Rationale And Background Of The Study English Language Essay

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1st Jan 1970 English Language Reference this


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Reading is indispensable if a person wanted to live comfortably in the modern society. It is the golden path in going to the world of enlightenment and enjoyment (Monuz, 2000). Reading is the activity characterized by the translation of symbols or letters in the words and sentences that have meaning to the individuals. The ultimate goal of reading is to be able to understand written materials to evaluate it, and to used it for one’s needs (Paculanan 1999).

Reading is consider as the most important subject in the curriculum, because its mastery depends on the learning of nearly to all other subjects. On account of this reality, Filipino educators have in countless instruction channeled their effort towards developing strategies and approaches in the teaching of reading (Tamundong 1998)

Reading requires more than mechanical skills. As a tool for learning in the content subjects, the learners has to demonstrate growing ability to handle information effectively. In this area of complex skills are efficient location, selection organization, and retention of information and the ability to gain knowledge from the printed page depending on the learners that equipped with the necessary skills in reading. A persons reading abilities has a help to read facts about the varied and rich factual information and verbal knowledge accumulated through the ages and that of maturity, organizes these actual information and verbal knowledge, process, and interprets them through experiences to form concepts and principles which are essential in solving problems and in developing creative thinking.

Paterno (1985), enumerated various factors in the disabilities or weaknesses of reading. This may range from defective hearing or maladjustments in school, to brain damage. Paterno added that some of the specific causes of reading disability, how ever, may cause by a combinations of several factors. The most common: (1) Physical Factors like defective hearing, speech, vision, inadequate nutrition, neurological dysfunction: (2) Educational factors- children have unique learning patterns and: (3) Environmental factors- not all learning takes place in a classroom and their environmental determines to a great extend, the Childs success in learning to read.

To minimize if not to solve permanently the problems on reading, two objectives of education as stated in the educational act of 1982 are word mentioning. This are: (1) To provide the knowledge and develop skills, attitudes and values essential to personal development and nece4ssary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu, and (2) To provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of the responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society, and to prepare for constructive and effective involvement (MEC Journal, 1991), Educational Act of 1982.

Conceptual Framework

Reading is one of the most needed skills to be learned in school. Seemingly, read is a word that always heard, yet difficult to discern. Reading scholars have not really come out with on universal definition of it. They only describe the characteristics of reading. Munoz (2000) describes reading as a two-way complex active process, which uses a high level of thinking skills such as literal (reading the lines), inferential (reading the lines) and critical (reading beyond the lines).

However, comprehension is preceded by recognition of words, thus one can not really comprehend if he can not recognize the words correctly. Therefore in this study, the researchers want to find out the level of reading performance of the pupils in terms of word recognition.



Descriptive research design using observation checklist.

Oral reading performance of

Grade II and Grade IV pupils.


Determination of the reading performance of the Grade III and Grade IV pupils in terms of word recognition.

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Table shows the input, process and the output variables used in this study. The input represents the oral reading performance of the respondents. The process is the tool used for data gathering and instrumentation in order to gather pertinent data needed for analyzing, tabulation and interpretation of the problem which includes the use of observation checklist arrive at the expected outputs which is the determination of the level of reading performance of the respondents in terms of word recognition.

Statement of the problem

The study seeks to find out the reading performance of the grade III and grade IV pupils of Bolosan Elementary School in terms of word recognition.

It specifically sought to answer the following question:

1. What is the level of reading performance in terms of recognition of the:

A.     Grade III pupils

B.    Grade IV pupils

2. Is there a significant difference between the level of reading performance of Grade III and Grade IV pupils in terms of word recognition.

Hypothesis of the Study

There is no significant difference between the level of reading performance of Grade III and Grade IV pupils in terms of word recognition.

Significance of the Study

Within the recent years, the demands for effective reading among pupils as an applicable instrument in development have become more prominent that always. Teachers and parents are in conformity on this scrupulous need. Conceptually, the study bring light to the student/pupils as a necessity in a more successful academic work. The result of the study are learned to benefit the following.


