It is not easy to isolate a uniform personality trait that shows a statistically significant correlation with second language oral performance partly due to difficulties building a psychological inventory to test personality traits. Although, certain variables seem to have a major impact on learners' performance. One of the variables, a level of self-esteem, cannot be eliminated in the discussion of personality factors of second language oral production tasks. In addition, in order to get high levels of speaking proficiency, one has to take risks with new knowledge in language as a normal course of learning. Anyhow, taking such risks has the potential to damage one's self-esteem. Therefore, risk-taking should be checked as a personality factor of oral performance in relation to self-esteem. In addition, flexible ego and a degree of task anxiety, locus of control, and attribution styles seem to have a strong link to self-esteem. Those variables are in addition powerful determinants of second language oral production performance.
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Coopersmith, (1994) quoted in Brown, says self-esteem is an attitude of approval or disapproval, showing how much a person believes in himself. In 1979, Adelaide Heyde absorbed the effects of self-esteem on performance of oral production tasks by American college students. The result showed positive correlation (Brown, 1994). Self-esteem, therefore, seems to be one of the indicators of successful French language learning. However, self-esteem is not an isolated variable. It is interwoven with several other personality variables.
Besides this factor, many times the lack of didactic resources plays an important role in the acquisition of a second language because the didactic resources are perfect strategies that help mediate the teaching-learning process of a foreign language.
The ex President Gerald Ford said,
"If he went back to college again, he'd focus on two areas - he says he would learn how to write and to speak in public. He thought there was nothing more important than the skill to express effectively.
Zig Ziglar Said:
"One of the surest forms to frame your self-esteem is by learning to speak in public.
Each time we talk, whether, confiding to a loved one, speaking by the phone, telling a joke at a party, giving a technical presentation to a group, you are using this scandalous skill; and you are either been heard... or not.
One or two of these tips make a big difference in your ability to express and connect. Anyways, keep it simple, silly...don't use more than one or two tips. When you feel relaxed with the two you've adopted, gain a few more. Your friends, will be willing to know what was going on with you. Your friends and you are in addition to this going to be empowered.
Development of Speaking Skills
Students think the skill to speak languages is the result of language learning, but speaking is besides an important part for the learning process. Good instructors show students speaking techniques and they are able to help themselves spread out their knowledge of the language and their self-confidence using it. The instructors help students learn to speak, this way the students can learn through it.
1. Using minimal responses
Languages learners need confidence in their skill to participate with success in oral interaction frequently listen in silence to others. One way to inspire such learners to begin to participate is by help them frame a stock of minimal responses they can use in varied types of exchanges. These responses can be useful for beginners.
These minimal responses are predictable, frequently, phrases that conversation partakers use to confirm agreement, understanding, etc.To what the other speakers are saying. Possessing a stock of such responses permits a learner to focus on the other participant, without having to plan a response.
2. Recognizing Scripts
Instructors can aid students expand speaking skill by knowing the scripts for different situations so they`ll be able to predict what they`ll hear and also what they`ll need to say in return. Through cooperating activities, instructors can help students with the practice and the changes of the language that different scripts include.
3. Talking about language
Learners are way too embarrassed to say anything when they don`t get another speaker or when they notice a conversation partner has some difficulties to understand them. Instructors could help students control this reticence making them sure that misunderstanding can happened in any kinds of interaction. Instructors can besides give students strategies to use for comprehension check.
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Instructors are able to form a true practice environment in the classroom itself. While they expand control of different clarification strategies, students will acquire confidence in their skill to manage the different communication situations they may find outside.
What we know about oral capacity: Oral capacity is being adequate in the speaking ability related to all thing having to do with the acquisition of a language. Pronunciation is how complete sentences and the words are pronounced. Grammar refers to how conscious is the speaker of the rules governing the language. Vocabulary is the correct or incorrect word speaker uses, and even the colouring she uses when speaking. Finally, fluency is how fluent the speakers jump from one word to another.
When we think about our past failure we think about those goals we couldn`t reach. Putting ourselves down and being to an excessive degree self-critical. It doesn`t really feel very well. According to what we read in the net we know negative self-talk is just not good, in the long term. For a lot of people, even the small effects on motivation are adverse.
It does not mean I am a failure just because I didn't get what I wanted in the past or I will not reach my goal later on. Abraham Lincoln lost every election until he eventually went to the Senate and he went to the election as a candidate for the presidency.
The football coach, Vince Lombardy who got famous for making winners out of losers" said it doesn`t matter how bad we think we are, we start with small goals, do our best in order to get used to winning so we can get the "winning feeling" so we`ll always have the winning expectation.
Stop using the world "failure." Instead, a- say what you did and didn`t accomplish, b- accept all results, c- meditate on what you could learn from that situation, and d- ask if you can reach those goals and expectations.
If your goal is to grow, you can never fail! It doesn`t really matter how many times you fail to accomplish a specific situation, you always succeed at learning from it. Therefore, the main goal in your life should be learning, and you can succeed - no matter how many times you`ve fail.
