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Overview: A research by Energy and Utility Skills EU Skills in 2006 proves that employees who are trained in soft skills have improved in their productivity and performance and provides investment return within 12 months. The research also found that though many people might be working in the same kind of jobs and have identical technical skills, employees who have been trained in soft skills have significantly higher levels of performance and productivity in their work. "Are They Really Ready To Work?" - a report conducted taking employers as the respondents of the survey by The Conference Board, Corporate Voice for Working Families, The Partnership for 21st Century Skills and the Society for Human Resource Management in 2006 lists out top prioritized soft skills that employers look for in their employees in the following order;
Communication Skills (Oral and Written)
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Teamwork and Collaboration
The survey reveals that too many of the younger generation is inadequately prepared to be successful in the workplace.
Professionalism and work ethic
Besides acquiring basic academic skills, it is essential to acquire skills to apply the academic skills and knowledge in the workplace. In other words, along with theoretical professionalism, you need to have the ability to use the academic knowledge in practical exposure. If you lack the ability to apply the learned skills professionally in your work, there is no use of your technical skills/academic skills. A technical skill becomes more vibrant and productive only when soft skills are added to it. If hard skills or technical skills is taken as 'raw iron ore', soft skills stands as the polishing impact on the iron ore. It is the polishing that gives greater value to the, otherwise, dull iron ore. The demand for iron bar goes up only when it is given a proper shape that will suit the need of the society. Similarly, a technical (hard) skill without soft skills remain 'raw' and needs soft skills that binds people of different origin working at the same place.
Acquiring soft skills not only important in the workplace, it is much more important to make your home a healthy and happy home. Your wife will eagerly look for your coming home, your children will be waiting to hug you, if only you empower yourself with these wonderful soft skills that make you more human and affectionate.
Employable soft skills are as important as academic skills for an easy and definite job recruitment. APJ Abdul Kalam, one of the Indian Presidents who has been considered as a role model by the young and old alike in India and who commands internationally respect and honour, said, 'it is not unemployment that is the major problem; it is the question of unemployability that is the major crisis in this competitive area.."
You might be an outstanding student in your college. You might have even awarded with a gold medal for your exceptionally outstanding academic achievement during your college days. But, remember, you could be one of the worst employee/ colleague in the workplace that no one wants to spend time or share the work with you at the workplace with you. With your polished and highly 'theoretical knowledge which is going to add to your professional and technical skills, you must need posses some of the major soft skills such as communication skills, interpersonal skills, language skills, situational behavior skills/adaptability skills to maximize your professional success and sustainability in your career. Lack of professional communication capability might hamper your being considered a prospective employee to the company in the interview itself.
Soft skills are not replacement for technical skills. They are compellingly complementary skills for higher production and effective performance
Necessity for communication skills: Oh! You meant that way? I took it the other way. You were not clear to me. If only you have told me that beforeâ€¦!!! I am sure you might have come across these kind of situations in your life, if not often but surely there are. Did you experience anytime people misunderstanding you? Have you felt anytime that you might have used some other vocabulary instead of the one used at the meeting or at meeting your boss? Have experienced anytime feeling shy, uneasy and loss of words, sometime sweating profusely when your boss questioned you? Do you feel inadequately skilled to express yourself effectively to the other? Sometimes, you might have come across people doing the something else than what you have asked them to do. Have you ever thought of the reason for all these? Were you able to pin the 'culprit' that spoils your career from taking off to higher leads? Yes, you are correct. You need to improve your communication skills. Communication does not mean only verbal, it is also equally important to understand and communicate non-verbal means. Communicate so that people know you. Communicate so that people understand your aspirations; communicate so that people know about your vision; communicate so that you find your place ahead of others in your workplace; communicate so that your boss can know you that you are the right person to lead their team and take the company to the place where they want to be in the next 5 years time.