The results of the study serve as bases for the effective and efficient involvement of parents in the learning of their children especially with regards to reading.


The pupils are the direct beneficiaries of the study. They will be benefited much from better school leading program, teacher’s guidance, parents assistance and other activities in the school, home, school administrators can offer them and also for them to know their reading abilities.


The results of the study serve as an assessment and or diagnosis of reading ability of the pupil. From this the teacher would be able to designed effective reading classroom program for the pupil.

School Administrators

The result of the study may be used as reference guide for educational planning and policy formulation in the instruction level.

Lastly, the result of this study may serve as a reference in determining the reading levels of the pupils which can serve as information in making more plans and programs by higher authorities based on the findings. It will also help in preparing reading materials based on needs and difficult5ies of the pupils.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to determine the level of reading performance of the respondents in terms of word recognition. The respondent of the study is composed of 41 grade III and 45 grade IV pupils. Reading comprehension is not included in the study. The study was started from July 2006.

Definition of Terms

Accuracy. Relates to the quality of a result and distinguished from processing, which relates to the quality of the operation by which the result is obtained.

Effectiveness. Degree to which an activity or initiative is successful in achieving specified goal; Degree to which activities of a unit achieve the units mission or goal.

Efficacy. Is the ability to produced an effect, usually a specifically desire defect

Frustration. The pupils shows withdrawal from reading situations by crying or refusing to read. The pupils commit errors in reading such as reversal, repetition, substitution, insertion, mispronunciation and inability to interpret punctuation.

Independent. The pupil is free from tension, finger pointing or lip movement. He reads with rhythm and with conversational tone and interprets punctuations correctly.

Instructional. The pupils oral reading is rhythmical with conversational tone and correct interpretation.

Non-reader. A pupil is unable to recognize and sound out letter sound connections for single consonants or unable to blend them.

Phil IRI. Philippine Informal Reading Inventory which is a set of oral reading passages for the elementary grades in order to get the reading level og the public elementary school pupils.

Reading ability. Is the awareness of print relationship to speech, text structure, phonological awareness and letter naming and writing and comprehension of reading material? It often measured by grade level.

Word recognition. It refers to the ability of the pupils to recognize the words with correct pronunciation.


Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents several studies concerning reading abilities and reading comprehension. However, such reviewed studies are related to the presents study in the sense that they all aimed to know about the study were the factors that affect the reading ability of grade 3 pupils. These related studies therefore, are discussed briefly in this chapter.

Several program about reading as an active, meaningful, and constructive process. Before reading activities are used to build or activate relevant background knowledge, concepts, and vocabulary. Students are taught to monitor their reading to ensure that what they are reading makes sense. They are taught strategies for correcting word recognition errors that detract from meaning, and they are given opportunities for reacting and responding to selection they have read. The texts they are asked to read for enjoyment and for information. Other activities are developed within a framework of reading for meaning. Because reading for meaning is the constants point of reference and because students in these programs need substantial help in building word identification skills, the amount of time spent in discussing selection and in teacher questioning about the selection is kept to a minimum.

All of the successful programs offer students special instruction on a daily basis for period ranging from 20 to 45 minutes. Daily contact with students ensures that progress is the steady and allows teachers to become very familiar with students and their strength and needs. Frequent contacts also allows teacher to reinforce and extend strategic behaviors that students are acquiring. An instructional period of at least 20 to 30 minutes allows time for instruction and practice along a number of dimension that provide students with the strategies they need to become effective readers.

The prevailing philosophy in most of the other early interventions programs appears to be that first grade is the point where special help should be offered to prevent reading failure; that many, if not most, students will, by the end of first grade, be able to make sufficient progress in reading to function in a regular classroom setting without special help; but that some students will continue to need support through second grade. Though some of the programs began as just first grade programs, most now continue through second grade for students who need longer periods of special help.

