Review on model of human communication

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Communication occurs when one or more sends and receive information that is interrupted by noise, occur within a context, have effect and provide some feedback. It involved the process of transmitting information from one people to another. Communication also involved interpersonal, intrapersonal, small group and public speaking.

Effective communication is the process of sending message in such way the message received as closed to the meaning of the real message. Effective communication is important in our everyday life because it lead students to act according to command or instructions given to them. To make effective communication occur, we need to have a communication process or Model of Human Communication. This way the students will knows how communication process happens and try to avoid communication failure between their friends and lecturers.

Ineffective communication or communication failure can cause misunderstanding between two parties. It also can cause arguing, fighting even killing. We must to know the best way to solve communication failure in order to avoid from the above statement.


Source- Receiver

The term sources-receiver involved in communication is both sources (speaker) and a receiver (listener). When you speak, write, gesture, or smile you are automatically send messages. The receiver can receive message in form of listening, reading and etc. When you send message, however you're also receiving messages.

Sender ƒ  Encoding ƒ  Message

Senders refer to the source or originator. It is also about people who transmit a fact, idea, opinion and other information. Sender begins the communication process by encoding his or her messages through a channel. Meaning of encoding process is to provide a medium in which ideas can be expressed as a message. Encoding can be in the forms of words, facial expression, gesture and physical actions. The result of encoding process is the message. Message is a set of symbols or facts that sender transmits to the receiver. The meaning of the message is created by the sender and the receiver depends on the situation or context.

Messages ƒ  Decoding ƒ  Receiver

When the message is travel to the receiver, it will undergo a process which is decoding process. Decoding process is a process which the receiver will interprets the meaning of the messages. Receiver is a party who receive the message whether it in a form of symbol or facts. After the message has been received, the senders need a feedback of the message he or she sends.


Feedback is the receiver reaction after receive the messages. Feedback is a way to avoid communication failure because it provides primary information's to the sender. It provides the sender what affect does the receiver having, in form of yelling, smiling or etc. The process of feedback is circular. The receivers turn to be sender to give feedback to the sender (who acts as receiver). This process will keep progressing until both of them stop. Sometimes feedback is easy to know but sometimes it's hard.


The channel is the transporter of the messages or by which the messages is sent. There is variety of way the messages is being sent includes meetings, e-mails, memo, letters, reports, telephones calls or face- to-face communications. Channel sometimes can be damaged because of physical factors such as blindness.


Noise is anything that interrupts during the process of transferring messages. Noise can be in the form of phone ringing, laughing, someone falling or etc. There are four types' noise such as physical noise, physiological noise, psychological noise and semantic noise.


After reading and do an observation on Model 2 and Model 3, I choose Model 2 as a perfect Model of Human Communication because it is easy to understand compare to model 3 by Shannon's (1948). Model 2 use "sender" (as a person who sends messages) and "receiver" (as a person who receive the messages). Model 3 use "information sources" instead of "sender" and "destination" instead of receiver. Information sources and destination can be in various form and meanings.

Encoding and Decoding process is important process in Model of Human Communication. Model 2 use encoding process as a medium in which ideas can be expressed as a message and decoding process when the receiver interprets the meaning of the messages. I can fully understand this process compare to Model 3. Model 3 by Shannon's use transmitter as a medium to transfer messages. Transmitter involved the process of audio signal convert into electric signal through telephone network.

Furthermore, noises are the main cause of communication failure. In model 2, the symbol of noise is clearly mentioned in the diagram, noise happen along the process of transfer messages and interrupting the process. On Shannon perspective, telephone transmission, carriers, and reception are main cause of noise. As you know, today there are many form of noise around us.

Lastly, in Model 2 show feedback process is circular; it will keep on progressing until both party stop communicating. In model 3, this process is not stated. As you know, feedback is very important to avoid from communication failure. Model 2 use channel as a medium to transfer the messages but Model 3 use signal refer to the telephone network.

As a conclusion, Model 2 is more complete than Model 3. In model 2, without reading the explanation, we already know the process by looking at the diagram. Model 3 is complicated to understand. We must read the explanation first, and then we will understand the meaning of the diagram. So, I think Model 2 is the best model to refer in my study.


Communication failure occurs when the receiver don't give the feedback to the sender. The cause of communication failure is noise, information overload, defensiveness or filtering. Noise is an anything that interfere the sending of communication while in progress. Noise can make other party (receiver) do not receive the message. There are four types of noise; physical noise, physiological noise, psychological noise and semantic noise.

Physical noise is interference that involved physical factors of the message such as the passing cars, when the phone is ringing, blurred type of fonts, or etc. For example, from an observation, while lecturer teaching in the class, there are some students who are really focus and others students who interrupted by the cars that pass by, the beep sound from the phone and small fonts on the slide.

Physiological noise is form between the sender and receiver such as unclear visual, hearing loss, memory loss or etc. For example, from an experienced, when talking to my grandmother, I must talk loudly and clearly because of her hearing loss. So, I must repeat the same words or write on the paper until she understands.

Psychological noises happen in the mental interference of sender or receiver. It included wandering thoughts, close-minded, very emotionalism or etc. There is sometimes where you experienced your friends ignore you while you talking to her or his or they refuse to hear from you. For example, after an observation, while the class representatives talking in front, there are a few students who refuse to hear what he talking, there are some who angry (emotionalism), and others who are close minded. It all happens because of class representatives' selfishness and he never realized his behavior.

Semantic noise is formed when the sender and the receiver has different meaning system. It involved in languages, dialectic differences or overly abstract term that has same word but different meaning. For example, the word "watch" has two meaning to see and a time piece that is made to be worn by people.


At one time, have you ever experienced a situation in your class? For example, you find it hard to cooperate with your friends, friends in the class start blaming to each other when problem occur or when a problem occur some of your friend start to express an anger. If the situations happen, you are facing a communication failure. You need a ways to solve communication failure before it become harmful.

There are a few methods to overcome communication failure such as obtain feedback, use simple languages, avoiding noise, recognize emotions or do not make your own conclusion. When someone is talking to you, as a receiver (listener) you should give feedback to the sender to show him or her you are focusing to him or her talk. If you don't hear, ask the sender (speaker) to repeat it.

Furthermore, when you talk to your friends or younger children use simple languages and words that are easily to understand. In the class, when your lecturer teaches in front, give 100% focus. When you feel like you are interrupting by the noise, write the note on your paper or eat some candy.

Lastly, recognize your friend's emotions and do not make your own conclusions. If you see your friends face is kind of sad, avoid telling your problem to your friends. Do not make you own conclusions when you see your friends like that. Comfort her and share her problems. This way you can avoid communication failure between you and your friends, lecturer's, parents and other peoples.


Online Resources

Murphy, P. (2007). 6 Powerful Ways to Solve Communications Problems at Work. Ezine Articles. Retrieved 14 February 2011, from

Taylor, M. (2009). Determining What Cause of Communication Failure. Ezine Articles. Retrieved 14 February 2011, from


Foulger, D. (2004). Models of Communication Process. Retrieved 14 February 2011, from



Girbau, D. (2001). Children's Referential Communication Failure: The Ambiguity and Abbreviation of Message. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 20. Retrieved 15 February 2011, from