheet to read. The instructions of the tasks were on the brief sheet. The experimenter also verbally read out the brief sheet to the participants making sure that they understood what is asked for. A consent form was then given to each participant to sign to participate wilfully. The experimenter then placed the stimuli sheet [affective words for the experimental condition and Neutral words for the control condition] turned over, in front of the participants. They were clearly instructed "please don't turn the sheet over". A plain sheet of paper to write down their responses was also placed in front of them. The experimenter then instructed "when I say, can you all please turn the sheet of paper over and begin reading the words, you have three minutes". The time was closely monitored. When the time ended it was instructed "can I ask you all to finish reading and turn the sheet over again". Then a unanticipated distracter task [of sums] were given to each participant and were told "now please can you complete the these mathematical sums" when 1 ½ minutes had ended the participants were asked "please finish off now, and on the black sheet of paper can you write down the words than you could remember, you have three minute for this" at the end of the three minutes, they were instructed "please finish off writing and can your turn the sheet over".

Procedure continued for the experimental condition only

As soon as all the participants had turned the sheet over, the experimenter then gave the second set of [affective] words preceded with the same set of instructions as mentioned earlier and also in exactly the same procedure. When the participants were asked to recall the words there was one added instruction "can you write down the words you remember on the sheet that you had written on previously, making sure you write on the blank side". The sheets of paper of re collected: Finally, participants were debriefed and explained the aims and hypothesis of the experiment. In the experimental condition the experiment was counterbalanced, that is, in a group of 18 Participants 9 Participants received the first language word list first and the other 9 participants received second language word list first and then afterwards it was reversed.

Table 2 shows the results of a paired sample t-test between words recalled in the experimental conditions of the 1st and 2nd languages. The table shows that the mean recall in the first language (mean = 10.72, SD = 2.764) is significantly (t = 3.820, p≤ 0.000) higher than the recall in the 2nd language. In this test the distinction between languages has been removed, therefore all languages have been included in the results.

This test supports the 1st hypothesis and shows that recall is stronger in the first language than the second. Thus the null hypothesis can be rejected.

Table 4 shows the results of a paired sample t-test between words recalled in the experimental condition and of the control condition. The table shows that the mean for Urdu-Neutral -1.222 SD 3.979 is none significant (-1.303, p < .210). Urdu - English Mean -.667 SD 4.187 is none significant t= -.676 p< .508. English-Neutral Mean (-.556 SD 3.899) is also none significant (t= -.605 p, .553). In pair one Neutral words -1.222 are recalled more than Urdu words in pair 2 English words Mean -.667 were recalled more than Urdu and in Pair three Neutral words Mean -.556 were recalled more than English

Table 3 shows that Pair one Urdu Mean 8.28 ST 2.296 is significantly lesser than Neutral Mean 9.50 t -1.303 SD 3.222, pair 2 Urdu Mean 8.28 SD 2.296 is lesser than English Mean 8.94 -.676 SD 2.879, Pair three English word Mean 8.94 SD 2.879 is lesser than Neutral Mean 9.50 SD 3.222 -.605. it shows that there is no significant difference between number of words recalled in the first language, second language or Neutral words. Therefore hypothesis one and hypothesis two are not supported in this case

Table 2 shows English-Spanish Mean (2.278 SD 2.081 highly) significant (t= 4.644 p< .000) English - Neutral Mean 2.222 SD 4.479 is highly significant (t= 2.105 p< .050) Spanish-Neutral Mean -.506 (t= -.056 p, .956) is none significant

In pair one English Mean 11.72 SD 2.224 was recalled more than Spanish Mean 9.44 SD 3.202 t 4.644, in pair two English words Mean 11.72 2.244 were recalled more than Neutral words Mean 9.50 SD 3.222 t 2.105 however in Pair 3 Spanish words Mean 9.44 SD 3.202 were recalled significantly lesser than Neutral words Mean 9.50 SD 3.222 t -.056. Therefore Hypothesis 1 and 2 are supported for the English- Spanish, English - Neutral but not for the Spanish - Neutral.

