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"There are basic types of personalities that people develop in their lives and that theses personalities are shaped by many factors such as someone family position, early childhood experiences and perhaps biological imprinting from your ancestors."
-Psychologist Carl Jung theory on basic types of personalities
Teams bring together a group of people with a common goal or mission to be achieved. However, individuals in the team will have different personality types, which will affect how they pursue the goal, their contribution to the team and the way they deal with other members in the team.
There are four types of personality's styles in a team and they are intuitor, thinker, feeler and senser.
The intuitor is a person that is focus on the future, is concern with concepts and is someone who thinks a problem through using there imagination.
The thinker is someone in the team who thinks things through and often uses background information. Thinkers are well organized people who collect data, consider alternatives and they don't like being rushed into doing things.
The feeler is concern with how people will react and use there personal relationships to get the job done.
The senser is the type of person that wants to get the job done and is focus on what he/she is doing, sensers want to know what the bottom line is and doesn't like wasting there time on a lot of alternatives.
In order for theses personalities to work well together they must be willing to adapt to the other personalities types in the team. For instance, "if you are the senser and want to get things done, you must learn to value the inputs and contribution from others. And if you are a intuitor, you have to value the senser`s insistence on getting the job done. If you are a thinker, you have to value the people perspective from feelers and the bottom line focus of sensers. If you are a feeler, you have to appreciate the strengths brought to the team by the other personality types."
(Above quote from Managing in a team environment, personality types page 40)
So for the project manager to get theses different personalities working on the same page, he/she must select a team that is highly motivated to achieving there goals and he/she must select people who have good interpersonal skills.
Managing in a team environmentâ€¦John Robert Dewâ€¦Quorum Booksâ€¦Published 1998
2. Conflicts and conflict resolution
Definition of Conflict
"Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people."
Conflicts is very common when two or more parties come together to achieve a goal. When conflict occurs it is usual over differences in needs, objectives, and unwillingness to work, costs, responsibilities, personality clashes, scheduling times, etc. Although any conflict in a team is negative, it could also prove to be a positive thing as the conflict can lead to the team exploring new ideas and which could in turn lead to better results.
When conflict does occur and no action is taking it will lead to a break down in communication and trust with those involved in the conflict.
(Team building, class notes on conflict)
There are many different types of conflict that occur in a group including:
"Goal conflict: in which desired end states or preferred outcome appear to be incompatible.
Cognitive conflict: where ideas or thoughts are perceived as incompatible.
Affective conflict: where feeling or emotions are incompatible.
Procedural conflict: where the parties differ on the process to use for solving a conflict."
(Above quotes from Class notes, nature of conflict and the conflict process, page 4)
"According to Robbins (1992) conflict can be seen as a process which is comprised of five stages.
Stage 1 - Potential Opposition or incompatibility
Stage 2 - Cognitive and personalization:
Stage 3 - Intentions
Stage 4 - Behaviour
Stage 5 - Outcomes"
The conflict process above is vital as it identifies and applies appropriate conflict management methods.
2.1 Definition of Conflict Resolution
"Conflict resolution is the process of attempting to resolve a dispute or a conflict. Successful conflict resolution occurs by listening to and providing opportunities to meet each side's needs, and adequately address their interests so that they are each satisfied with the outcome. Conflict resolution aims to end conflicts before they start or lead to verbal, physical, or legal fighting."
As conflicts are inevitable in a group performing a project, the project manager can use certain behavioural traits to help solve the situation. In order for the project manager to resolve the problem he/she must have a "good knowledge and understanding of the organisation, the procedures for resolving conflicts, the conflict resolution process, the conflict motives, the feeling of others, the nature of the conflict. Also the project manager must show good behavioural characteristic when dealing with conflicts, he/she must facilitate the communication process, pause and think what being said before acting to the conflict, build trust with all those involved, should inform what he/she thinks is wrong and should keep the conflict situation under control."
(Above quotes from class notes on the project manager as a conflict handler, pg 6)
There a numerous ways for a project manager to deal with conflicts quickly. And they are as follows:
"Accommodating: When one party seeks to appease an opponent, that party may be willing to place the opponent's interests above their own. In order for the relationship to be maintained, one party must be willing to be a self-sacrificing."
"Compromising: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something, sharing occurs resulting in a compromised outcome. In compromising there is no clear winner or loser. Rather there is a willingness to ration the object of the conflict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction for both parties concerned."
"Competing: When one person seeks to satisfy their own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict, they are competing."
"Avoiding: A person may recognise that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. This is not a satisfactory style for a project manager to adopt."
"Collaborating: When the parties to a conflict each desire to fully satisfy the concern of all parties, we have co-operation and search for a mutually beneficial outcome. In collaborating, the intention of the parties is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than accommodating various points of view. This is an ideal way of solving conflicts."
(Above quotes from class notes on the project manager as a conflict handler, pg 7)
3. Effective Communications
So in order to write about effective communications, you must have a good understanding of what communications is;
"It is the art or ability to create effective understanding between yourself and others."
