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Listening comprehension test is a part of the examination for the course English Proficiency for Teachers which every TESL students need to be enrolled in as well as to get a credit in as to be TESL graduate students. TESL students who are the English teachers to be in future need to have good listening skills in English in order to be able to teach effectively. Unfortunately, TESL students in university come across great difficulties during listening comprehension test, even after they have been going through the course English Proficiency for Teachers which helps in developing and improving their listening skills for 3 years.
The study is an investigation into the problem in listening comprehension test in English among TESL students. This chapter is organized into five parts i.e the background to the problem, the statement of the problem, research questions, the significance of the study and the limitations of the study. The background problem will discuss the basic skills involved in listening comprehension. The statement of problem will identify the problems faces by TESL students in listening comprehension test in English. The significance of the study will discuss how the study can be of use, both to the TESL students and lecturers in view of improving skills of listening comprehension.
The listening skill has to be taught to second language learners of English as it involves listening comprehension which is a complex skill. The listening skill involves much more than just hearing the sound of the words. Listening is an active process which we receive, that is to hear and understand what a speaker has spoken. Nevertheless, we do not remain passive while listening. We have to react to what we listen in order to comprehend the meaning of what is spoken. Background knowledge is important in order to acquire listening skills. It is the awareness towards the particular topics. Competent listeners make use of that to make expectations and add on their own judgments as they listen further. In addition, a student also has to gave a purpose before he begins to listen. TESL students face problems in listening comprehension test due to many factors. The aim of this study is to determine the major problems encountered.
Real listening is an active process that has three basic steps.
Hearing. Hearing just means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying. For example, say you were listening to a report on zebras, and the speaker mentioned that no two are alike. If you can repeat the fact, then you have heard what has been said.
Understanding. The next part of listening happens when you take what you have heard and understand it in your own way. Let's go back to that report on zebras. When you hear that no two are alike, think about what that might mean. You might think, "Maybe this means that the pattern of stripes is different for each zebra."
Judging. After you are sure you understand what the speaker has said, think about whether it makes sense. Do you believe what you have heard? You might think, "How could the stripes to be different for every zebra? But then again, the fingerprints are different for every person. I think this seems believable."
Selection of problem
Things to include:
b. Selection of problem
d. Research Question
e. Significance of the study: why doing the scope of study?
f. Limitations of the study
g.Definitions of terms
h. Research methodology: qualitative? survey?
j. Intrumentation: questionaire? interview? focus group
k. Procedure of data collection
l. Benefit of the study
Format for Writing Dissertation Proposals
1.Â Title Page
The title sheet should include the information ordinarily encountered on the title page of the dissertation except that the proposal should be labeled as a dissertation proposal, not as a dissertation. Because some computer compiled bibliographies include only the first five words of the title, the first five words should, therefore, contain a substantive description of the study. A subtitle may be included.Â
The abstract is expected to be brief (not to exceed 350 words) and should summarize the following: Introduction, Statement of the Problem, Background of the Study, Research Questions or Hypotheses, and Methods and Procedures.Â
This section introduces the reader to the domain of the study and provides a general overview of the circumstances, issues, and background leading up to the problem under investigation.Â
4.Â Statement of the Problem
The problem statement should identify briefly the state of uncertainty or dissatisfaction with present knowledge in the field. Then it should clearly and precisely identify the purpose of the study in terms of how it will help to advance our knowledge in that field.Â
5.Â Background of the Study
A doctoral dissertation is not intended to be an isolated undertaking but rather an inquiry which has an intended place in some larger body of knowledge. This section should include a review of the relevant theoretical and empirical works which provide a broad background, or a theoretical grounding to the study. In addition, candidates are required to demonstrate the link between their study and the body of knowledge in which the study is grounded.Â
6.Â Research Questions or Hypotheses
Research questions or hypotheses should be stated clearly. These should flow logically from the discussion of the Background of the Study and should be consistent with the Statement of the Problem.Â
7.Â Methods and Procedures
This section should indicate what type of study is being conducted, how the study will be conducted, what data or information will be used, how it will be obtained, what controls will be applied to ensure integrity, and what sampling techniques will be employed. Thus, the section should convey the appropriateness of the data/information for answering the research questions; and, most importantly, it should describe the techniques for analyzing the data with direct reference to the research questions or hypotheses.
A complete description of the instruments or procedures to be used in gathering the data should be provided. All proposals are expected to include relevant information about the technical quality of these instruments or procedures. Any instruments/interview protocols developed by the researcher should accompany the proposal in an Appendix.Â
Students are required to address clearly the shortcomings and/or weaknesses of the research which may impact the findings as well as the generalizability of these findings.Â