Some Issues And History Of Braille English Language Essay

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Recently, Technology explosion was effected positively at the increase of the human perception, especially for the third and second world countries. Braille system is one of the systems that have become important to the humanity, where a lot of young blind people may participate at increasing the scientific growth and becoming an effective member in this world. Therefore, the blindness limited their ability.

This chapter discusses some issues about Braille; the history of Braille, Braille in English character, Braille in Arabic character, and Quran in Braille. also preview about Quran reciting rules,

QURAN

The Quran is the Islam Holy God Book for humanity. It was passed to us by angel Gabriel in a chain starting from the Almighty Himself to the Prophet Muhammad at 40 years old. For 23 years, the Quran was transmitted to the Prophet Muhammad in pieces till his death at 63 years old. The Quran was translated for many languages, but the original text was revealed to the Prophet in Arabic language, (Malik 2007).

JAWI LANGUAGE

Jawi is an Austronesia language spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand, 18 million the Malaysian whom are speaking Jawi, Addition to 160 million people who speak Indonesian, which is formed from Malay language. The first appeared for the Malay inscription was at 684 Ads in southern Sumatra and the island of Bangka. Firstly, it was Indian script until 14th century where the Islam arrived at South and east of Asia and the Arabic script became the main writing language for the Malay language. In the early for 17th century, the Arabic letters were replaced under the power of the Dutch and British to Roman script (Bowern 2005).

PREVIEW AT BRAILLE CODE

Braille code is the tactual (Touching) reading way that depending at the fingertip and helping the visually impaired person to be part of the societal, educational, and universal life. Braille code created to be great innovation that moving the blinds people from their dark to the light of the life.

Since 1820 Braille code was advised, improved, certified, produced, published and modified to be a universal language that serving the blinds and making them sighted people by their mind, Braille is starting in French and ending at earth (Whole World).

History of the Braille code

Louis Braille is the blind eleven years old boy, he innovated the inscription code (Braille Code). Louis derived his idea from a secret code was given for the French soldiers; he developed and refined the military code until it became relational dots that represented a new blinds language. Braille code was fast spread and became wide variety comparing with the other methods. Braille code uses independently by the visual impaired person, whereas it is a fingertip recognition method that easy to read and write for the blind people.

The original military code was twelve dot cells that represented at six rows and two columns of dots, they called it the night writing code, and it was used after dark as a communication way between the soldiers were the dot or relational dots represent a character, sound or a specific sign.

Louis Braille improved the code and made it easy and fast reading code, where the soldiers were faced difficulty at reading the letters and signs that represented by twelve dots. The six Louis dots were easier than the twelve military dots where it could encompass by the fingertip, the new code had accepted as a universal communication way between the blinds people and the world around them, it translated for most languages, and became the World blind language, (CINB Vision Health 2006).

Through the time, Braille code was modified, and became has contractions for the letters by adding abbreviations for some words that appear frequently in a language. The improving for the Braille code made the reading for Braille faster; it reduced the size of Braille books and made it less costly.

After the language is translated into Braille the code hand reading by the blind persons, where the output is embosser code on special paper or devices. Many output devices were produced Braille displays, Braille Embossers, and Screen magnifiers, (Sable, 2006).

Braille code and Natural languages

Today, the original French six dot pattern is truly a universal system that spread widely over the sea, where it was simple and persuasiveness more than other representation symbols as the line or New York point. By the hard worker for the researcher and the variety international conference, unsighted people in most countries are being able to enjoy the benefit of read Braille code independently. As a universal script; the visual impaired used Braille to write and learn all the world languages.

In 1949; under the patronage of UNESCO, world Braille project proposed a unify codes for the different languages around the world, to include the languages that writing from left to/ right as English, French, Germany, Spain and others, or from right to left as Arabic, Jawi, Persian, Urdu and others. The codes were easy to learn and use for both of them; blind and seeing persons, Manocha et al (2009).