The table shows that Arabic-English Mean (4.444 SD 3.347) is significant (t= 5.634 p< .000) Arabic-Neutral Mean 2.667 SD 3.956 is significant (t=2.860 p< .011) English - Neutral Mean -1.778 SD 5.024 is none significant (t= -1.501 p< .152) both the first and second Hypothesis are supported for Arabic-English and Arabic-Neutral but not for English-Neutral. In Pair one Arabic words Mean 12.17 SD 1.978 were recalled more than English Mean 7.72 SD 3.064, in Pair two Arabic words Mean 12.17 Mean 1.978 were recalled more than Neutral Mean 9.50 SD 3.222, However in Pair three English words Mean 7.72 were recalled significantly lesser than Neutral words Mean 9.50 SD 3.222

The second and third T tests show that the hypothesis is half right that more emotive words will be recalled in first language than Neutral words. This is not the case in the second language though where the same amount of each type of word is recalled

Discussion and future recommendations

Consistent with studies of Aycicegi and Gleason [2003] and other researchers this research had found that mean recall in the first language is significantly higher than the recall in the second language.

However, paired t test between languages shows both significant and none significant results depending on the language. For example there is not a significant difference between the words recalled in English and words recalled in Urdu for the Urdu-English bilinguals which may be consistent with Harris et al [2003] second language proficiency hypothesis which states that there can be a higher emotional recall in the second language if there is a high proficiency with it.

In this study not only level of language proficiency was not considered but also the level of culture knowledge where the language is generally spoken and also the level of the participant's acculturation level [to that culture] was not considered. It is understood that every culture has its own way of expressing emotions and the level of emotionality of a particular words may be dependent upon cultural influence and cultural / religious perception. Some participants may have been more acculturated than others to the culture of that language and understood the emotional word from a range of different angles and experiences than others.

Formalised Assessment of language proficiency

Assessment of language proficiency is very important. Some Bilingual participants were proficient in both languages and so Spanish words for example, became a cue of recalling English words and vice versa. Apart from the Arabic student class who were studying marketing in English and are assumed to be proficient in English as well as in Arabic because of the required a certain level of proficiency of English language to be enrolled on the course, The Spanish participants were second language learners and the Participants who were Urdu and English speakers differed in their level and strength of proficiency. So there was not really an equal balance of participants who are proficient in both of their languages.

There may be participants who were simultaneous bilinguals, that is, both languages were learned almost simultaneously from early childhood, therefore there emotional expression, response and recall may be equally similar in both languages. What constituted as the participants first or second language will need to be formally assessed. Although, in the Spanish condition, the racial ethnicity of all the participants were presumably perceived as 'English ' by the researcher, presumably residing in England, the physical dispositions may not be sufficient to assume that a 'English' person's language, despite residing in the England is English, it may be Irish, Polish, French or any other, therefore, the accurate distinction and determination of first and second language through means of questionnaires and language assessment form is very important. Assessment of language fluency in both languages is also important because if the individuals are found to have excellent level of English and Urdu for example, then because the two languages in the bilinguals brain are inter connected and inter related they share the meanings and emotional significances of words, the bilingual can may possibly recall the translation of the word in his first language.

There may be simultaneous bilinguals whose both languages may be the first. For example, Parents of children who are proficiently bilingual will communicate to their children in both languages hence during the emotional and cognitive development in the early years there is equal level of emotional response to words in both languages dependent upon the context they were used. Therefore, not only individual difference needs to be considered but also age of language acquisition.

Mental imagery and imaginability

Although the affective words that were selected had a high level of valence and emotional significance, other factors such as mental imagery, concreteness, abstractness equal balance of negative / positive emotion words were not considered. Consistent with Allan Paivio [2005] and his dual code hypothesis there is a dual representational system for languages processing and coding: namely, the verbal system located in the left hemisphere and the non verbal [imagery] system located in the right hemisphere of the brain. A word depending on its level of imaginability and concreteness is processed either in the verbal system or non verbal system. The high imagery words with greater imagery levels coded dually, in the verbal code as a word and in the non verbal code as a mental image. However abstract words and word which have lower rate of imagery are only coded in the verbal system of the left hemisphere; therefore, the high imagery words have favourable access to both verbal and non verbal processing systems and being more recallable and memorable together with its semantic value. It is possible that some words imbalanced in terms of eliciting mental imagery which could have been a reason for better recallability not because of emotional value but because of mental imagery and hence greater recall.

