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This chapter reveals the background of the study, research question, purpose of the study, the benefit of the study, and the related study. The explanation of these parts are presented below;
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Plagiarisms is an act copying another person work, writing idea and proclaim it. According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarize" means to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own to use (another's production) without crediting the source to commit literary theft to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. Moreover, According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file). We can make a conclusion from the statement above that plagiarism is dangerous academic acting which breaking the law.
However, students are not aware to this condition. They often think and assume plagiarism is the common condition.
Otherwise, in ideal condition the students must avoid plagiarism in their academic writing. In the same case, the English department students should concern in it. English department students have to avoid plagiarism in their work.
In fact, based on the informal observation and informal talk with the lecturer and the student, English department students still plagiarize in their work or assignment. Based on that condition researcher assume that English department student still make plagiarism in their thesis.
Dealing with this condition, researcher is willing in conducting this study to figure out how English department student plagiarize in their thesis.
Based on the background above the research questions are
What kinds of plagiarism are committed by English department student in their skripsi?
How do English department students' plagiarize in their skripsi?
Why do English department students commit plagiarism in their skripsi?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Based on the research questions above, the purposes of the study are:
To figure out the kinds of plagiarism ED students commit in their skripsi
To analyze the way English department student plagiarize in their skripsi
To find out the factors that influence ED students' plagiarism
BENEFIT OF THE STUDY
The results of the study are hoped to give an input for the institution, to enrich the research on plagiarism field, and to help student who are interested in conducting the related studies.
Plagiarism is related to an act of stealing someone's works, idea, and admitting that it's his or her own works or idea. The word plagiarism came from the word plagiary (1590-1600), and the latin word plagiÄrius which means kidnapper as cited in http//www.wikipedia.org/plagiarize/plagiarism. According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarize" means to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own to use (another's production) without crediting the source to commit literary theft to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. It can be conclude that plagiarism is taking another person work idea or writing without including credit of the owner. \
2.2 Kinds of plagiarism
Plagiarism can be divided into two types. They are deliberate and accidental plagiarism. 2.2.1 Deliberate plagiarism
As retrieved in http://www.georgebrown.ca/saffairs/stusucc/plagiarism/whatisitallabout.aspx. deliberate plagiarism is an act submitting or using someone work that is not their own. Deliberate plagiarism appeared when the students know that they submit or use someone' work. Some of example of deliberate plagiarism are
Buying or obtaining a paper from a research service, paper mill, website or other source
In this case, deliberate plagiarism appear because of brand new technology. Students can easily get the paper or the work from internet. Somehow, as retrieved in http//www.detik.com/penjualan+skripsi there are group of people or company that sold the CD that contain thousand thesis. People who want to buy just need Rp 75.000 to get it.
Handing in another student's work with or without the student's knowledge
This example seems like a thief. Sometimes the deadline force the students theft someone work and submit it as his own.
Copying passages from another's work and including it in your work without citation (cut and paste from websites)
Practically, using citation are difficult for several students. Students which has lack knowledge about citation is difficult use citation in their sources the do not know how use citation, so they only copy paste from the website.
Copying passages from another's work and modifying them by replacing select words and not acknowledging the source
Same like explanation above, this happens when students has no knowledge about citation. In other line, laziness is also main factor that influence students to do this.
Using an online translation service to translate an assignment from one language to another in a course such as French or Spanish
In the internet era, it is very easy to find the work in the internet from another country. Search engine like yahoo, google, ask etc make students easy to get the resources or work. The students just enter the keyword, then the work they want appear.
Including in your work others' graphs, charts, graphics, photographs, video, audio or any multimedia without crediting the original author.
Moreover, as retrieved in http://www.library.ualberta.ca/guides/plagiarism/terminology/index.cfm, Waltman describes intentional plagiarism as "the wholesale copying of another's paper with the intention of representing it as one's own" (Lathrop and Foss 163). In addition, the definition of deliberate or intentional plagiarism includes the theft of another person's ideas.
We can conclude that deliberate plagiarism is buying a work, using another person work to submitting it as its own work.
2.2.3 Accidental plagiarism
Accidental plagiarism is different from deliberate plagiarism, as retrieved in http://www.georgebrown.ca/saffairs/stusucc/plagiarism/whatisitallabout.aspx Accidental Plagiarism occurs when students mistakenly do not credit their sources. Some examples of accidental plagiarism:
Using the source material too closely when paraphrasing
Paraphrase is a restatement of a text in another form or other words, often to simplify or clarify meaning. There are some techniques in paraphrasing. The technique is purposed to avoid plagiarism. In this case, the students skills in paraphrase determine whether they plagiarize or not.
Taking another's idea and building on it without crediting the original source
Having a person edit your work and allowing the person to substantially change the work by inserting ideas or words that are not your own
Copying passages from another's work and including it in your work without citation
Copying passages from another's work and modifying them by replacing select words and not acknowledging the source
In the same line, Bauer and Moriyama (2004) Accidental plagiarism can occur when students do not fully understand what documentation is and how to do it. Bauer and Moriyama also stated the example of accidental plagiarism:
Papers written from source materials which are never mentioned in the text and are not listed in a bibliography or works cited page are plagiarized. All writers are required to give credit where credit is due.
Papers which have references to sources in the text but no bibliography or works cited page are also plagiarized. One of the purposes of documentation is to aid readers who wish to study the same subject. Writers are expected to provide a full bibliographic reference for sources used.
