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In the context of Malaysia, oral communication in English essential to a group of English teachers in English schools tinggi.Bahasa is an international language that is very important to respect other nations, both with local communities and with people outside world. Although Bahasa Malaysia is the official language and national language but English is very important to the nation. The use of English enables people and countries have a broader international and receptive to information. This indirectly accelerate the development of the country. In addition, progress is achieved more quickly if the communication in the English went well with the developed countries. With this, the excellence of an individual depends on the level of English proficiency. Thus, English is the language that is very important in knowledge, international communications, technology, and business.
Small groups can dedifinisikan as any collection of individuals who touch each other for a particular purpose and have a degree of organization among them. Most researchers define a small group should be composed of at least three members and no more than twelve or fifteen members.
If a member of a group that fewer than 3, the diad is easy to apply and when a member of more than 12 people were the group will have trouble.
In small groups, each group member must be free to interact and be open to all members of the group. Each team member must have a purpose or a common goal and they should work together to achieve that goal.
Culture comes from the Javanese word "culture". The word culture is the result of combining the words "Budhi" and "power." The word "Budhi" is borrowed from the Sanskrit language mediators fitness of mind and intellect, while the "power" is a Malay word meaning Polynesia 'authorized strength, power and influence. " When combined the word "culture" is to mean 'power of mind, spirit or energy of moving the soul'.
(Malay Cultural Studies, 1963)
Dedifinisikan culture as a way of life which is made by people who are members of certain groups and include elements of social systems, organizational structures of economic, political, religious, beliefs, customs, attitudes, values, cultural tools such as those generated by community members .
(Society and Culture, 2001)
Generally speaking, culture is a way of life practiced by an individual or group of individuals (society). It includes various tools that are created and used, ways of thinking and beliefs passed down from generation to generation. Culture does not only refer to the heritage, ethnicity or race, but it is also determined by age, gender, age, lifestyle and economic status.
Social groups and relationships (Primary Groups)
The Group is the first time in life as we join the family system, a group of friends at school, or maybe our neighbors. Most times this group provides the communication needs for affiliation (affiliation), authentication (Affirmation) and affection (affection). This type of group on a more informal.
Working Group / Task (Secondary Groups)
This group was formed to solve a thing. When a task successfully completed the group will be disbanded. This type of group on a more formal and the rewards will be received as a result of completion of a task.
Group Reference and Membership (Reference and Membership Groups)
The group we got and learn the values and norms of behavior we are. It merukapan a standard (standard) for us to compare ourselves. In other words, we assess our successes and failures based on results given by all members of the reference group. Reference group may be primary or secondry.
Group that is accompanied by an individual. However, her participation in the bukanlan kumplan intended to be the benchmark. Participation is simply penyetaan alone. For example, penyeraan an individual in uniform units sometimes just to meet alone.
Factors of small group communication problems
Gender aspects are important elements in determining the value, actions and way of life. In many communities, members are given certain privileges and recognition based on gender. Thus, gender becomes a key determinant of the tasks and roles assigned. For example, in Malay society, men are given priority to be a leader or leaders, especially in families and small groups. In a small group of men usually like to dominate the group and its members, but the problems that exist in small groups are often created by men.
The practice or habit is the basis of the so-called tradition. It refers to the procedure to do something that is followed by every member of the group concerned and for generations. For example, in each of the ethnic cultural groups, there are certain procedures (traditional) to celebrate births, marriages and deaths. Is closely related to traditional taboos. Every human community to impose rules (taboos) to control the behavior of certain members. Taboo is actually a manifestation of what is important for each group.
Religion and beliefs
Religion is a very important element in determining the values, actions and way of life or a daily practice. Religion and beliefs covering every aspect of human life. Religion is to limit the behavior and social relations between men, as well as the relationship with the Creator and nature. Belief refers to the social taboos that guide members in their interaction with others. Often occurs pertindangan between these two kinds of taboos. However, what is important is both the religious taboos and social taboos to limit the actions and behavior of individuals and groups.
Language and communication polar
Language and communication pole will be created when there is a human community. Thus, the human community setiapa has its own language. Language plays a critical role in cultural identity as the cultural bahasalah down from generation to generation. The expression "soul language of the Nation" show the language is the heart of a race (ethnicity). Language refers to how we display ourselves. Includes aspects of oral language, aspects of writing and no verbal aspects. In small groups, the language often causes the problem because sometimes the language used by a different member of the language used by the others causing the intended meaning is difficult to understand. Language is also often carry a different meaning according to their cultural understanding.
Judging from the types of interaction in communication, communication can be distinguished in three categories: interpersonal communication, small group communication and public communication.
What is Interpersonal Communication:
Interpersonal communication is the exchange of information among persons with at least one or the other usually between two people who can immediately known balikannya. (Muhammad, 2005, p.158-159).
According Devito (1989), interpersonal communication is the delivery of messages by one person and receiving a message by another person or a small group of people, with different effects and the opportunity to provide immediate feedback (Effendy, 2003, p. 30).