Braille code in English language

National des Jeunes Aveugles institute in France adopted Braille as official communication method for the unsighted people at 1854; Switzerland was the first country that adopted the Braille code outside France in visually impaired school was called "The Asylum for the Blind". A superintendent of blind school was visited Europe and was amazed by Braille system and decided to bring a Braille book to United State at 1866. In England, Braille system was popularized and the Royal National Institute for the Blind institute in London was established at 1870 (Jolley 2006)

By the end of the nineteenth century English language was translated to Braille in the United Kingdom, Australia and many other countries. Braille became official blind language in United States at 1932. Since that, there were five tactual systems used for blinds people at American, British, and Australia, (Keller 1987).

The market-leader in commercial translation products is produced by the Duxbury Company in the USA (Holladay 2001). They provide many functions, including translating, word-processed, documents and plain text, integration with other applications, bulk translation and graphical interfaces. There are versions for individual users, integrated with the Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh desktop operating systems, as well as large-scale volume translators. They are feature-rich, constantly updated but relatively expensive. Some fourteen languages are supported.

Another system designed for desktop computers is Win Braille. This is produced by the Index Braille company (Vikman 2001), which manufactures embossers and thus produces a free text-to-Braille product to encourage Braille use. This supports 18 languages in a WYSIWYG word-processor style, allowing Braille code to be edited directly. It is designed to produce output for the Index embosser. It uses a rule-based translation system, and the rules can be edited by users for local variations. It also supports grades of translation, straight character or abbreviation.

Grade in Braille code

The Braille code that equivalent the English letters was had enhancement through the last years, by applying new rules at the original Braille symbols to become called Grad1 before the modification, and Grad2 after it.

Grad1 is Braille language without use any abbreviations and contractions. Easy to learn and memorize for the blind persons especially for the beginner. However, this form takes up a lot of space, which makes Grade1 Braille books much bulkier than print books.

In (Partington, 2003), the differentiations between Grad1 and Grade 2 clarified that Grade 2 is saving a space and cost comparing with Grad1. Grade2 of Braille is using rules for the language that has abbreviations and contractions to make it more efficient in term of cost or books size. For example, 'Braille' is written as 'brl'. Grade 2 is the most popular form of Braille. Most of the languages using Grade I Braille and each language have its own official.

Braille code in Arabic language

Quran in Braille

The Arabic language is one of the important languages in the world; it is the main language for the Quran in the Islamic religion. "The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Braille Press for the production of the Holy Quran" was initially established in 1973, they have committed in publishing a manual Quran Braille System. Educational books of Braille were producing by using old Braille equipment, which were incapable to print the holy Quran. The period between 1985 until 1986 was the begin for producing Braille Quran in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) by "Special Education Press of the Ministry of Education" then following that the fatwa to produced the first Quran by Regional Bureau Press, (Binbaz, 1987).

The Quran Braille was begun early of the 1950s, in Jordan 1952, Egypt at 1962, then at Tunisia, KSA, Morocco, Pakistan, Iran and Nigeria. Saudi Arabia was first country at middle-east and the third in the world that using computer system to print Quran,(Zarif, 2009).

in 1980s, a new Braille printing way was came out for Quran, where the printing was in two line, first line was for the diacritics ( Fat-ha, Dumma, .etc), and the second line was for the Quran letters. this printing way was producing manually by using tools for writing Braille as ( slate and stylus), so that, the writing was need more effort specially that each Quran verses was represented by two lines which mean increasing at the pages number thus the cost, (Kaser Al-nor, 1989) see Figure 2.1

Figure 2.1 Old Egyptian Quran

Since the KSA produced Quran Braille in one line for each verses and it was doing the same functionality and saving time, cost and size, KSA Quran Braille was spreading in most the Islamic country until in Egypt the produced for two line Quran Braille.

Currently, formal Quran Braille that teaching for Blind student and using around the world is KSA Quran Braille, where the Egypt Quran Braille using decreased and currently it is not teaching in the Blind institute.