It is no secret that we have no time to sit and enjoy the nature. We have practically no time to talk to our own kids and family members other than on weekends. When I was a small child growing up in a country side, my parents had a lot of time to spend with me. My mother gave me the food. She was beside me encouraging me to eat. She was asking me about my friends and class teachers and who was my friend. She taught me how to build up relationships. My parents had a lot of time to come and talk to my class teachers and check my progress personally and periodically. We used to sit as a family and eat. I can't remember a day when I was eating alone without my parents and brothers around me, unless my dad was out of station on some work. He always made it a point that he would join us if he was at home, even if he had any 'urgent work' to be completed. But when I became a father to my child, things are different now. I remember those days when my son was just a year old or less than that. He never knew when I came from my office. I used to come late evening around 10pm or so and when I came home, he was sleeping. Morning time, oh!!! No time to spend with him! Just busy with time to get to my office. It was only on Sundays, I had some time to spend with him. But the damage was already done to our relationship. When I noticed that my relationship with my son was not 'close' enough that he would feel at home spending time with me in his mother's absence. I was questioning my way of working style. Why should I work this way that keeps my child away from me? What was the purpose of my working day in day out without having quality time to spend with my family? Is earning the only purpose in life? I decided to change my profession. I know, I exist for my family. My family is my primary responsibility, and everything else comes only next to it. Though my wife was with me understanding my working style and the struggle I was going through not able to strike a balance between my demanding work and my family life, I was feeling guilty for not able to spend quality time with my child. I took a bold decision to quit my job and take up something that would give me enough time to spend with my family, which would give me enough time and space to build my closeness with my wife and child. In fact, it was a timely decision that I took that changed my life entirely. Now, I have my entire time for my family, and even when I am away on my job, I feel I am closer to my family. I can sense that closeness even in their physical absence.
Yes, take time to spend with your family. Communicate your thoughts to them. Let them know you inside out, after all they are the only people on earth you can label as 'your own'. You will agree with me, most of the divorces that are happening around the world could have been avoided, if only the couple has taken time to speak the right thing at the right time. Be honest! This the 'mantra' of being united. Have you committed something very grave mistake? Don't worry, take courage to tell your husband / tell your wife. People feel led down, when they come to know your mistake through someone else. Take courage and speak out. Communicate your heart to your 'own'. When you use the right word at the right occasion, you are going to win over the other. Speak out! It is worth doing it.
Same goes with your professional life as well. Do you think your boss has misunderstood you? Do you realize that you have said something that was not you originally planned to say to your boss? Do you feel that you have hurt your colleague, even though you are right? Take time to speak to them. Make an appointment with the person for amending your communication. But mind you, what is said can never be redone. Even if you have clarified to your boss about the misconception you have created earlier, what has been said is said. The best solution is 'think and speak', so that you have not landed in trouble. Choose the suitable vocabulary that will convey your thinking exactly the same to your boss or to your team members. If only you communicate clearly and effectively, you will have a profession with lesser misunderstanding.
Remember, Communication can build as much as it can break down the relationship. Choices of words are very crucial in communication.
Effective communication is essential in any successful profession or relationship.
The greatest misconception that we all of us believe in and are very much so sure of our ability at one time or the other regarding communication is that 'what has to be said is said'. Communication involves the transference and understanding of the meaning of the words shared between the sender and the receiver. Any idea or thought expressed or otherwise remains an idea unless the other person understands it within the same context as the sender sees it. It can either be misunderstood which results in the loss of purpose and if it is understood, the result is 'progressive step' of the purpose. Always remember, how your communication is received depends on a set of events, stimuli that person is exposed to. Communication is a dynamic process. What you say and how say it plays an essential role in defining the outcome of the communication you have initiated. Keep in mind, to expand your company's presence or to bring down its shutters depends, besides your technical skills, mostly on your communication skills. It is the way you communicate with your customers and the kind of 'friendly and communicative brochures that you are involved in is going to reflect on the kind of customer base you are going to achieve.
Simply saying, communication skills play the essential role in keeping up your product lineup in competitive scale.
The progress, success and quality of team week to an large extent depends on the kind of 'successful' communication taking place between the team members. Communication skills can be defined as the 'ability to relate and connect with people' of different cultures and characters.
Dos and Don'ts for effective communication
Never cross your arms or legs when you listen to someone. In many cases, this body language is interpreted as 'you are becoming defensive and guarded in your communication'.
Maintain eye contact with the other. (Please don't maintain such a way the other person thinks you are staring at him/her. In most of the cases, either the person leaves you abruptly or starts shouting at you). If you happen to talk to a group of people, give them all a short duration of eye contact only to keep them all attentive and make sure they listen to you.
Remember, maintaining continuous eye contact even with your subordinate will chase them away.