Self-confidence is the arranged probability that a goal will be achieved by a certain person in a situation. For example if Mike values his possibility of getting an "A" on a math's exam is 90%, we would finish by saying Mike had very high self-confidence in his skill to do well on a math's exam. If Mike had thought 10%, we would say he`d had low self-confidence about his skills to do well on the exam.
It is crucial to remember that self-confidence is related to the task and situation. Self confidence has to do with the situation. We have varied degrees of assertiveness in varied situations. For example, Mike might be confident in calculus; but lack confidence in English. He may think his probabilities of success when meeting someone is only 10% (in relation to making a new friend). Confidence is associated to these situation, task, and expectations.
Though self-confidence is situational, self-confidence might generalize across many situations. For example, guess Ricky was good not just in calculus, but in almost all academic subjects. He`d probably expand self-confidence to learn any whatever he wants those things he hadn`t tried. If Ricky is even good at sports, people skills, and other areas of life, he`d probably expand high level of self-confidence generally.
In the same way, if Jeff didn`t perform well in science, sports, social situation , and most areas, then he would probably develop a poor self-confidence generally. Anyways, most of people aren`t like Ricky or Jeff. Most of them think we do well in some things (like science) but not so good in others (like dealing with conflict or getting to know people).
I use this term "self-confidence" to say what Dr. Albert Bandura, a researcher and psychologist, called "self-efficacy expectations." It`s been the object of forceful study in psychology and led to many important discoveries. Broadly speaking, high self-confidence extends people's motivation and persistence. it`s a good know how well people will do on all sorts of tasks when they have self-confidence.
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A positive self-fulfilling prophesies is if you believe, "Harry will possibly like me if I talk with him." That belief alone might help cause you talk to Harry therefore you will be friendlier to him. Thus, the belief alone really expanded the probability it would be fulfilled (the belief really helped the prophesy`s fulfillment.)
A pessimistic self-fulfilling prophesies is your belief, "Harry will probably not like you at all if you talk with him." That belief might keep you from speaking with her or cause you to be more unfriendly to him. In turn, Harry may not like you because you weren`t friendly to him.
If you believed, "If you think it will rain, your belief will actually make it rain (because my beliefs have some magical powers on the weather)?" what is the difference when you think like that and that you can learn math.
It is very important to identify the difference between the self-fulfilling prophesy and the superstitious belief. A superstitious thought is, for instance, a belief that something is a cause of a result when it truly is not. For example your beliefs have accidental impact on your motivation, but your beliefs don`t have causal effects on the weather. A belief like this is superstitious.
It is also important we don`t waste our time trying to control events we really can't control. Lots of people waste too much of their time, energy, and savings seeking the advice of witchcraft, astrologers and others. People regularly often say that they have magical faculties of insight and control over happening they don`t, prey on people's desire for help, etc. Don't get psychologically dependent on these people and thoughts. Don't be superstition.
SELF-CONFIDENCE AND LIFE SKILLS
Do you know the insides to self-confidence? Is it the approval and assertive feedback from others? Dr. David McClelland, expressed his years of research on self-confidence in a short form. He said the most important factor to expand self-confidence is to master the needed abilities. Someone may say you`re awfully bad at such a task. Even though, but if you know you can do such ask well enough, you can feel confident about it, it doesn`t really matter what they say about you. In the same way, when everybody else tells you are excellent at doing something, but you know that you can`t don't that something well enough, you`ll lack a lot of reliability.
We can expand any faculty by learning -even faculties many people don`t often think of as faculty. Do you think people are born "acting in such a way" "intelligent," or "energetic"? These conditions could be affected by heredity, but these personal characteristics cover most of learning beliefs.
We can get our skills better by watching and learning from others who have a really high level of knowledge, reading, and practicing. The more we get ourselves involved in the learning of the skill, the faster we`ll learn.
And gradually our goals should grow stronger trough time, and we can go through the different stage of learning - going from novice to expert. The same methods of learning is related to interpersonal skills, too. If you`re good at sports, playing the guitar, or elsewhere - apply the same learning methods that had achieved the desired results to an area where you feel you are less confidence.
The success and skills in life. How good are basic life skills to succeed in life? Research shows that life skills are the best end only way to success. We think that the most pompous type of success is overall the faculty of adaptation we have where we think happiness is. The cognitive, self-management, and interpersonal skills are crucial to every relevant areas of life. For example, all three categories of skills could expand the opportunities for pleasure and satisfaction and achievement in everyoneÂ´s career and in everyoneÂ´s close relationships.
In dealing with this topic we should first define what didactic resources are, and
then, the role in the teaching-learning process, as much as its specific functions in
learning a l2 like English. resources are any instruments that help us to achieve any
goal; that is, auxiliar material with which the pupils develop the learning process.
Therefore, the blackboard, computer and video are resources, but the crucial element is
the word, which is a limited resource, because it is an intermediary between the reality
it is and us. it provides a mental representation of the actual element of reality, but from
senses that we first approach reality. in this way, the most complete learning derives
from the contact with reality, which is an impossible thing to do in the teaching centre.