In future research this issue also needs to taken into consideration to obtain for effective results. In line with mental imagery and individual differences, the individual cognitive ability, personal memory performance level may also be taken. Some people in the experiment, who were aged, didn't believe that they would be able to remember the words; their belief of their decline of memory was self-attributed towards their age.

Positive and negative emotive words

Other factors that could have been considered are as mentioned before, the emotional response to a negative or positive affective word that may determine its recallability. If a word has a high positive and negative valence it will affect the mood. Study by Schrauf and Sanchez (2004 in Viorica Marian and Margarita Kaushanskaya 2008), found that the number of negative emotion words surpassed the number of neutral or positive emotion words in a free-recall task with speakers of English and Spanish. However, the words that were selected seemed to be more positively emotion, such as joy, excitement, couple, and beautiful.

To make the recall and experiment more effective the word list could consist of both negative and positive affective words and include words which are neutral with a similar level of concreteness and imagery. Moreover, Tiina M. Eilola, Jelena Havelka, and Dinkar Sharma [2007] found that negative and taboo words produced significantly longer latencies compared to neutral words in L1, . In addition, positive words did not take significantly longer to respond to than neutral words. Here the authors tested with positive and taboo words and found differences in their responses depending upon their emotional valence.

Subjective importance of the second language and cultural values

Another factor that may influence better emotional recall in the second language other than age of acquisition and social contexts is how important the second language is important to the person. The more the perception of importance it is to the bilingual person the more involvement with the language will be shown [to learn and interact in various ways]. For example if a person is working with people speaking a language which happens to be the persons second language then over time as this person is interacting with the people in a range on ways and circumstances the person will learn to become emotionally involved and thus the strength of emotionality and affect may become equally strong than his first native / mother tongue language.

One also needs to consider each language has cultural significance as well. Some words may very well be emotionally arousing in one language but due to psychosocial influences the very same words which are translated or interpreted in another language might not be emotionally arousing. Therefore, when testing in a multicultural British or western society where the dominant culture is western culture and so are the norms and social values and significances, it makes sense to examine and see the level of acculturation and adaptations of the participants to the dominant culture through forms of questionnaires or acculturation models as proposed by various psychologists [refer to model and findings]

This way, not only the fluency of first and second language needs to be assessed but the influence of the dominant culture of the individual. There have been studies conducted that the more the person is acculturated with the dominant culture the more that person has emotional significance of that culture.

There will be a set of cognitive schemas and verbal or mental imagery for the Urdu word which may have its meanings in English which will hence assist the recallability of the word. The more proficient a person is in the first language and the second language will enable the person to such for the translation in the second language and will assist recallability.

Semantic and cognitive equivalence and similarity of translated words

The affective words that were used were quite simply translated into Urdu, Spanish and Arabic. A point worthy of mention is that emotional equivalence of words is largely dependent upon cognitive equivalence and cognitive representation of the word. Although cognitive equivalence is often assumed for translation-equivalent terms, it is quite possible that terms that consistently are translated in a certain way still have a different meaning; translation equivalence does not necessarily imply cognitive equivalence: the words may not be semantically and cognitively equivalent. The translation of the words may not be very accurate. If the translations of the words are not very accurate then there is a risk of translation distortion. It is worthy of noting that some languages such as Urdu and Arabic have a comprehensive dictionary for words. For example an emotional word such as 'excitement' has various expressions and words to describe excitement in various contexts; also when translating the closest and nearest translation was used; having mentioned the risk of distortion still remains. Therefore, affective words cognitive equivalence and semantic relatedness considerations, cross culturally, and are very important in order to yield more reliable and valid results.

Individual cognitive abilities and atmosphere of competitiveness

Individual cognitive abilities such as mental organization, learning strategy, identifying word similarities, and various other strategies to enhance personal performance were not considered. It seems as though that the experiment was more a cognitive task. Through a set of formalised instructions the participants were aiming to remember to the most amounts of numbers and may be in an atmosphere of ability and competitiveness. That is, participants may have competed against each other to see how many words they could remember compared to the other person. It might not have been an atmosphere of emotional recall or expression because of other cognitive factors such as competitiveness, anxiety, stress, hopelessness, inability for memory tests.

