Oral Communication in English in Malaysian Context

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INTRODUCTION

People need to communicate with each other and they communicate with lots of people in a day period. The relationships between these people and the person individually changes so there are lots of communication kinds and distances between these people and the person. People always needs to communicate with each other even they don't know each other. Speaking, telling our needs and wants verbally, non verbally or in a written way is the basic need of our daily life.

Communication is a process whereby meaning is defined and shared between living organisms. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication, thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender.

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Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication.

Human spoken and picture languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties, although many of these include exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.

THE ORAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, typically relies on both words, visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of the meaning. Oral communication includes discussion, speeches, presentations, interpersonal communication and many other varieties. In face to face communication the body language and voice tonality plays a significant role and may have a greater impact on the listener than the intended content of the spoken words.

A great presenter must capture the attention of the audience and connect with them. For example, out of two persons telling the same joke one may greatly amuse the audience due to his body language and tone of voice while the second person, using the exact same words, bores and irritates the audience. Visual aid can help to facilitate effective communication and is almost always used in presentations for an audience.

A widely cited and widely misinterpreted figure used to emphasize the importance of delivery states that communication comprise 55% body language, 38% tone of voice, 7% content of words, the so-called "7%-38%-55% rule". This is not however what the cited research shows - rather, when conveying emotion, if body language, tone of voice, and words disagree, then body language and tone of voice will be believed more than words. For example, a person saying "I'm delighted to meet you" while mumbling, hunched over, and looking away will be interpreted as insincere.

Example of Oral Communication Process must have -

The Sender Receiver Model

Process Encoding- The sender generates and encodes thoughts to be conveyed. Noises from outside may disturb the encoding, which may alter the meaning.

Transmission- the encoded message gets transmitted to the receiver.

Receiving and Decoding- The receiver accepts the messages and he/she then assigns meaning to the message and sends feedback to the sender.

Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another and have a shared history. It can involve one on one conversations or individuals interacting with many people within a society. It helps us understand how and why people behave and communicate in different ways to construct and negotiate a social reality. While interpersonal communication can be defined as its own area of study, it also occurs within other contexts like groups and organizations. Effective interpersonal communication helps us express ourselves and share our thoughts with the people around us. Here are the various channels of communication that can be used in interpersonal communication - oral communication (speaking face-to-face or on the phone), written communication (writing emails, letters, instant messaging and sms)

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and visual communication (body Language or sign language).

Interpersonal communication includes message sending and message reception between two or more individuals. This can include all aspects of communication such as listening, persuading, asserting, nonverbal communication, and more. A primary concept of interpersonal communication looks at communicative acts when there are few individuals involved unlike areas of communication such as group interaction, where there may be a large number of individuals involved in a communicative act.

Individuals also communicate on different interpersonal levels depending on who they are engaging in communication with. For example, if an individual is communicating with a family member, that communication will more than likely differ from the type of communication used when engaged in a communicative act with a friend or significant other.

Overall, interpersonal communication can be conducted using both direct and indirect mediums of communication such as face-to-face interaction, as well as computer-mediated-communication. Successful interpersonal communication assumes that both the message senders and the message receivers will interpret and understand the messages being sent on a level of understood meanings and implications.

SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATIONS

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Small group communication is, of course, the communication that is carried out within a small group. A small group is generally defined as a group that consists of at least three members and at the maximum around twelve to fifteen members. A group that has just two members or more than fifteen members would not come in the category of a small group.

A small group may be a professional group, an educational group or a social group.

This is example for types of small group communication.

Information-Sharing Groups

When a task group is formed in the class, students begin sharing information to complete assignments for the class. This group setting is starting to look similar to the information-sharing groups. Tips, facts, insight, and other things are shared from one person to the next person. The purpose of an information-sharing group is to share knowledge and gain new skills or information.

Brainstorming Groups

There are also multiple brain storming groups in the distance learning. Tutors will often choose a topic and ask for people to brainstorm about it and then post their ideas and thoughts to a forum. Brainstorming can happen in information-sharing groups and any other online classroom group.

Chat Groups

Each online classroom area normally utilizes the typical chat room format that is seen all over the Internet. Some colleges like OUM use forum, chatting or email for the online classroom. However, even though these are similar to online chat groups, there is no resemblance besides that. Chat groups are a social setting for people to interact with others on a more personal level.

Small group communication includes staff meetings, working sessions, planning sessions, committee meetings and project team meetings and any other small group that meets and communicates. In small groups, a facilitator leads the discussion and the group participates as needed.

In a group, the individual is affected by the attitude of the leader and the attitude of other members of the group. The need to look good or avoid looking bad is stronger. People may also bring their own agendas to influence the group beyond the pre-established group goals. Individuals may also tend to agree with the group to avoid confrontations.

PUBLIC COMMUNICATION

Public communications is often thought of as public relations or mass communications. Public communication graduates communicate with a broad scope of people, through public speaking, TV, radio, newspaper, and every other form of mass media. Public communication is the idea of expressing an idea to many people at the same time. Public communications can center a small audience or a large crowd, a TV camera or a radio. All organizations, public and private, must maintain effective relationships with a wide variety of groups and individuals. These relationships require thoughtful use of print and spoken word. Public communication is opposed to private communication. A type of communication with the people in generate including a particular section of people. A way of transmitting message to the public. As the name suggests, a piece of public information, is the subject matter of which concerns the public and is, therefore, of public interest or importance. Consequently, public communications students study how information is communicated to many segments of society, including consumers, government officials, community organizations, employees, investors and the media. They learn how to assist their organizations in structuring public opinion and in addressing the organization's social responsibilities. They learn how to frame messages and communication strategies in ways that mutually benefit their organizations and the public.

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CONCLUSION

As a professional, you must communicate with people all the time. The following techniques can improve your effectiveness such as like listen closely to what the speaker is saying. Listen for the main ideas being communicated; don't outline or look only for facts. Identify the filters you have as a listener, and suspend judgment until the other person has finished talking. Jot down notes of significant information, but be sure to explain why you're doing so. Ask open-ended questions that can't be answered by 'yes' or 'no,' that encourage input. For example, ask the speaker how he or she came to a conclusion,, or where to go next with an idea, Don't answer too quickly, Silence allows a thoughtful response, Don't interrupt or do all the talking, Don't state opinions as facts. Use good nonverbal communication that will put the other person at ease. Make eye contact, and nod and smile to support the speaker. Use jargon only when you know the listener understands it, be honest and respectful when you talk or write to someone. As much as possible, keep your comments constructive. A good question to ask yourself is, "Will what I am about to say help this person?" Performance improves most when specific goals are discussed and set, and least when it is criticized.try to keep your writing short, simple, strong and sincere and plan for communication.