Bringing reality closer
these resources bring this reality closer, and are also an aid to solve the problems of lack of discipline and attention in class. According to a study by Sanz barrio et Alii ( Tecnología Educativa. Zaragoza: Edelvives 1991), this is the percentage of data we retain in the learning process:
10% of readings
20% of what we listen
30% of what we see
50% of what we see and discuss
90% of what we say and do
The most common didactical tools for TEFL are real stuffs, that can be used in various ways; we could write the names on every object, use the objects like sources for vocabulary -improving pronunciation and spelling-, integrate them in certain structures, as locative prepositions, comparatives, etc. we can also practice the definitions through them and operate with them: the "total physical response", which is a fundamental aid for the effortless internalization of vocabulary. Any auxiliar material may also be used for activities such as role-plays, like fancy-dresses, in order to provide realism and fun.
People are also a basic resource; physical descriptions can be practiced and bringing new people to the class, like native speakers can increase the interest of the pupils. Telling own experiences are also a source of approaching to the other culture.
Other common resource is, of course, the blackboard, which can be used as a TV program, writing down on it the date and current subject. it is important to plan what we are going to write before doing it, and to erase the remaining notes of the former class. Any drawing or writing must be done big and clear enough for everyone to see it, and ordered in a logical way. Attracting the attention of the students is one of the most important tasks, and learning how to do easy drawings, can help us. for this reason, we should avoid writing on it for a long time; we can ask the pupils to participate by repeating what is being written, and it is very important not to talk "to the board", but turn to the pupils to do so.
We should also use the eraser instead of writing in small gaps -for the sake of clarity.
Another hint is to use color chalk to stress any element we want to focus on, like prepositions within a sentence, for instance. Writing the answers of the activities is helpful, since encourages the use of our visual memory -and then it can also be read more times, and finally the pupils can be asked to use it, introducing some differences. The overhead projector has the same advantages of the blackboard, and some more, like the presentation of drawings or charts already prepared without losing time to do it in class. It is also useful that parts of books or notes can be reproduced, and a paper used to keep the focus or hide answers.
Flash cards can be extremely helpful if correctly used; word cards containing one single word can be ordered to build sentences and make transformations from affirmative to negative and interrogative. Group work can also be promoted with activities like a contest to write the longest sentence. In the other hand, with picture cards we can practice drills, by showing them in structures of the kind "he's got a..." If the cards represent famous characters, we can practice the physical descriptions, or play to guess whom the card represents. They can also be used to form a story, or to order them according to it. In the same way, wall charts are a useful visual input. Slides, though not so popular are also good devices for their easy change and store. They are especially useful to show images of the other culture, the cities, typical features of Great Britain or USA or any other English speaking country, or even to show drawings to write about. One of the most popular resources is the video, since it is a good motivating force, because it provides a closer approach to reality through the ear and eye and keeps the students active. A presentation of the projection through a previous activity will connect the visualization with a previous experience, and some exercises can be proposed to keep an active and comprehensive observation, like multiple choice question. The tape can represent communicative situations, like asking for addresses, where some cultural differences can also be perceived and explained.
Other controlled linguistic practices can be the repetition of drills, trying to predict what it is going to happen in the projection, dramatizing or dubbing the dialogues, or ways of using the indirect speech, making a summary of the plot or practicing vocabulary or certain linguistic elements. These practices can also be applied when watching a theatre play in the l2, although it is usually quite difficult to find.
Dramatizations implicate the pupils directly, raise their self-stem and make them have a positive attitude to learning the l2. They are especially useful for developing oral communication and practicing the four skills. Computers are becoming increasingly popular for TEFL for its exclusive advantages: they allow a kind of interaction -with a program- and the process of learning is suitable for everybody, according to the studentÂ´s abilities in the area. As it implies an active working, it improves the assimilation of contents and creates an autonomous learning -the pupils learn to learn by themselves; also, the combination of the visual, sound and movement provides a very attractive presentation. Working with a computer may be similar to the textbook, but we can present the activity with a particular task, and test at the beginning and end, to check previous knowledge and learning. Graduated reading books are also very suitable, since they provide an individual access to culture in general, and develop reading skills, as well as an autonomous learning and an interest on reading. The reading must be comprehensive, not oral, and selected according to the possible motivations of the pupils and the topic we want to deal with. The evaluation of the readings can be done by true/false or multiple choice questions, giving answers to make questions on them, completing mutilated texts, translating, associating drawings to the text, ordering different excerpts, summarizing the plot, asking about vocabulary and for a personal opinion and evaluation. Games are also an important context to practice the l2, since it presents real communicative situations, not mere simulations, and have certain advantages: they encourage team work and the practice of all skills, the use of language in a creative way; they develop the communicative competence and stimulate the learning of a l2. Nonetheless, the game must be formed in the didactical unit, and the goals destined subjected to: the classroom and the pupils' number and the knowledge they have and interest and the available time and material. Some cool games are plays on words, table games, logical problems and action games. Finally, songs are one of the most successful resources, but must be selected carefully, according to the pupil's interest, needing, level of difficulty and motivation. a presentation must be done before, dealing with the theme of the song, the group, etc.
And, after it, some extension activities can be done, asking for relations between the pupil and the content, their opinion, and their account of similar situations. Discussing the theme can be motivating, and some exercises about pronunciation and vocabulary can be done.