This research is adopted the idea of the two lines from the Egypt Quran Braille and the idea of mixed the diacritics and letters in one line from KSA Quran Braille. The explanation for adopting the idea of the two lines from the Egypt Quran Braille referred to the need for adding a proposed Braille symbols for Quran reciting rules. the Quran reciting rules could be many reciting in one word, thus if it is placed with the letter and diacritics in the same line will confuse the reader and increasing the code complexity. Since that the proposed symbols was placed above the verses in separate line.

QURAN RECITING RULES

As a holy God book, Quran has a recitation rules that purpose to keep the Quran reader away from the verses misreading that may occur a change at the meaning for this holy book.

The Quran recitation rules are considered to give the letters a complete and accurate spelling without any increase or decrease. The Arabic letters have two status for the reading; the individual spelling for one letter and the successive spelling for two letters, each of them has rules should applying for it. Kalkala and Mudd (Prolong) are rules applying for the individual letter, and; Edhar (adhering), Edgham (diphthong), Eklab (labial nasalization) and Ekhfa' (concealing) are rules applying for the successive letters.

The intonation for the Quran rules have a different articulators that make the reciting for each reciting rule is varied. Figure 2.2 is a diagram that is used considerably by phonetics researchers (Roach, 1991). It represents a side view for human head that declare the letters articulators for any languages included the Arabic language.

Figure 2.2: The articulators

Individual Letter Spelling Reciting Rules

Kalkala (As shown below in Figure 2.3) is ٍunsettled letter sound where it is occurred for five Jussive letters (the static letter without diacritics) (دْ, جْ, بْ, طْ, قْ) where the letter sound is compressed inside the pharynx for a while, then spelled the letter voice strongly and quickly, where the previous five letters are bilabial and velar articulation, they are strong letters by their natural.

Figure 2.3 Kalkala example

Figure 2.4 is declared the articulators for Kalkala letters.

Figure 2.4 Kalkala Letters articulators

Mudd (Prolong Vowels), vowel prolonging varies between two tabs, four tabs and six tabs. The tab duration is half a second average depending of the speed recitation, the one tab is one beat with the finger tip. Mudd (Prolong) is the elongation that occurred for three vowels (a, i, u) as Table 2.1 below:

Table 22.1 Mudd (Prolong) Elongation

The articulators for Mudd (Prolong) letters, where the pronunciation for the three letters are occurred by get out the air from the esophagus as the arrow direction at below Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.5 Mudd Articulators

Successive Letters spelling Reciting Rules

In general, the successive letters at the Arabic language are divided according to the letters articulator; to identical and homogeneous letters, and a part letters, (Al-kari', 1998).

The identical and homogeneous letters are the letters which have similarity at the articulator and adjective as shown at Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.6: Edgham (diphthong) example

The Edgham (diphthong) is two sounds from the same point of articulation in one or two words see Figure 2.7 below. The Edgham (diphthong) articulation mostly is nasal consonant where it is the air escapes through the nose and the palate must be lowered.

Figure 2.7 Edgham (diphthong) Articulators

The apart letters are different at the adjective and far at the articulators, since that; the two successive letters are reciting by adhere each letter without diphthong or conceal them. Edhar (Adhering) is pronouncing the sound as it is clearly, and it is occurred if a few letters is coming after Non-diacritic (N (نْ), M (مْ), L (لْ)) or Tanween, see Figure 2.8 and 2.9.

Figure 2.8 Edhare (adhere) for Noon

Figure 2.9: Edhar (adhere) for Lam

The Ekhfa' (concealing) is a recitation rules that applied for the successive letters that the articulate is not so (close or far) for the two letters, by another words; it is a state that occurred between the Edhare (adhere) and the Edgham (diphthong) where the first letter is concealed by the second letter, see Figure 2.10.