Papers which have the bibliography/work cited page but no references to sources in the text are also unacceptable. Writers are expected to show which ideas came from which sources.
As a conclusion, accidental plagiarism is occurs when the writer do not aware with the rule of taking someone idea, or even accidentally take the someone theory to their own advantages.
Another kind of minor plagiarism which committed by students is called "Copy & Paste Plagiarism," but that is only the most obvious kind. In what follows, (Barnbaum, 2007) give a brief description of each kind of plagiarism. The first of all is copy and paste plagiarism. This is simple action by taking word or important phrase without any quotation mark and reference sources. Second, word switch is an action copying a sentence and revise it in few words. Next is style plagiarism, this kind plagiarism rather different from another plagiarism, it is because that a source article is used to support or improve the points the writer try to write.
Thesis or skripsi in Indonesia is the part of academic writing. According to (I made Wirartha, 2006) skripsi adalah karya tulis ilmiah seorang mahasiswa dalam menyelesaikan program S 1. Moreover, wirartha also define that skripsi is an academicals proof for the students on research they have done., (Djarwanto, 2006) defines skripsi as a result of scientific study by student based on their research, the data of the research is based on the analysis of primer and secondary data.
We can conclude from the statement above that skripsi as a scientific study to fulfils S1 degree requirement, the result of the study is based on the analytical research data.
Skripsi has a pattern structure that must be followed, but in a certain faculty, there are some variations about the structure of the skripsi. However, all of variation has similarities of its structure, the differences of each style are on the place of main structure. The main structure of the skripsi are abstract, acknowledgment, introduction, literature review, research methodology, data description, findings, and discussion, conclusion, suggestion, recommendation and references.
Typically, English department of state university of Jakarta uses a pattern structure in thesis. The following main structures are:
Finding and discussion
Conclusion, suggestion and recommendation
This chapter reveals the methodology used by the researcher, including research design, time, place and the subject of the study, data collection process and data analysis.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
The study is focused to analyze how English department student plagiarize in their thesis, so the method that will be used in this study is descriptive analysis.
The result of the study does not interfere the thesis researcher observed. Researcher conducts this study just to analyze how English department students plagiarize in their thesis and find out what kind plagiarism apply in their thesis. Moreover, this study also figures out what factors that influence English department students' plagiarism.
The researcher focuses on chapter I and chapter 2. It is based on the hypothesis that students are commonly plagiarize in chapter one and chapter two.
This study uses two kind data collection methods. They are document study and description and interview. Document study is conducted to analyze English department thesis and to figure out what kind of plagiarism that English department student done in their thesis. The interview is designed to get the information about what factors that influence plagiarism in their thesis. Thesis analysis and interview will be analyzed with descriptive analysis.
Descriptive analytical interpretative
The study used a descriptive analytical interpretive method. Yin cited in Tunisa (2008), Ardi (2009), and Stephanie (2009) mentioned that descriptive cases require that the writer begins with a descriptive theory, or face the possibility that problems will occur during the project. Surakhmad (1990:140) stated two features of descriptive study:
Memusatkan diri pada pemecahan masalah-masalah yang ada pada masa sekarang, pada masalah-masalah aktual
Data yang dikumpulkan mula-mula disusun, dijelaskan dan kemudian dianalisa (karenaitu metode in sering pula disebut metode analitik. Surakhmad (1990:140)
It can be concluded that to implement descriptive study, the study has to (1) focus on solving the past and actual issues then (2) the collected data is ordered, explained, and then analyzed (that is why this is often called an analytical method).
Geoff Walsham said on his presentation that according to Orlikowski and Baroudi (1991) interpretive studies assume that people cerate and associate their own subjective and intersubjective meanings as they interact with the world around them. Interpretive researchers thus attempt to understand phenomena through accessing the meanings participants assign to them. This definition is based on the ground that:
The interpretive research approach towards the relationship between theory and practice is that the researcher can never assume a value-neutral stance, and is always implicated in the phenomena being studied.
There is no direct access to reality unmediated by language and preconception.
Walsham (1993) himself states that interpretive methods of research start from the position that our knowledge of reality, including the domain of human action, is a social construction by human actors and that this applies equally to researchers. Thus there is no (santo, 2009)objective reality which can be discovered by researchers and replicated by others, in contrast to the assumptions of positive science.
The population of the study is the whole of English department thesis. The total participant is 50 theses, 10 theses from year 2009, 10 theses from year 2008, 10 theses from year 2007, 10 theses from year 2006, and 10 theses from year 2005 both dik and non-dik.
The samples of the study are the thesis from graduated student's year 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, and 2005.
4. Site and place
The study will be conducted at library of English department of state university of Jakarta.
Two kinds of instruments are designed for data collection process. They are document study and interview.
The document study
Document study is used to analyze the students' skripsi. More over it will be used to answer: How English department students' plagiarize in their thesis? And what kind of plagiarism do English department student apply in their thesis
Interview is one kind of instrument that used to collect the data. Interview utilized to answer the research question of the thesis. The research question is what factors that influence the students plagiarize in their thesis.
DATA COLLECTION PROCESS
The data collection process will be conducted on desember 2009 until april 2010. The data in this study consist of information that collected by document study and interview. the collection data use document study. Meanwhile the data from interview will be done by taking notes (face-to-face) and sending via e-mail.
The researcher analyzes the data by following steps. First, researcher analyzes using document study guidance in the ED student's skripsi. Then the data will be collected and calculated. Next, the researcher interview the graduated ED student to gather the data.