-Class notes on effective communications (continued) 29/11/06
In order for communication to be effective, the sender must have a good knowledge and understanding of the information he/she wishes to convey, so that the receiver can interpret the message in a way that allows them to clearly understand the message being given to them.
In order to get the message across the sender must select a suitable form of communication, which allows both the sender and receiver to fully understand the information clearly. There are three ways in which people communicate and they are verbal, written and non-verbal.
Verbal (spoken) communication is when the sender and receiver speak to each other either directly at a meeting or indirectly over the phone, unlike written communications the verbal communication can be easily misinterpret for numerous reasons such as language barrier (e.g. the sender meant only speak a few words of French) or one of the parties involved in the conversation doesn't fully understand the terminology being used, another problem with verbal communication is that the sender or receiver meant speak using local slang (e.g. what's d story bud? North Dublin).
Although there are numerous problems with verbal communication there are benefits, its allows the sender to receive instant feedback from the receiver and when both parties speak the same language, slag and know the same terminology it allows them to do business together very quickly.
Written communication comes in two forms it can either be hand writing or it can be done electronically on the computer. Electronically written letters, notes, faxes etc are the most common form of written communication used today.
The advantages of written communication is that it allows the sender and receiver to have a permanent record of the information being sent, it also allows for little or no misinterpretation between the parties involved and when writing communication is sent via email or fax it can be sent anywhere in the world very quickly and when sending writing communication via the net a large number of parties can be inform quickly and with out having to waste money on paper/envelopes and stamps, so electronic mailing saves money for the companies that use it.
Like with verbal communication there are disadvantages to written communication, for instance there is no guarantee that the receiver will get the message, there's no guarantee that when you do send the letter etc that you will get instance feedback or a reply also when waiting for feedback there could be a delay. If the sender decides to write the letter himself/herself the receiver meant not be able to read the letter being sent.
Non verbal communications is when visual images are used to get the message across to the parties involved. Types of pictures used include: Graphs, charts, diagrams, photographs etc. This is a good way of informing parties involved as to how a particular project is coming along. It usual away of showing with number, how a project is coming along/weekly expenditure etc. There aren't many disadvantage to this type of communication as long as the visual images are clearly labelled, then should be easily interpreted by everyone.
So in order for a project manager to get a message across to all the parties involved as effectively as possible he/she must take in to account just how quick he/she wants to inform them and also how quickly he/she wants to get the feedback from the parties involved. He/she must take account of how skill the receiver meant be with using the internet if he/she plans to send it via the net.
4. Listening Skills
To be a great project manager you must have very good listening skills, theses skills are essential if you are to understand feedback being given to you from everyone around you and if you haven't got good listening skills you probably want be a project manager for to long. It is also of benefit to have good listening skills as it shows you're a good listener and people view this as a good thing and they will enjoy working with you as they see you as someone they can talk to.
The following are few good examples of how to improve your listening skills and ways in which we listen to others.
"Concentration. We must concentrate on the verbal sounds only from one source - the speaker. Try Focus your attention - on the words, ideas and feeling related to the subject. Concentrate on the main ideas or points."
"Attention. Attention may be defined as the visual portion of concentration on the speaker. Through eye contact and other body language, we communicate to the speaker that we are paying close attention to his/her messages."
"Eye contact. By maintaining eye contact, some of the competing visual inputs are eliminated. You are not as likely to be distracted from the person talking to you and our eye contact with the speaker is feedback concerning the message: Yes, I am listening, I am paying attention. I hear you."
"Questioning/Clarifying. Questions can serve the same purpose as restating the message. If you are unclear about the intent of the message, ask for more information after allowing sufficient time for explanations."
"Leave the Channel Open. A good listener always leaves open the possibility of additional messages. A brief question or a nod will often encourage additional communications."
"You can not listen while you are talking. This is very obvious, but very frequently overlooked or ignored. An important question is why are you talking: to gain attention to yourself? Or to communicate a message?"
Above quotes from http://www.ssu.missouri.edu/faculty/rcampbell/Leadership/chapter6.htm
After researching this assignment I found there to be way too much information and that 2000 words wasn't enough to fit all the information into one essay so in order to fit it all in I had to cut a lot of information out and use bullet point to get the message across. Overall it was a good learning assignment as it allows me to research topics of interest and of benefit to me when I start working with other as part of a team.
6. Research and bibliography
Class notes on effective teams, communications
Team Buildingâ€¦Robert B Madduxâ€¦second editionâ€¦printed 1994
Managing in a teamâ€¦John Robert Dewâ€¦1998
Communications studiesâ€¦Stuart Priceâ€¦Longmanâ€¦1996
Communication studiesâ€¦John Corner and Jeremy Hawthornâ€¦1993
Different Personalities 1
Conflict Resolution 2.1
Effective Communications 3
Listening Skills 4
Research and Bibliography 6