Figure 2.10: Ekhfa' (concealing) for Noon

The last recitation rule for the successive letters as shown at Figure 2.11 is called Eklab (labial nasalization).the Eklab (labial nasalization) is just occurred if the non- diacritic N (نْ) is followed by diacritic B (ب), where the N (نْ) is changing to M ( مْ) and the M (مْ) is diphthong with the B (ب) with appearance for nasal sound at the M.

Figure 2.11 Eklab example

TEXT MINING PROBLEM

Text mining is a burgeoning new field that gleans available information from the text. It is also the process of analyzing text to get meaningful information that is useful for particular purposes, (Witten, 2003).

(Nahm & Mooney, 2005), describes text mining as "looking for patterns in unstructured text", (Doore et al, 1999) say "text mining applies the same analytical functions of data mining to the domain of textual information, relying on sophisticated text analysis techniques that distill information from free-text documents", whereas in Tan(1999) describes text mining as "the process of extracting interesting and nontrivial patterns or knowledge from text documents".

Compared with the kind of data stored in databases, text is unstructured, amorphous, and difficult to deal with algorithmically. Nevertheless, in modern culture, text is the most common vehicle for the formal exchange of information. The field of text mining usually deals with texts whose function is the communication of factual information or opinions, and the motivation for trying to extract information from such text automatically is compelling even if success is only partial.

Text mining is often confused with data mining with some people describing text mining as a simple extension of data mining applied to unstructured databases". In (Hearst, 1997) disputes this by saying that data mining is not `mining' at all but simply a (semi)automated discovery of patterns/trends across large databases that help in making decisions and that no new facts are established during this discovery process. She describes text mining as the process of mining precious nuggets of ore from a mountain of otherwise worthless rock. She calls text mining the process of discovering heretofore unknown information from a text source.

People also tend to confuse text mining with Information Extraction (IE). IE deals with the extraction of facts about prospected entities, events or relationships from unrestricted text sources. In (Ralph, 1997), IE is a process of creation a structured representation of selective information that is derived from text, E.g., marking all the names in a paragraph in text is an information extraction process. The information that got out by the IE process is already present in the text and it is not hidden information, and therefore IE cannot be classified as text mining.

Quran text have two set of symbols, the first set contains twenty eight (28) letters and the second set contains eight (8) diacritics, the diacritics was founded at the Arabic language for monitoring the text reading, where if different diacritics found at same word, thus is given different meaning, since that the important of the diacritics was came. In general the differential of the articulators (velar, bilabial and nasal) is caused differential at the letters pronunciation. Since that, Quran reciting rules are setting the reciting of the Quran verses in order to keep the reader out of reading mistakes.

TEXT MINING APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES

Through this research, Quran text is translated to Braille code, the Quran reciting rules are specific pronounce vibrations for reciting, this reciting rules are not visible through the Quran text, since that text mining process and techniques were applied to the text in order to detect and extract the reciting rules from the text.

Knowledge engineering approach

The main goal for the knowledge Engineering is mining the jewels from the expert head to get a good accuracy for the result. It is extract the knowledge from human expert who a relatively have high level of human expertise, knows about the domain, knows about the information extraction system, and have a good skills to generate a quality rules. Formulating good rules is a hard and consumes long time for human experts where it requires formulating, testing, and modifying the rules so it gives a good performance at the end, (Ernst, 2003). this research is information technology research where it manipulate with religion domain and social domain, so that the experts in both domains needed. "Alsho'la Blind Institute"is institute that caring at the visual display people, and all the steps of this research were under supervision of an experts Braille and Quran teachers at the institute.

Token identification

Text segmentation or term tokenization is one of the fundamental tasks in natural language processing (NLP). Tokenization is breaking the text into words or characters. It is an important step to deal with numbers, alphanumeric string, capitalization, punctuation, the spaces, the long or short text, with non-printing characters, and so on, (Guo, 1997). It may be beneficial to perform some lexical analysis or morphological analysis on the tokens, removing suffixes or representing them as words separate from the stem, which can be quite complex and is strongly language-dependent.

Through this research, the text segmented line by line, each line are marked at the end of this line at sign "#", then the engine manipulated with five letters sequentially. For more details see chapter IV.

