Results And Findings Of Interviews And Observations

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This chapter provides the results and findings of the qualitative study. The findings are based on the series of interviews and observations carried out as part of the case study method as highlight in Chapter3. Case study strategy techniques were conducted in order to derive the findings according to the research aims and objectives. Previous study by (Winston,1997) discover case study as an ideal methodology when a holistic and depth investigation is needed. Nevertheless, case study is design to bring out the details from the viewpoint of the participants by using multiple sources of data. In this process, an interview and observation was conducted with the Participants. As described in chapter 3, participant in this research were divided into two groups, medical and non medical group. Within each group, there is sub group, which is a group with IT background and Non IT background. The semi structured interview and observation session were conducted between 5 to 30 minutes for each participant.

RESULT ON PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

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The goal for applying observation technique is insightful into interpersonal behaviour. Individual observation is a unique mode of observation in which the researcher may actually participate in the events being study. The result of participant observation were divide into two groups, base on participant groups:

Participant with Medical Background

Participant with IT background

The respondent with medical and IT background typing different type of question such as for advice-giving question (e.g. "how" question) and for definition question (e.g. "what" question) for tested the implementation of semantic technology and NLP. The respondent also checks the questions that give image in the result as a complement to answer the question.

Observation of respondent G:

Figure 1

Figure 5.1: Observation of Respondent G

Participant with Non IT background

The respondent with medical and non IT background has carefully examined the information provided in this website, to make sure the validity of the content. The respondent tested the result of a query using medical term, to check whether this website suitable for medical practitioner. In this website "period" mean menstruation, in medical jargon it can be "staging", and in this observation what the respondent mean is "staging".

Observation of respondent H:

Figure 2

Figure 5.2: Observation of Respondent H

Participant with Non Medical Background

Participant with IT background

Respondent with non medical and IT background were more prefer typing a question rather than click on related searches. The respondent typing different kind of questions for tested the implementation of semantic technology and NLP. The respondent typing a definition question for checked the answer beyond the question. In this website, the related answer appears in "Related Searches" column.

Observation of respondent E:

Figure 3

Figure 5.3: Observation of Respondent E (Step 1)

Figure 4

Figure 5.4: Observation of Respondent E (Step 2)

Participant with Non IT background

Through the observations it was found out that most of the activities conducted the respondent with non medical and non IT background were more on typing a question, read the result and most of them follow with click the information on related searches. The questions that often arise from this group are symptom and staging.

Observation of respondent B:

Figure 5

Figure 5.5: Observation of Respondent B (Step 1)

Figure 6

Figure 5.6: Observation of Respondent B (Step 2)

Figure 7

Figure 5.7: Observation of Respondent B (Step 3)

Figure 8

Figure 5.8: Observation of Respondent B (Step 4)

RESULT ON PARTICIPANT INTERVIEW

Interviews are one of the most important sources of case study information. Participant will answer a question during the interview session. The answer might be in the form of opinion or fact. This could serve to corroborate previously gathered data. Participants were thoroughly enjoying using this website. The result of participant observations were divide in two groups, base on participant groups:

Participant with Medical Background

Question for Participant with Medical Background:

Do you think this website can answer the basic question about cervical cancer?

What do you think of the website?

Several medical practitioners added comment during the interviews. Their comments were as follows:

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Interviews of respondent G:

"... the content already valid in term of the content, the terminology also appear with some picture for the explanation ..."

"... This web site can be used by both, patient and medical practitioner. We can use common word, not only use medical terminology. The content can be understood by both (common user and medical practitioner) ..."

Interviews of respondent H:

"... This website can answer the basic question, some content is very good for common user, and common user can read and understand, people can get something for this web site ... If the target is medical practitioner, it should deeper in the information. For some medical term, this website cannot understand, but if you use sentence in medical term, public user maybe cannot understand ..."

"... This website good for public user, medical practitioner also can read, but add something more article that has been done ... "

Interviews of respondent I:

"... This web site has the valid content ... is better if you add more information, than this system can answer many kind of question ..."

"... people just want to know the basic think, so if just want to know the basic think, the simple question will come out, and I believe this system can answer that kind of question ..."

Participant with Non Medical Background

Question for Participant with Non Medical Background:

Can you feel the difference between this website and generic search engine?