These programs use methods and materials that help students to recognize words accurately and rapidly, and to group words into meaningful phrases the three dimensions of fluency. The courage to reread a book several times once it has been introduced. There is evidence that the repeated reading of a texts leads to improved word identification skills and comprehension ( Adams, 1995). As children move through these programs, they become familiar with an increasing number of texts. They are encouraged to reread these texts to gain additional practice, to extend their fluency, and to build confidence in their growing reading competency. To avoid failure or frustration for students, each new book is introduced with as much as a teacher judges is needed. For example, a “pictures walk” is often used as a before reading activity. Students are asked to speculate about the texts contents, and unusual or difficult vocabulary is pointed out by the teacher and discussed. Thus, the student begins reading the book with prior knowledge and clear expectations about the selection’s contents.

Another frequently used technique is shared reading, in which the texts is read first by the teacher as students follow along in the texts. Then as a group, student’s progress to reading the texts with the help as needed. Teacher support is gradually withdrawn, and students assume more responsibility. Finally, individual children practice reading the text. Instruction often moves from a shared reading model to guided reading in which students assume responsibility for the first reading of a selection after the teacher helps prepare them and supports them during their reading. In all the successful intervention programs there is a clear progression from much teacher support in the initial phases of the program to increase students independence.

The types of texts most frequently used in early intervention program are predictable texts. The earliest books used in the programs tend to have a close match between pictures and texts, have recurring language patterns, and include repetition of language elements, which make them easy for students to read. Even children with very restricted word recognition capabilities quickly begin to think of themselves as readers because they are successful with these profitable texts. As students progress in the program, the degree of predictability decreases to ensure that the students attend to the printed texts in order to build a multifaceted word recognition strategy that will make them increasingly independent readers. In the initial phases of instruction, selections also tend to be short so that students can finish a text within an instructional period. As their reading capabilities grow, texts become longer and more challenging.

While one of the successful program use traditional, narrow measures of readability, all sequence of the instructional materials, based on many factors

including text predictability (reflected in factors such as recurring language patterns, close picture to text match, repetition of words), length of text, challenge of vocabulary, complexity of language, sophistication of concept so that students are challenged to apply the strategies and skills they are learning.

Reading new text, and rereading familiar text insure that student in this programs engage in meaningful, connected reading. This program also includes activities that help students focus on and become familiar wit printed words. For example, the Winston-Salem Project uses a procedure called “Making Words” (Baker L. & Brown A.L,1999). Students are presented with the letters that form a word from a selection they read. Words are selected because of their interest and because they contain words identification elements that will be useful for the students

It has been recognized that asking students to write words (not copy) is a very effective approach in developing word recognition and reading skill (Adams, 1999;Clay, 1996). For example in the early intervention in reading program, the students select a student to write sentences. The teacher then encourages each students to think about the styling of each word and to write as much of the word as they can. Teacher support his offer only as needed in order to insure that the students write the word accurately. For example, for the children who are having difficulty with phonemic awareness, the teacher draws a box for each sound in the word. The children are guided to think about the number of sound in a word and the letters that represent those sound. For example, the teacher would draw 3 boxes for the word teach, grouping the EA and CH in separate boxes since that word EA and CH represents single sound.

The following are regular pattern to he scheduled for better reading.

Reading familiar texts.

Reading or rereading a new book

Working with words

Writing words or sentences

The researchers therefore want to find out what are the common factors affecting the reading performance of a child, thus, the study.

Chapter III


This chapter presents the procedure utilized in the collection of data, the method employed in the presentation and interpretation to answer the problems presented in Chapter I.

Research Design

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. Descriptive because it seeks to investigate prevailing conditions about the level of reading performance of the respondents in terms of word recognition. (Adanza, 2002).

Sources of Data

Table 1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Grade Level and Section

Grade& Section



Grade III-B



Grade IV-B



Table 1 presents the respondents of the study which is composed of 41 grade III pupils belonging to section B and 45 pupils in Grade IV also in section B. This so because Grade III and IV are the middle grades in elementary and both section B for it is on the average position thus, they are better representatives for the study.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

The researcher adopted the Phil IRI oral reading test of the Bureau of Elementary Education SY 2006-2007. After asking permission from the principal, the researchers administered testing with the help of the teachers.