In case, if you find it uneasy to main eye contact with your team members, keep trying. I am sure, you will get familiar with the environment and start eye contact soon. Not maintaining eye contact will reveal your 'uneasiness' facing other people directly and this will send out a wrong signal to all your team members.
One of the easiest ways to lighten up your conversation with your colleague or with your subordinate or customers is 'keeping a smile on your face'. You might have been 'manufactured' (no offense taken!) with a serious face, but try to smile at least occasionally. You are going to make a world of difference! Who knows, yours is the only smile the other person might have seen for the entire day. Lighten up his/her days with your smile.
When the other person says something funny, please smile with him/her. Keep in mind, people feel at home to relate to a person who is positive and encourages others.
However when it comes to your own jokes, never ever be the first person to laugh. You only make yourself a 'movie comedian' in your group. You must join others laughing at your jokes. Your laughing should be a complementary to other's laugh.
Never laugh for anything and everything; and never wear a ready-made smile. You only look artificial and people find it very bizarre to have you with them.
And never look down as you are talking to a person. This tells the other that you are insecure and feel out of place. Keep always your head and chest straight. If you are a woman, keep your body straight and your head high. You may feel awkward in the beginning to keep your body straight, but it will surely give you a lot of confidence and you will never feel down or subordinate to any.
Use your hands often (but not too often) as you speak. Let your hand gestures be strictly related to your talking. You know, with correct use of your hands, you can control the other or even the entire group from getting distracted. But remember, if you overuse your hands, you are becoming the source of distractions. Let your hands and words go hand in hand.
Above all, keep a positive and relaxed posture when you are in a group and that too, if you happen to be the team leader. How you look and how maintain your body language is going to make a whole lot of difference in the group. If have any 'funny' gesture, sooner the better, you change it; otherwise, people are going to make fun of you in your absence.
Keep smiling, it costs nothing
The primary purpose of communication is , as you are aware, to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously. This involves sincere attempts from the sender and also receivers. It is very imperative that your message is not misinterpreted by the recipient. Communication does not include just saying and listening to. This also involves taking adequate measures that your message is not misinterpreted which results missing opportunities, breaking relationships, and landing you in the wrong book of your boss. When your communication is not understood in the same way you intended to be, it can become roadblocks that become a hindrance to your professional as well as personal growth. You should also understand that lack communication and the inability to communicate effectively, which is the case of many of us today, can cause frustration, resentment, disappointments, anger and misunderstanding.
Oral and Written Communication
There are many ways of communicating ideas to the others. One of the two ways of communicating with others are oral and written communication. There is no profession on earth that does not need or facilitate communication between the team members. If you are going to sit all alone doing some scientific experiments spending all of your time with your tools and chemicals leaving just a little time to interact with people around, you probably don't need the wonderful skill of communication (Even otherwise, you need to develop communication skills, because this help you build your relationship with your family). I am sure your profession is not in scientific field and you are very much in need of oral communication and written communication for sustaining your job. Remember, interviewers look for better oral and written communication skills from the job applicants. Spoken and written skills remain vital skills in any profession today. You need to be professional in communicating effectively to your customers. The style of communication and choices of words do differ depending on the target audience. You need to understand the IQ level of the audience and accordingly, you have to select the vocabularies and modulate the tone of your speech. Always remember, it is your target audience that is going to determine the kind of communication style you need to adopt to prove yourself effective. In many cases, oral or verbal communication supersedes written communications, unless your profession demands written works like documenting, data entry and etc.
Communication skills remain the backbone of sustenance of industries especially those dealing with customers and those who involve team working. Let your communication be brief, accurate and clear. Don't expect people to look for the meanings of your vocabularies. If you use show off your communication with unnecessary vocabularies, others will get confused and bewildered. Make your conversation filled with simple words, preferably with short sentences. The idea of your conversation is to make the other understand what exactly you are telling him and much more than that, know what the other person wants to know from you. If a team member comes to you asking for a direction or tips to proceed with his current project, don't talk to him about his/her future assignment you are intended to give and waste your time and the other. Be straight and be brief in your conversation. Whether your conversation with your team member or customers is lively or boring depends on the kind of vocabularies you use and the tone of your voice.
