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The last decade, motivation has become a research topic regarding job performance. According to Atkinson (1964) motivation is the psychological process that causes the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior (Atkinson, 1964; Campbell, Lawler, & Weick, 1970). Many scientists add a voluntary component or goal directed emphasis to this definition (Hellriegel & Slocum, 1976; Vroom 1964).
Building on VroomÂ´s (1964) expectancy-valence theory of motivation, Porter and Lawler (1968) introduced a model of intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation. According to Porter and Lawler (1968) intrinsic motivation are actions that people do, because they find it interesting and derive spontaneous satisfaction from that specific activity. The opponent is extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation requires an instrumentality between the specific activity and some separable consequences such as tangible or verbal rewards.
The last decade, different definitions of performance are defined. According to Locke (1968), job performance is an accomplishment of work-related tasks or skills by an employee or trainee may refer to specific skills or to overall performance, also use for factors associated with success. Questions that I need to answer are: How can we define, measure and create satisfaction?
Scientists have found a positive connection between job motivation and job performance (Iaffaldano & Muchinsky, 1985; Locke, 1976). What is exactly the connection between job motivation and job performance? Which factors are leading?
How does work motivation affect the job performance of employees in an organization?
What are the theoretical approaches of work motivation?
Which different perspectives can be used for job performance?
How do work motivation and job performance influence each other?
According to Sekaran and Bougie (2009) there are different ways to collect data. The research method I will use is explorative research. I will use explorative research because I don't know what data I need, to answer my problem statement. I will analyze the data to answer the problem statement.
The main goal of this paper is to research how work motivation affects the job performance of employees within an organization.
This paper is subdivided in three chapters. In the first chapter I will need to find answers about work motivation. What is motivation and how does it influence within an organization? The main subject of the second chapter will be job performance. For example questions regarding job performance are, what is job performance, what influences job performance within an organization? The third and last chapter will bring work motivation and job performance together. In this chapter I will combine work motivation and job performance. The main question of this chapter will be, does work motivation influence job performance and what will be the benefits within an organization?
Chapter 1: Work motivation
In the following chapter, work motivation will be the leading subject. In the first part of this chapter the main goal is to define work motivation. The second part of this chapter intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will be explained.
Finally, the research question, what are the theoretical approaches of work motivation, will be answered.
Defining work motivation
The main goal in this paragraph is to define work motivation. I will use definitions of different researchers to get good view. Defining work motivation will help me how this subject is used in business environments.
Lots of researchers have defined work motivation in their own words. According to Pinder (1998) work motivation is a set of energetic forces that invent both within as well as beyond an individual's being, to initiate work-related behavior and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration. Pinder (1998) thinks that energetic forces have a great influence on the work motivation of employee. Another view on work motivation is the definition of Atkinson. Atkinson (1964) defines work motivation as the psychological process that causes the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior (Atkinson, 1964; Campbell, Lawler, & Weick, 1970). Atkinson thinks that the psychological process plays a big role in the motivation of work motivation. According to Porter and Lawler (1968) there are 2 different types of motivation called intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In the next paragraphs intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will be explained. Seen these definitions given above we can conclude that motivation is a psychological process resulting from the interaction between the individual and the setting.
During this paragraph several definitions of work motivation are discussed. The leading definition of work motivation will be Atkinson's definition.
''Work motivation is the psychological process that causes the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior''.
Now work motivation is defined I will show the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
The main goal of this paragraph is to define intrinsic motivation. How can we use intrinsic motivation for the job performance?
Intrinsic motivation can be defined in different ways, but there have been two measures that have been most often used (Deci, 1971). The first way to measure intrinsic motivation has rested primarily on a behavioral measure of intrinsic motivation called the ''free choice'' measure (Deci, 1971). You choose what you want to do and what your motivation is for undertaking that activity. While research using this measure participants are exposed to a task under varying conditions (e.g., getting a reward or not). The second way to measure intrinsic motivation is the use of self-reports of interest and enjoyments of the activity. Experimental studies typically rely on task-specific measures (Ryan, 1982). Harackiewicz (1979) can confirm the statements mentioned above. According to Harackiewicz (1979) Intrinsic motivation is the ''motivation to engage in a task for its own sake - out of interest and/or enjoyment - and not as a means to another reward''. He also divides intrinsic motivation in two different levels just like Deci (1971) does:
''Through a person's self-report of how interesting and enjoyable the task is''.
''Through the behavioral measures of choice of, and amount of time engaged with, the task during a free-choice period in which there are no extrinsic rewards or incentives associated with choosing or engaging in the task''.