The researchers adopted the Phil IRI oral reading test formula for finding the level of reading performance in terms of word recognition.

Tools for Data Analysis

The researchers used frequency and percentage counts for the presentation of data and the chi-square to test the hypothesis of the study.

The formula for finding the level of reading performance in terms of word recognition which is adopted from the Phil IRI oral reading test is:

Percent of miscue= No. of major miscue x 100

No. of words

WR = 100% — percent of miscue


No. of major miscue – number of words that are not recognized or

pronounced right.

WR – Level of word recognition

For the percentage distribution, the formula used is:

P = f/N x 100


P – Percentage

f – frequency

N – total number of cases or respondents

For sub problem number 2, the researchers used the chi-square-goodness-of-fit test, that is:

X2 = ∑(O-E)2



X2 = Chi-Square

O = Observed Frequency

E = Expected Frequency

Chapter IV


This chapter presents and discusses the results of the study to answer the problems in chapter I

Table 2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Grade III pupils

in Terms of Level of Word Recognition



















The table shows that nobody is considered as independent reader. There are 17 (41.46%) who are under instructional, 19 (46.34%) under frustration and 5 (12.2%) under none-reader.

Table 3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Grade IV pupils

in Terms of Level of Word Recognition



















It is visible in the table that nobody also from the grade IV pupils is under independent category. Also showed that 8 (17.78%) are under instructional, 35 (77.78%) are lined at frustration category and 2 (4.44%) under none-reader type.

Table 4

Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to the

Level of Reading Performance in Terms of Word Recognition

With their corresponding Grade Levels


Grade level








Grade III




Grade IV








Table 4 shows variation of the level of word recognition among the respondents.

Table 5

Computation of the Chi–Square


























∑ (O-E)2/E


Where: at df = 1, the level of

O – Observed frequency significance at „ƒ = 0.05

E – Expected frequency is 3.841 (Walpole, 1982)

df = 1

„ƒ = 0.05

From the table 4, at 1 degree of freedom, the tabular value of chi-square at „ƒ = 0.05 is 3.841. Since, the tabular value is lesser than the computed value which is 5.8347, the hypothesis is rejected. Thus, there is a significant difference between the level of reading performance of Grade III and Grade IV pupils in terms of word recognition

Chapter V


This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and the recommendations of the researchers based on the study.


The study was pursued to find out the level of reading performance of the grade III and grade IV pupils of Bolosan Elementary School in terms of word recognition. It sought to determine also whether there is significant difference between the two grade levels in terms or reading performance with regards to word recognition.

The study used the descriptive method using checklist for the actual reading performance. This research was conducted from June to December 2006.


The researchers found out that 17 or 41.46% grade III pupils are under instructional or are rhythmical reader with conversational tone and correct interpretation. There are also 19 or 46.34% who shows withdrawal from reading situations by crying or refusing to read and committing errors. On the other hand, 8 or 17.78% of the grade IV are under instructional type, 35 or 77.78% are considered under frustration type while 2 or 4.44% are non-readers and lastly, nobody also is under independent type of reader.

The bottom line is, it was found out that there is significant difference between the grade III and grade IV pupils in terms of level of reading performance with regards to word recognition.


Based from the analyzed data presented, the researchers concluded that grade III and grade IV pupils’ level of reading performance in terms of word recognition is mostly on the bracket of frustration and instructional type of readers, that is they show withdrawal from reading situations by crying or refusing to read and committing errors in reading such as reversal, repetition, substitution, insertion, mispronunciation and inability to interpret punctuation but others are rhythmical with conversational tone and correct interpretation.


From the findings of the study, the researchers recommend the following:

Having been revealed that the level of reading performance of the grade III and grade IV pupils in terms of word recognition falls under the frustration and instructional type, the researchers recommend teachers to use more intensified instruction for the betterment of the reading performance of the pupils.

The researchers also wish that future researchers will focus also on reading performances of the pupils in other aspects such as comprehension, speed and others.

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