Do you think this website can answer the basic question about cervical cancer?

What do you think of the website?

Enthusiasm for using this website was also reflected in participant comment during the interview. Some of these comments were as follows:

Interviews of respondent A:

"... The information in the related searcher already provides information that required common question to be known by the searches ..."

"... Basic information is there ... But for confirmation we should go through the doctor for check up ..."

Interviews of respondent D:

"... The semantic system on cervical cancer ... the keyword can be trace faster rather than search engine ..."

"... It can be one of reference ... It gives information about cervical cancer, it can be a good system that can enhance knowledge in cervical cancer ..."

Interviews of respondent E:

"... A bit narrow down n more specific, NLP is very good can gain some more information, searching for something and the system will give the related term ... "

"... This system can give us general information before we meet the doctor, we know what the symptom that we have and why this symptom has happen with us, than we can explain to the doctor easily ..."

Interviews of respondent B:

"... it's not only providing us the new technology that we can save time as well as energy to look for information is also give a lot of detail information about the issue that we are looking for ..."

Interviews of respondent F:

"... This system can give the basic information, but for confirmation we still need to go and see the doctor ..."

"... The semantic technology is good, because right now there is so much information, so if we can do search for something that related to the topic we can reduce time consuming ... I like this website, its ease on the eye, it's not too bright, and it's not too crowded with all other thing like picture or whatever which is something that's not necessary ... "

Interviews of respondent C:

"... if we searching with current search engine, so many resource will appear which is not focus, sometime not related, we should go through page by page to find what we really want ... This website is very focus with cervical cancer, so it's makes us easier, and the information also complete ... I'm not familiar with cervical cancer all the think come in my mind and I think it's available in the choices ..."

"... Maybe you can also mention about the fact, like introduction before we go to cervical cancer, some explanation why it's very dangerous ... maybe it can make people more interesting to read, and make women think this is important to know ..."

FINDING ON PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION AND INTERVIEW

Technology

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Before starting the observations and interviews, researcher provides a brief review of the two technologies that applied in the website, and give a reasons choosing cervical cancer as a specific domain. Referring (Cervicalcancer.org,2006) lack of awareness of both preventive actions and symptoms of cervical cancer is one of reason why so many women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer. Respondent C admitted, she never aware about cervical cancer until she try this website. As the aim of this research is to ensure that the web-based tool developed in this study facilitate the knowledge sharing activities among medical practitioners and public user and also allow medical students in acquiring knowledge of typical enquiries on female related diseases made by patients, also give awareness for the whole community to protect them self and to against cervical cancer.

Interviews of respondent C:

"... This website is very focus with cervical cancer, it is makes us easier ...

I am not familiar with cervical cancer, all the think come in my mind and I think it is available in the choices..."

Most of respondent satisfied and feel the difference between this website and generic search engine (e.g. Google, yahoo, etc). Searching information using generic search engine will give one too much result, and most of those result do not related with the information that one need. This statement is in line with the interview result from respondent C.

Interviews of respondent C:

"... if we searching with current search engine, so many resource will appear which is not focus, sometime not related, we should go through page by page to find what we really want ... "

Implementing semantic technology in the website can give the smart result and also provides the related term to the question. A study done by (Andrenucci,2008) outlined that a definition question requires answers beyond definitions. With implementing semantic technology and NLP, the related term will appear along the answer. Respondent E explained is her interview session.

Interviews of respondent E:

"... This website is a bit narrow down and more specific ... Searching for something with this website will give the related term ..."

Observation of respondent H:

Figure 9

Figure 5.9: Observation of Respondent H

With implementing semantic technology on the website, one can enter question using a similar meaning with the content.

Observation of respondent D:

Figure 10

Figure 5.9: Observation of Respondent D

By applying NLP, user can obtain results from the website even though the question has a typo or grammatical error.

Observation of respondent I:

Figure 11

Figure 5.10: Observation of Respondent I

(Niu et al.,2003) states that classification of IR approach from Andrenucci is not appropriate for medical domain. QA in medical domain need more type of question, not only "whwords". For instance, a question for advice giving (e.g. "how" question) cannot use "whwords" question. The prototype being developed in this research was implementing not only for "whword" question, but it can handle other type of question, such as "how" and the keyword question. For example, respondent I, typing an advice giving question for asking "how to prevent from getting cervical cancer?"