The researchers Csikszentmihalyi (1975) and Loewenstein (1999) argue almost the same regarding the second way to measuring intrinsic motivation. They argue that intrinsic motivation can be directed to the activity's flow, to a self-defined goal such as climbing a mountain, or to the obligations of personal identities.
This is only one theory for intrinsic motivation. Other researchers use different definitions. According to Calder and Staw (1975) motivation is intrinsic if an activity is undertaken for someone who needs immediate satisfaction. Intrinsic motivation "is valued for its own sake and appears to be self sustained" (Calder and Staw 1975, p.599).
Affect intrinsic motivation
Researchers have found a number of reasons that expect that a positive affect increases intrinsic motivation. First of all, it has been shown that positive affect increases people's enjoyment and interest of (for them) interesting activities (Kraiger, Billings, & Isen, 1989). For example if you are interested in football, the positive affect will be increase the satisfaction and evaluation. Another example is that the positive affect increases the valence of moderately desirable rewards (Erez & Isen, 2002).
Intrinsic motivation does not only affect the enjoyment, interest and rewards. It also affects the satisfaction to go to work and the performance during working hours (Erez & Isen, 2002; Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987; Staw & Barsade, 1993). This is an interesting outcome for my research. I will expand this subject in chapter 2 and chapter 3.
As said above, there are two different types of work motivation. The text above explains what intrinsic motivation is. All the definitions above have something to do with a ''natural'' way of motivation. With ''natural'' is meant that nobody have to tell you what you need to do. The definition of Harackiewicz (1979) ''intrinsic motivation is the motivation to engage in a task for its own sake - out of interest and/or enjoyment - and not as a means to another reward'' will be leading during this paper when we talk about intrinsic motivation. We have also seen that intrinsic motivation affects some interesting objects like satisfaction and performance. These objects will be discussed in chapter 2 and chapter 3.
In the next paragraph, extrinsic motivation will be explained. Extrinsic motivation is the opposite from intrinsic motivation.
Just like intrinsic motivation there are lots of definitions of extrinsic motivation. In this paragraph I will discuss these definitions.
According to Calder and Staw (1975) employees are extrinsically motivated if they are able to satisfy their needs indirectly, especially through monetary compensation. Money is a "goal which provides satisfaction independent of the actual activity itself". This is only one definition of extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation relates to a wide variety of behaviors which are engaged in as a means to an end and not for their own sake (Deci, 1975). Deci, Ryan and their colleagues (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 1991) have proposed that three types of extrinsic motivation can be ordered along a self-determination continuum. From lower to higher levels of self-determination, they are: external regulation, introjections and identification.
External regulation Deci and Ryan (1985): is behavior that is regulated through external means like rewards and constraints. For example "I study the night before exams, because my parents force me to."
Introjected regulation Deci and Ryan (1985): is that the individual begins to acquire the reasons of the person's action. For example: '' I study the night before exams because that's what good students are supposed to do."
Identification Deci and Ryan (1985): That the behavior becomes valued and judged important for the individual, and especially that it is perceived as chosen by oneself. For example: "I've chosen to study tonight because it is something important for me."
Affect extrinsic motivation
Research on intrinsic motivation has demonstrated that extrinsic rewards can have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation under certain conditions (Daniel & Esser, 1980; deCharms, 1968; Hess, & Sandelands, 1980). "Stuk incompleet"
In the previous paragraph intrinsic motivation was leading. In this paragraph extrinsic motivation was. During this paper the definition of Calder and Staw (1975) '' employees are extrinsically motivated if they are able to satisfy their needs indirectly, especially through monetary compensation'' will be leading.
To answer the research question "What are the theoretical approaches of work motivation?" I first needed to identify the concept of motivation. In the articles I read, researchers came almost till the same conclusion. They all add a ''natural'' component in there definitions. A good definition about motivation is the definition by Atkinson (1964). ''Work motivation is the psychological process that causes the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior''.
According to Porter and Lawler (1968) there are 2 different types of motivation mentioned intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. By Harackiewicz (1979) ''intrinsic motivation is the motivation to engage in a task for its own sake - out of interest and/or enjoyment - and not as a means to another reward''. This type of motivation is intrinsic because people can make a choice of what they want.
The opponent of intrinsic motivation is extrinsic motivation. According to Calder and Staw (1975) employees are ''extrinsically motivated if they are able to satisfy their needs indirectly, especially through monetary compensation''. This type of motivation is extrinsic, because people get influenced by external factors. An external factor for example is money. We can portion extrinsic motivation out in three levels of self-determination. These three levels are external regulation, introjections and identification. These three levels describe extrinsic motivation even better.