Since communication skills remain one of the important skills in industries dealing with customers. Communication takes place right from the low level employee to top level leaders. However the important aspect of the communication skill is such that it enhances product efficiency and builds the team. Having good communication skills is necessarily important in every walk of life. To build your professional relationship or career or even at your home, communication skills are an important aspect of life. It is your communication skills that are going to create a better impression of yourself when you present yourself for a job interview. Having sensible communication skills will make you stand out in a crowd, help you build a better and cordial relationship with your colleague and more importantly with your family. It is therefore necessarily important and demanding to have developed the right kind of communication for a successful career in your life.
People show interests to spend time listening to 'jokers' as well!Just because people are enthusiastic to spend time with you or like to listen to your words does not mean that you have professionally required communication skills. People show interests to spend time listening to 'jokers' as well!
Learn to communicate completely and in full understanding of your own ideas. Be clear what you want to tell and who is your audience or the person with whom you are talking to. These are very important factors in any conversation and this will help you to choose the vocabularies that will perfectly fit into your ideas. Maybe the following will help you to build good and effective communication skills for you.
Never speak 'telegraphic language'
Brevity is the art of communication that does not mean only 'hints'
Be straight to the point and be clear in your expression and equally important is make sure the other person has understood what you are telling him/her.
We all have the experience of talking or communicating with other fellow human beings or any creature that is capable of understanding either oral or sign languages. Therefore conveying a message or idea to the other is not something new to any of us. The question is whether you are able to communicate in such a way that the other person understands what is in your mind and what you are trying to convey to him/her. Though conversing is not new to human society, the importance for learning or improving the art of communication has become vital since what was learned at homes as children not sufficient to build a professional career.
Communication skills are an art that requires a substantial amount of time and energy spent on developing this special art. Because it is an art and can be developed by way of attending a few training classes or even by reading a few books, it has nothing much to do with a person's IQ. It is an ongoing process when it comes to developing your communication skills. In order to develop or improve communication skills, I would like to suggest a few possible ways to improve your communication skills. Look for ways to improve your skills, because your professional career graph surely depends on your flawless communication skills that you are going to develop / improve in the right perspective.
Tips to Improve Communication Skills
Listen as you talk: This is something that many of us tend to forget about and just keep talking whatever comes to our mind. When you listen to yourself as you speak, you have the ability to correct yourself as you speak in case, if you mispronounce a word or misused any technical phrase in the wrong place. It is one of the important skills to help you correct yourself and avoid embarrassments with your friends. In addition to this, cultivate the habit of effective listening to your friends or team leaders. Effective listening means not just understanding the words and the information shared by the other; this also means how the speaker feels about what he/she communicates to you. This calls for identifying yourself with the speaker (whoever he/she may be; can be your team leader, or your boss or your colleague or someone from your family). When you put yourself in the shoes of the speaker you know what he/she means exactly since words can be interpreted in more than one way. The speaker should know that he/she is heard and understood. This helps build a stronger connection between you and the speaker. Have the courtesy to clarify your doubts, if you are not sure of any ideas expressed by the speaker, and also promote an atmosphere where everyone involved in the project comes up with ideas and clarifications of the speaker. Effective listening does mean listening effectively - directing your senses to the topic expressed and observing the body language of the speaker so that you understand empathetically.
Think before you speak: If only you take up this aspect seriously in your life, you can avoid most of the conflicts resulting out of your conversations with others. Know what you want to say and decide how you want to present the idea to the other. Be polite and be straight without hurting the ego of the other. Keep in mind, you are the master of your own words as long as they remain unexpressed. You have no control over your spoken words. Please have the prudence to think and speak.
Add humor to your conversation: This does not mean you become a 'joker' so that everyone likes to spend time with you. Most of the time, your profession demands you to have professional and serious tone when you speak with your subordinates or with your boss. In any case, have some anecdotes, jokes that you have read in magazines etc handy so that you can spice up your conversation with anyone. The purpose of adding humor or an anecdote is to make the conversation/ meeting lively.
Be polite in your tone and words: To have a pleasant atmosphere or strained depends on your conversation you are going to have with the other. Even if you happen to talk to your subordinate, keep your language polite, respective and reciprocal. When you keep your tone very polite and cordial, you will build a 'cordial' friendly people around you.
Observe your body language: It is very much imperative to observe yourself with regard to your body language. If possible, do some rehearsal and plan how you want to look when you are going to stand before your audience.