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION (KR)

The definition of KR Hypothesis is states that any intelligent process contains structural ingredients which observers naturally take to represent the knowledge that the process exhibits, (Reichgelt and Doormen, 1997). Thus, any intelligent system should have a knowledge base that manipulating by an inference engine. Example: expert systems (most famous: GPS of Newell and Simon).

A number of knowledge representation schemes have been developed over the years; some have been borrowed from field research, other from psychology as well as computer science. Some schemes are used to support analysis, while others are used in actual coding.

Knowledge Representation that Supported Analysis

Through this research, decision table was used as knowledge representation, where it is controlled the reciting rules detecting processes in QBPS, for more details see chapter VI.

Semantic Networks

The basic idea of a semantic network representation is very simple: There are two types of primitive, nodes and links or arcs. Links are unidirectional connections between nodes.

Nodes correspond to objects, or classes of objects, in the world, whereas links correspond to relationships between these objects, (Sowa, 1991). The major problem with semantic network is the lack of operational knowledge and the meaning of node may be ambiguous.

Decision Tree

In (Middleton, 2007), Decision tree is a hierarchically arranged semantic network and is closely related to a decision table but it suffering from the lack of the information in the tree format that might indicate what other combinations of conditions could be included, this is where the decision table is useful.

Decision Table

Levitt defines the decision table. It is more like a spreadsheet, divided into two parts: (1) a list of condition and their respective, and (2) a list of conclusions. The various conditions are matched against the conclusions. Decision table is a powerful documentation tool for understanding and maintaining the documentation, and useful in verifying the rules, (Levitt, 2005).

Knowledge Representation that Supported coding

Through this research, decision table is coding by using IF statement Rules, where it represented by premise and action clauses or statements. Rules are simple to code, understand and modify.

Frames

A frame is structure or a representation scheme for organizing knowledge through previous experience. It handles a combination of declarative and operational knowledge, which makes it easier to understand the problem domain, (Kuipers, 1994).

A major drawback of frames is their level of complexity which makes them much slower than alternative schemes, where it goes through a series of frames before it can find the frame that has the value needed. Frames do not easily describe heuristics that are more readily represented with rules.

Rule

Rules represent the major elements of a modular knowledge representation schemes. Rules are conditional statements that are easy to understand and write; express relationship between parameters or variables.

The (IF … Then) structure, of the rule language is represented by Premise and Action clauses or statements. The Premise is a Boolean (Yes/No, True/False) expression that must be evaluated as true for the rule to be applied, it composed by one or more statements separated by connectors (AND, OR). The Action part of the rule is separated from the Premise by the keyword (THEN), the Action clauses consists of series of statements separated by (AND) or commas (,) and it executed if the premise is true, (Hangos, 2005).

FINITE STATE MACHINE

Finite State Machines (FSMs) are a common presence in digital circuits design. FSM is a powerful technique because it follows simple rules and easy to be handled with the software. The software that building by FSM is simpler and easier to design, understands, verify, implement, debug and modify, (Drumea and Popescu, 2004).

In

To describe a Finite State Machine 4 elements are required:

Set of possible states.

Set of possible inputs.

Set of possible transitions from a state to another.

Set of actions performed to each transition.

There are more possible representations of FSMs but two of them are very intuitive - State Diagrams and State Transition Tables. State Diagram is a very simple description of a Finite State Machine. States are represented with circles or ovals, arrows represent possible transitions from one state to another and over each transition's arrow are placed associated input values and actions.

Another simple representation of FSMs is possible with State Transition Table. This determines the next state based on the current inputs and state.

State diagram is easier to understand at first look but state transition table is more useful for programming because it describes FSM in more rigorous way. To implement a FSM in software following resources are required:

Global variable for current state

Timer for initiating transitions

Decision tree associated with timer event for selecting next state

according to current state and input configuration

Set of actions routines

Extended Finite State Machine Technique (EFSM) is

a In order to detect the Quran reciting rules

EXTENDED FINITE STATE MACHIN (EFSM)

Extended finite state machine (EFSM) is an extended technique for FSM technique, else that the transaction function for the conventional FSM is Boolean function, otherwise it is triggers conditions for the EFSM.