Therefore, it is recommend that other forms of research are used such as interviews in a lesser competitive environment where emphasis is placed on memorization and recall within a set amount of time.

Standardisation of affective norms of English Words [ANEW] and issues of reliability and validity

The sets of emotional words that were given to the bilingual participants which were in their first language apart from Participants included 299 native English speakers (125 male, 174 female, mean age 21 years), who received course credit for participation. The experimental protocol was approved by the Indiana University Committee for the Use of Human Subjects in Research. We need to also discuss the issue of the normative rating of the emotional words that were selected from the ANEW. The level of rate of emotions was determined by the people living in the United States. It is understood that to a certain extent culture and tradition influence emotions. The perception and expression of emotion may somewhat different in the United States that in the United Kingdom. These differences may also affect the affective ratings for the emotional words, for example, in the United States the word 'car' may be perceived subjectively by the reasons of social system as 'affective' word but in England there may not be a emotionally high significance attached to the word 'car' similarly, the word 'car' may be emotional for university students or young drivers as it may evoke images or have links and associations with 'lavish lifestyle' and or being a way to seek and attract the girl or a boy friend, however, for a person who needs a car fundamentally for work or just for transportation from one place to another, the subjective perception and associations may not be affectively or emotionally linked.

Therefore, the basis on which the words were chosen, the basis of affect and emotion, may not after all be affect or emotional words, when considering a] culture b] individual or collective perception of that emotive word c] age and personal circumstances which may increase or reduce the emotional rating of the word dependent upon individual situations.

If this explained situation did occur then the words may not have been affective at all as they were rated and standardised by on a set number of 'white' participants living in the United States, in a somewhat different culture then one can be critical that it was merely a test of memory ability, cognitive effort and performance rating. Therefore the validity of this experiment may be in question.

Limited words and other considerations and techniques of research

One may not say that if participants have recalled more words in the first language than in the second language there is necessarily emotional attachment with that language due to a limited selected words and previously mentioned issues in relation to the affective rating of the words that is determined by age and culture. If more effective results need to be obtained and to get a better understanding of emotional attachment with the first language in comparison with the second language a comprehensive test needs to be considered. This test and research can involve the bilingual participant actively communicating / conversing in the first language and the second language of the emotional event such as marriage or birth of a child or other happy experiences in both languages for about 3 minutes. Then, the significance of the first language emotional expression can be tested through personal statements, personal interviews, and questionnaires and through other interactive ways. This subjective perception of verbalizing an emotional experience may give better results. The questionnaires that may also be subjected to empirical testing as well and significance determined. As mentioned in the introduction section of this report, Dewaele [2004] used various techniques such as self reports, questionnaires and confirmed the hypothesis that affective words were more attached with the first language.

The words recalled the second time may be more in number due to the previous recall of words and because they were a direct translation of the former words. Especially with those words that were especially similar in English and Spanish. Therefore one recommendation could that instead of translating the affective normative words [in English] to other languages such as Spanish [which is more similar to English than Urdu and Arabic] we could use another set of totally different and dissimilar emotional words to have a better understanding of emotional response in the first and second languages. Another important issue with the selection of the words was that even though the words were all different from one another, however, it could also be argued that some were semantically related. For example, the words Ecstasy and Excitement, could be argued somewhat similar also Ecstasy could be argued as somewhat intensification of excitement, similarly, joy & fun intimate & couple are also somewhat in the same context.

Writing ability

One issue that was experienced during the experiment was that of the ability of writing. Participants may have recalled the words but due to inability to spell the words especially in the second language, may have inhibited them to write down the words especially in the short amount of time. For many people even though the first language was Urdu, in the English-Urdu participants, were unable to write the Urdu words because of weak Urdu writing competency, despite being competent speakers. Therefore, the writing abilities need to be considered in future research. Utilization of interviews or verbal recall for emotional words may be considered than written recall to avoid this issue. As a result of a high reading and understanding ability of Urdu for example, and weak writing ability some participants transliterated the words in roman English instead of writing the Urdu and they were finding it difficult to remember the words then to write it in a different format.