Team members. The kind of body language posture you wish to have when you stand before the crowd. Most of the time, I have come across people exhibiting something very tasteless. If your posture is something unfriendly, you are going to drive away the, otherwise, prospective customers. Let your body language be friendly and create a sociable atmosphere.
Allow others to express their opinions: I have come across people talking non-stop for a long time. If you happen to be the boss, people will just 'tolerate' you for want of job. Otherwise, you will be left alone having nobody to talk to except the ceiling. Allow others to speak. Encourage others to express their opinions and if they have anything to say about your own thinking, make them feel free and ask for their opinions about your plan of action. This will help you and your team member/ customer to have a better relationship.
Never think whatever you say is correct -be polite: One of the attitudes that put off others from sharing their opinions is having the attitude of 'I am OK; and You are not OK'. Even if you have a long years of experience, it does not guarantee that whatever you say is correct and the impacts are going to be the same as you have predicted. There is nothing wrong in getting the opinions from others. We all are prone to make mistakes and we can't claim that we are correct. Give your team a free hand to think and do the job they are assigned to.
Be positive and read a lot: Cultivate the habit of reading. It is one of the hobbies that does good rather than bad, if at all any. Reading so many books or magazines, you will be enriching yourself with good vocabularies, which will be tremendously helpful to you when you converse with educated and highly professional people. However, a word of caution here is, never use the vocabularies to show off your talent or your ability on the language. The listeners should not feel like consciously ignoring your talk and have decided to look away. Having a list of good vocabularies is to prepare yourself so that you won't feel let down when someone else in your team uses high language and you don't start scratching your head.
Learn from the leading communication experts as they speak to you: This is one of the important and very viable tips that you need to practice, if at all you want to improve your communication skills and that too, if you want to become a public speaker. Watch the videos of those acclaimed speakers and see how they conduct themselves on the stage and observe their body language very keenly so that you become consciously aware of the kind of professional body languages that are acceptable by the public.
Written Communication Skills: Written Communication is the ability to express yourself effectively in writing. It has been recognized as one of the essential skills by all kinds of industries or organizations for expansion and sustainability of the business. To succeed in any business, you need to have a highly professional and competitive written skill that 'sells' your ideas and expands the business of the company. If your corresponding skills are effective, you have the edge over your competitors. Since correspondence is mostly between the top orders in the management of any company, and the responsibility of sustaining and expanding your business falls on top managers, the necessity of having a highly professionalized written communication has become a professional demand for the job. Laura Brill states in her book Business Writing Quick and Easy: Letters are the most personal of business communications. They can help build relationship particularly by using a friendly and sincere tone. Formal and stereotyped expressions, on the other hand, keep the relationship between writer and reader significant. Who enjoys reading letters that sound like computer printouts?
Here are a few important aspects to keep in mind to make your written communication effective. Studies have shown that there are three major techniques to distinguish an effective writing from that of an ordinary: a) Selection of words; b) Construction of clear sentences; and c) Writing for Effect.
To improve your written communication skill, you can read 'Written Communication Skills' by Buddy D. Ratner. He shares the following tips to keep in mind when you write business writing.
Wordiness ('loose, baggy sentences')
Weak verbs/ ponderous nouns/ strings of prepositional phrases
Tone / meaning
Good Writers, and
(Courtesy: Buddy D. Ratner)
Read, read, and re-read your typing/writing for as many times as possible and if time permits, come back after a few days and read again the same passage you have written. You will find many sentences need revising. What is not possible in business writing, especially if it is an email, you can't ask someone to proofread it for you. The best possible way is to ask your assistant to formulate the letter/ email and you can proofread it. This way, you can produce a quality email or letter.
Make your writing reader friendly - easy to understand so that the other person responds to your letter/email quickly and to the point. It is highly advisable to use short sentences whether you are writing a short paragraph or the longer ones. Know your audience for whom you are writing this letter/ email. The audience determines your writing style, the choice of words and the tone of the writing.
Choose the format and the style of writing, keeping in mind your audience, before you sit and start writing.
The Recruitment and Employment Commission (REC), UK says that around half of the CVs received by recruitment consultants contain spelling and grammatical errors.