RELATED RESEARCH

Theirs many research done before to translate the natural languages to Braille symbols. In this section, there examples at researches are used Finite State Machine, Decision Table and rule base system, as techniques to translate the English, Japanese and Arabic languages to Braille symbols, and to apply some rule at the grad1 of Braille symbols to become grade2.

Text and Braille computer translation by (Alasdair King)

(King, 2000) is concerned with the translation of text to and from Braille, by using the matching of left and right contexts of the translation windows, with finite state machine to handle grades of Braille within the same language and to allow a single set of rule to duple as translation to and from Braille for a language, decision table controls the operation of the finite state machine, and simple list of character translation rules that can be edited directly by non-technical users.

A System for converting print into Braille by (Paul Blenkhorn)

The UMIST translation system (Belkhorn, 1997), is one of the few published of work on text and Braille translation in recent years. Where the engine state controlled by a finite state machine, using the contents of the decision table, and regulates which subset of the language translation rules can be used. The translation engine can use any language rules table, so any language can be translated to or from Braille code if the language rules table is constructed.

Rule- and Case-Based Adaptive Knowledge Base and Its Application to Japanese-to-Braille Translation

As preprocessing for translating the Japanese language to Braille, the system (Ono...etc, 2007) analyzes the source document written in mixed Japanese and makes first draft, their no spaces between the words in the Japanese language so that; a segmentation processes are done for the Japanese text and a spaces added between words. The Japanese characters are converting to Kanji - Kana characters depending at table of rules because Braille characters Japanese coincide only to kana, the rules and cases for translating process are containing operator, attributes of morphemes and identification numbers that handle the root rule.

Towards a computerized Arabic Braille environment

In (Al-Salman and Al-Khalifa, 2002), Arabic Braille environment (ABE) system is a word processing solution for visually impaired people that designed with a speaking function for the typed characters to facilitate for them the interaction with computers.

The ABE system has many features that reached it the quality of outstanding systems as printing, copying text from any other word processor, ability to open multiple files simultaneous and it is having Arabic user interface for easy access by sighted Arabian people.

THE EXISTING BRAILLE SYSTEMS

Duxbury Braille Translation (DBT) Software

DBT is window-based software system that provides a reading for the blind people by using Braille symbols (Duxbury, 2009). DBT provides many facilities, Ms-word, documents, emails and homepage are handling. DBT have the ability to translate the Arabic language and 17 other languages to Braille code. It is giving the user the ability to create and edit natural Arabic text using Microsoft Word (Arabic version).

IBSAR

(IBSAR, 2004) is Braille translate system IBSAR was developed by Al Alamiah, KSA. It is using MS-Word as a platform. The blind people are not treating with IBSAR directly. IBSAR is translating tow languages which they are Arabic and English languages.

Printing System with Braille Software

The Kuwait institution for scientific research has developed software called printing system with Braille, (Roy, 2000). It is a window-based application that translating Arabic text to Braille code (one way translation). The software supports multi-level contractions as well as the conversion of Holy Quran files into Braille code. the printing system is translate the Quran into Braille as normal Arabic text without any specific rules for the Quran.

WinBraille Software

WinBraille is free Braille editor software. It has been developed for widows based application and can handle most windows compatible editors and browsers. Win-Braille has many features as standard keyboard, interface to all windows word-processing programs, easy editing of a translated document, and support for internet and e-mail. Arabic translation is supported in Win-Braille but it doesn't have Arabic interface, (Index, 2002).

Sensus Braille Software

Sensus Braille was developed by Sensus ApS by Denmark and International Braille authorities. It is window-based software that automates the translation of English and Danish text into Braille. However it does not support the Arabic language, (Sensus, 1999).