Observation of respondent I:

Figure 12

Figure 5.12: Observation of Respondent I

Information

Consistent with other work of finding on a number of behaviour among internet user as described in chapter two (Atkinson et al.,2009), such as searching for health information for oneself, participating in a support group for those with similar health or medical conditions, and purchasing medicine or vitamins. Respondent B also describes similar behavior as internet user.

Interviews of respondent B:

" ... Normally when I look for information concentrate on the women problem, not only as a mother, also for taking care of the family, the children and the husband and the whole community, my focus here is looking for information that give detail elaboration on the specific question that I prefer .... "

Respondent with no knowledge on cervical cancer suggested additional information, like fact or true story about cervical cancer, so that readers will get an idea of how important to get information. Some of respondent believes the prototype being developed in this research can provide the basic information, but for confirmation one should go to the doctor. This statement also proves study by (Andreassen et al.,2007).

Interviews of respondent F:

"... This system can give the basic information, but for confirmation we still need to go and see the doctor... "

According to the medical practitioner, this web site can provide the basic information for common user. However, if the target user is medical practitioner, some more information should be added, the discussions should more deep, the medical term vocabulary should be there, and also the source of the resources should appear in the information. In this website "period" mean menstruation, in medical jargon it can be "staging", and in this observation what the respondent H mean is "staging".

Observations of respondent H:

User input medical term, system cannot give the result.

Figure 13

Figure 5.13: Observation of Respondent H

Interviews of respondent H:

"... This website can answer the basic question, some content is very good for common user ... I think this is very useful for common user, the content is very basic, not complicated. If the target is medical practitioner, it should deeper in the information ... For some medical term, this website cannot understand ..."

(Trix,2011) in her study highlighted top 10 cervical cancer question, and as predicted almost all the question from participants are included in top 10 cervical cancer question, such as definition question, question about symptom, risk factor, and advice giving question such as detection and prevention.

Comment

Although there is one respondent have been using this kind of website in the different domain, most of respondent have no experiences used this kind of website. Most of them satisfied using the website. Respondent can obtain advantages in term of time consuming and result from searching.

Interviews of respondent A:

"... This is the first time I get involved with this kind of system ... this system give benefit to lay person like me to get quick information ... just give simple direct question and answer ..."

Interviews of respondent B:

"... This is the solution for knowing more information from internet, it is much better if we can use the both technique, because it's not only providing us the new technology that we can save time as well as energy to look for information is also give a lot of detail information about the issue that we are looking for ... That mean, by combining the 2 technology we are very sure that the information that we are looking for will be very satisfactory ... giving people conveniences to search direct information ..."

Interviews of respondent F:

"... The semantic technology is good, because right now there is so much information, so if we can do search for something that related to the topic we can reduce time consuming ..."

Interviews of respondent C:

"... I'm not from IT field, so I'm really appreciate for this kind of technology ... it can be use for any kind of discipline not only for health, and I think it's so important nowadays ..."

Finding on Medical Background Respondent

Medical practitioners' have many questions when caring for patients, and frequently need to seek answers for their questions. They will mainly be interested to queries the system about symptoms and treatment of particular disorder. The difference between participant with medical and IT background and non IT background are participant with medical and IT background more flexible while using the website, after typing a question participant knows she can find detail information in related searches column. In the other hand, participant with medical and non IT background typing a question sometime used medical jargon, they typing another question for detail information, for this kind of user implementing semantic technology and NLP is not their focus, as long as the website can give the exact result from competent sources.

Finding on Non Medical Background Respondent

When novice users use this website, they will in general mainly be interested in one specific concept. After they choose one specific concept, they will search in detail to get the information. The users from this group do not really care the sources of the result, as long as the website can answer the question. Participant with non medical and IT background tested the implementation of semantic technology and NLP with combination of typing many type of question and clicked the detail information. Participant with non medical and non IT background they behaviour is more on simple action, such as typing a keyword as a question, and click detail information that appear in related searches.

CHAPTER SUMMARY

This chapter describes the result and findings from analysis that have been made from the acquired materials. The case study strategy techniques were utilised in order to extract findings from observations and interviews. Code of respondent was developed with the purpose to cover up the identity of the respondent.