Know the reason for writing an email or a letter and the objective of the email/letter. Define the purpose without any ambiguity so that you are clear in your thinking. List down the ideas you are going to share in your writing, and be sensitive in your wordiness. Know the kind of reader you are writing to and use words that are friendly and engaging. You need to bear in mind, if your letter or email is ambiguous, you can be sure that your email/letter will be thrown into the trash. People have no time to sit and refer dictionaries to understand your emails. Define the structure of the content and make it user friendly. You need to express your ideas clearly and effectively without giving any scope for misunderstanding. If you want to impress your boss, the easiest way is 'use an effective writing method'. The better your writing skills are, the better impression you are going to make. This will be of immense help to you at the time of promotion.
It is not writing that matters following all the tips available here. It is essential to proofread your letter/email before it is actually out of your hands. Check the layout - whether the content is appropriate to the audience and the ideas are expressed without creating confusion. You need to check for grammar and spelling mistakes, which will save you from major embarrassments in the future. It is necessary to use correct spelling, grammar and punctuations in the appropriate place. If you use a machine for spell checking or proofreading, don't depend on this very seriously. Nothing is superior to human checking. (Seriously, I have come across many incidents where the machine proofreading has shown blunders!) A poorly written email can become a nightmare for you! Such emails/letters can drive away customers, force others file a lawsuit against you or your firm, or your own employees misuse it passing sensitive information to others.
Have a look at the writing rules of George Orwell
Never use a long word where a short one will do.
If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
Never use the passive voice (e.g. "Bones are liked by dogs") where you can use the active voice ("Dogs like bones").
Never use jargon if you can think of an everyday equivalent.
"Cut every page you write by one third". Hillary Mantel, author of Wolf Hall
Since, we communicate most of the time using email, it is highly recommended that I would like to share a few thoughts with you here. Email communications have become a convenient method of communication for everyone. From the job applicants, team leaders, to managers and CEOs of the companies use email to communicate with colleagues or customers or competitors and etc. Emailing is convenient because you can make it even on the go. According to the data available with International Data Corp, an increase of 66% workplace emails, equal to 1.4 trillion messages sent, has been reported from the US companies in 2001.
As it has been stated above, take at most care in handling emails and choosing the person to handle emails related to companies and the employees. Insensitive employees can create havoc in the administration and bring down the success of the company considerably. Remember, anything leaked can be available in the public domain and such data could be used against you or your company resulting in damaging your goodwill.
There is no guarantee that your email would be read only by the receiver. It can, in all probability, land on the wrong hand and can be misused against you.
Because of it's readily availability, emails have been used extensively sometime too much. However, you need to decide whether emailing is the only option for the company given to the seriousness of the topic. If you think you need to get an immediate answer to your quarry, it is always better to look for some other alternative communication means such as calling the other on the telephone and discussing the issues that needs to be maintained secretly.
'The leaders of Israel and Palestine met on the sideline of UN meet, today' Or 'The Government Initiated discussion with the agitating groups', or 'The management expressed willingness to discuss on issues with the agitating workers Unions' something like this.
We notice these very familiar headlines in newspapers and news channels almost every day. What does this convey to you and me - the readers? When we notice these headlines, we conclude that 'negotiation' is underway.
Negotiations are something that we all do in our day-to-day life. Negotiation skills include breaking down bigger issues to smaller ones. Negotiation primarily means 'agreeing on anything on the basis of discussion'. Negotiations do not mean compromising. It is a conscious effort by both the parties to reach an agreeable point of conclusion to any issue. A deep matured understanding of underlying challenges is required to find a long-term solution to issues. Negotiation does not mean submissive or letting things go. This is an opportunity for the two parties who were friends and now became adversaries, which is the case with many parties today. Different methods of negotiating tools are used to reach a consensus on the issue. However, the criteria for selecting a method/tool should be based on the following; a) able to reach wise agreement if agreement is possible; b) should be efficient; and c) improve the relationship between the parties. Given to the contemporary issues, negotiations have become or viewed as 'hard', much worse, if the parties happen to be adversaries. Effective negotiations resolve issues where the 'want' of both the parties seem to be same and this creates a conflict situation that calls for negotiations. The goal of negotiation is to reach mutually acceptable solutions for both the parties. However, negotiations need not conclude making both the parties satisfied.
Negotiation skills are indispensable skills for any professional especially those who directly or indirectly work with customers and where teamwork is important to succeed. Except a very handful of people, who are in science labs, most of them are aware of the indispensable need for having negotiation skills.