MEASUREMENTS

Measurement lies at the heart of many systems that govern our lives. Economic measurements determine price and pay increases. Measurements in radar systems enable us to detect aircraft when direct vision is obscured. Without measurement technology cannot function (Curtis, 1980).

The measurement captures information about attributes of entities. An entity is an object or an event in the real world. An attribute is a feature or property of an entity. Thus its wrong to say that we measure entities or that we measure attributes; in fact we measure attributes of entities. When we describe entities by using attributes, we often define the attributes using numbers or symbols, where by defining the numbers and symbols; we try to preserve certain relationships that we see among the entities.

In general the measurement divide to two main measurements, direct measurement and indirect measurement. Direct measurement of an attribute of an entity involves no other attribute or entity. For example, length of physical object can be measured without reference to any other object or attribute. On the other hand, density of a physical object can be measured only indirectly in term of mass and volume, or the speed of a moving object is most accurately measured indirectly using measures of distance and time. Thus direct measurement forms the building blocks for our assessment, but many interesting attributes are best measured by indirect measurement.

In (Fenton,1997), Norman E.fenton gives many example at the two measurement as following: direct measures as: Length of source code, duration of testing process, number of defects discovered during the testing process and time programmer spend on a project. While the following measures are considered as indirect measurement: programmer productivity, model defect density, defect detection efficiency, requirements stability, test effectiveness ratio, and system spoilage.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS

As a mention before, the researches that have been done before for Braille code are a few, the Alasdair King and Paul Blenkhorn are translated the English language to Braille symbols by using Finite state machine and Decision table techniques. The techniques were used to cover the gap between the Grad1 and Grade2 for the English language. Satoshi Ono introduced a system ted beforhat translated Japanese-to-Braille, (Ono...etc, 2007), proposed an adaptive knowledge base (AKB) that combined tow knowledge representations; rule and case. Ono used the Kanji - kana symbols and translation rules to convert the Japanese symbols into Braille symbols.

The Arabic language research at Braille was introduced by AbdulMalik Al-Salman in (Al-Salman and Al-Khalifa 2002) ABE system (Arabic Braille Environment). ABE system is translating the Arabic language to Braille symbols and reverse. It is limited for the Arabic language without using abbreviation or vibrations. The Holy Quran is the domain of this research, where it has a reciting rules that should be applied by whom recite it. The Quran was translated before systemically, where it was translated as the normal Arabic text, thus the need for specific QBPS that translating the Quran verses included its reciting rules. Through this research the printing way for Quran and Quran reciting rules was adopted from the old Egyptian Quran Braille and from the current KSA Braille Quran. QBPS is printing the detected reciting rules in first line and Quran letters and diacritics in the second line.

Table 2.2 summarizes the main specifications and features of DBT, Win-Braille and Printing System with Braille (PSB), ABE, and QBPS.

Table 1: A comparison of some Braille Translating Systems

DBT (V.10.2)

(Duxbury Systems)

Win-Braille (V. 3.0)

(Index Braille)

PSB (V. 2.0)

(KISR)

ABE (V. 1.1)

(KSU)

QBPS (V.1.0)

(Quran Braille)

18 languages supported (including Arabic)

more than 25 languages are supported

(including Arabic)

Arabic language is supported with contractions

Arabic language is supported without contractions

Support Jawi language & Specific at Holy Quran and Quran reciting rules

Print Braille in one line

Print Braille in one line

Print Braille in one line

Print Braille in one line

Print Quran Braille in two lines

DOS and Windows based system

Windows-based system

Windows-based system

Windows-based system

Windows-based system

Translate text to Braille and Nemeth code (Math Braille).

Translate text to Braille only.

Translate from Arabic text to Braille only

Translate from Arabic text to Braille only

Translate Quran, Arabic and Jawi texts to Braille only.

Only English interface

Only English interface

Only Arabic interface

Only Arabic interface

Only English interface

Commercial

Commercial

Commercial

Research

Research

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