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Both criticize and justify the process of communication for a multi national business, with respect to the interpretation of verbal and non -verbal communication across gender and different cultures via different mediums suggesting improvement.
Process of communication
It consists of the following elements:
Sender: The `sender' initiates the process of communication by sending a message. The sender is sometimes also known as 'encoder.'
Encoding: Encoding is the process wherein the sender selects and organizes the message using appropriate words and nonverbal signals (gestures, tone of voice, etc.) Encoding is done keeping in mind the composition of the audience.
Message: Message comprises the information that is being transmitted. The composition of the audience determines the style, language, length and tone of the message.
Communication channel/medium: The channels used for communication may be verbal or non-verbal channels. The various media used for communication may be telephone, fax, computer, memos, letters, etc. The choice of the channel and the medium depends on the message, location of the audience, the speed at which the message is required to be transmitted and the formality of the situation.
Receiver: The person who receives and interprets the message is known as the receiver.
Decoding: Decoding is the process in which the receiver interprets the message transmitted by the sender. If the message is decoded correctly, it means that the receiver in the manner in which the sender intended it to be conveyed has interpreted the message.
Feedback: It is the receiver's response to the message. This is the final stage in the communication process and may be verbal or nonverbal in nature. The response in verbal feedback may be intended to obtain further information or to provide closure to the communication process. Nonverbal feedback may be in the form of gestures (nodding one's head) and facial expressions.
Flow of process of communication process is as follow:
Example of communication process is as follow:
Example: A message is sent by the 'Company Secretary' (sender) to General Managers saying that 'There will be an annual general meeting on 25th March 2003 and all GMs are requested to send all relevant documents at the earliest' (encoding) . This message is sent via 'the intranet' (channel of communication) to 'the GMs' (receivers). 'They read the mail and understood it' (decoding). 'They then send back a message saying that all relevant reports will be sent to him in a day's time' (feedback).
The following major barriers of communication process are as under:
The various types of communication barriers are grouped into four categories:
Problems caused by the sender
Problems in message transmission
Problems in reception
Problems in receiver comprehension and perception
Problems caused by the sender
Inadequate amount of information - If the sender of the message is himself not adequately equipped with the requisite information, he will be unable to communicate the information effectively.
Excessive knowledge about the subject - If the sender has excessive knowledge about the subject, he may decide to explain the message too much in detail and make it highly complex and confusing.
Indecision regarding selection of information - The sender may sometimes be unable to decide what information to include and what information to exclude from the message. This inability of the sender to decide on the selection of information may hamper communication.
Order of presentation - Quite often, people are unable to decide on the order in which to present their ideas. The inability to decide on the order of presentation hinders effective communication.
Lack of familiarity with the audience - While communicating, the sender of the message should have some knowledge about his audience. This will allow him to structure his message appropriately so as to suit the needs of his audience. If the audience has no knowledge about the topic being communicated, the sender should provide some background information about the topic to enable them to understand the message. On the other hand, if the audience is knowledgeable and learned, the sender need not give any background information and can directly begin with information on the topic.
Lack of experience in speaking or writing - If the sender is not learned enough or is not properly trained on how to communicate, there is a scope for wrong choice of words, grammatical errors, and improper punctuation in his communication.
Problems in Message transmission
Number of transmission links - The process of communication consists of the message passing from one person to another till it reaches the final destination. The more the number of people involved in the communication process, the greater the chances of distortion of communication.
Transmission of unclear or conflicting messages - Sometimes, messages may consist of two or more parts which may not convey the same information. In such a case, the receiver is faced with a dilemma as to which part of the message to accept.
Problems in Reception
Problems in reception often give rise to communication problems. The factors that interfere with the exchange of messages are termed as "noise". Noise may be of several types. Physical noise refers to the external sounds that distract communicators. Physiological noise are the physiological factors that impede reception of the message. This may include hearing disorders, illnesses, disability, etc. Psychological noise refers to the forces within the receiver that interfere with his or her understanding. These include preoccupation, fear, hostility, egotism, etc.
Problems in Receiver comprehension and Perception
Many times, the receivers have difficulty in comprehending the message they have received. One of the reasons for this happening is the inability of the receiver to understand some of the words that are being used in the message. The use of technical terms in the message makes it difficult for people from non technical background to understand the message. Another reason for failure of the receiver comprehending the message is the involvement of personal interests. Many times, receivers comprehend what was not intended in the message and fail to comprehend the actual meaning. This is especially true when the message affects the personal interests of the receiver.
Verbal and Non-verbal Communication
Verbal communication, also know as oral communication, is interchange of verbal messages between sender and receiver. It is more immediate than written communication. It is also more natural and informal.
In business, most of time spent on talking than writing. Most of oral communication in business is informal. But some it is formal, as in speeches, lecture, or oral report, meeting, interviews etc.
Non verbal communication:
Non verbal communication is also know as "communication by implication"
Non verbal communication is composed of the messages sent without or in addition to the words. These messages have a stronger impact on the receivers.
It includes cues, gestures, vocal qualities, spatial relationships etc.
It is less structured than verbal communication and often unintentional and spontaneous.
Non-verbal communication is more reliable form of communication and reflects the true feelings of the individual.
It is more effective than verbal communication alone.
The following are example of non verbal communication:
Directing / Instructing Love
Anger Building Relationship
Showing respect Attentive
The following are different mediums which way oral communication can be done:
Face -to-face conversation
The following are different mediums which way written communication can be done:
"Overcoming communication barriers/ How to improve communication"
In order to remove barriers to communication an open door communication policy should be prepared and followed by managers at all levels. The superior in the organization must create an atmosphere of confidence and trust in the organization so that; the credibility gap may be narrowly down. Major efforts in this direction are;
Two way communication
The organization's communication policy should provide for two ways traffics in communication- upwards and downwards. It brings two minds closer and improves understanding between the two parties, the sender and the receiver. A sound feedback system should be introduced in the organization so that distortion in the filtering of messages should be avoided.
Strengthening communication network
The communication network should be strengthened to make communication effective. For these purpose, the process of communication should be simplified; layers in downwards communication should be reduce to the minimum possible. Decentralization and delegation of authority should encourage making information communication more efficient, through frequent meeting, conferences, in timely dissemination of information to the subordination.
Promoting participative approach
The management should promote the participative approach in management. The subordinate should be invited to participate in the decision making process. It should seek cooperation from the subordinates and reduce communication barriers.
In communication certain symbols are used. Such symbols may be in the form of words, pictures, and action. If words are used the language should be simple and easily comprehensible to the subordinate. Technical in multi syllable words should, as far as possible, be avoided. The sender must use the language with which the receiver is familiar.
Credibility in communication
One criterion of effective communication is credibility. The subordinate obey the orders of their superior because they have demonstrated through their action that they are trustworthy. They must practice whatever they say. The superior must also maintain his trustworthiness. If the superior is trusted by the subordinate, communication will be effective.
A communicator must be good listener too. A good manger gives his subordinates a chance to speak freely and expressed their feelings well before him. The manager also gets some useful information for further communication and can also have better understanding of the subordinates' needs, demands etc.
Selection of effective communication channel
To be effective, the communication should be sent to the receiver through an effective channel. By effective channel we mean that the message reaches its destination in time, to the right person, without distortion, filtering or omission.