Interpersonal Communication is communication between people in face to face, which allows each participant to catch other people's reactions directly, either verbal or nonverbal. Interpersonal Communication is communication that only two people, such as husband and wife, two colleagues, two close friends, teachers, students and others (Mulyana, 2000, p. 73)
According to Effendi, the essence of interpersonal communication is the communication between the communicator with communicant, communication is considered the most effective type of effort to change attitudes, opinions or behavior of a person, because of its dialogic form of conversation. Reverse flow is a direct, communicators know the communicants at that as well. At the launch of communications, communicators know for sure whether positive or negative communication, successful or not. If he could give the communicant to the opportunity to ask the widest (Sunarto, 2003, p. 13).
Classification of Interpersonal Communication
Redding quoted Muhammad (2004, p. 159-160) developed a classification of interpersonal communication to the intimate interaction, social conversation, interrogation or examination and interview.
a. Intimate interaction, including communication between friends, family members, and those who already have a strong emotional bond.
b. Interaction of social conversation is simply to please someone. Type of face to face communication essential to the development of informal relationships within the organization. For example, two or more people together and talk about the attention, interests external to the organization as a political issue, technology and others.
c. Interrogation or inspection is an interaction between a person who is in control, is requested or even demanded information from the other. For example, an employee accused of taking the goods, the organization will menginterogasinya superiors to know the truth.
d) The interview is one form of interpersonal communication in which two people engage in conversation in the form of questions and answers. For example, a boss who interviewed his subordinates to seek information about a job.
The purpose of Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication may have several purposes. Here will be posted 6 goals, among others (Muhammad, 2004, p. 165-168):
a. Finding Yourself
One goal of interpersonal communication was found personal or private. When we engage in interpersonal meetings with other people we learned a lot about ourselves and others.
Interpersonal Communication provides an opportunity for us to talk about what we like, or about ourselves. It is very interesting and exciting when discussing feelings, thoughts, and our own behavior. By talking about ourselves with others, we provide an incredible source of feedback on the feelings, thoughts, and our behavior.
b. Discovering The World Outdoors
Interpersonal communication only makes us to understand more about ourselves and others who communicate with us. A lot of information that we know comes from interpersonal communication, although many of the amount of information that comes to us from the mass media that is often discussed, and finally learned
or discovered through interpersonal interaction.
c. Develop and Maintain Relationships The Full Meaning
One of the biggest desire is to form and maintain relationships with others. A lot of times we use in interpersonal communication to establish and maintain the permanence of social relationships with others.
d. Changing Attitudes and Behavior
Many times we use to change the attitudes and behaviors of others by interpersonal encounter. We can wish they chose a particular way, such as trying a new diet, buy a certain item, see the film, wrote the book to read, to enter certain areas and believe that something is true or false. We have a lot of
the time period involved in the interpersonal position.
e. To Play And Pleasure
Playing covers all activities that have the main goal is to find pleasure. Talking with friends about our activities during the weekend, discussing the sport, telling stories and funny stories in general it is a conversation to pass the time. With that kind of interpersonal communication can provide an important balance in mind the need relax from all the seriousness in our environment.
f. To assist
The members of the psychiatric, clinical psychologist and therapist menggunakkan interpersonal communication in their professional activities to direct clients. We all also work to help others in our interpersonal interactions daily. We consulted with a friend who dropped out of love, in consultation with the student on a course that should be taken and so forth.
Interpersonal Communication Effectiveness
Interpersonal Communication Effectiveness started with five general quality to be considered: transparency (inclusive, and accountable), empathy (empathy), the attitude of support (supportiveness), positive (positiveness), and equality (equality). (Devito, 1997, p.259-264) .
1. Openness (inclusive, and accountable)
Quality of disclosure based on at least three aspects of interpersonal communication. First, effective interpersonal communicators should be open to the people who interact diajaknya. This does not mean that people should immediately open up all the history hidupnya.memang may attract, but usually does not help communication. Instead, there must be a willingness to open themselves to disclose information that is usually hidden, so long as the disclosure itself is worth.
The second aspect of transparency refers to the willingness of communicators to respond honestly to the next stimulus. People who live, are not critical, and no response in general is a dreary conversation participants. We want people to react publicly to what we say. And we are entitled to expect this. There is nothing worse than a lack acuhan, even ketidaksependapatan much more enjoyable.
We show openness to spontaneously react the way for others.
The third aspect concerning the "ownership" feelings and thoughts (Bochner and Kelly, 1974). Open in this sense is acknowledged that feelings and thoughts that you throw is really yours and you are responsible for it. The best way to express this responsibility is the message that using the word I (first person singular pronoun).
2. Empathy (empathy)
Henry Backrack (1976) defines empathy as "the ability to 'know' what is being experienced by others at a certain moment, from the viewpoint of the other person, through the eyes of other people." Sympathy, on the other is the feeling of others or go to feel grief. While empathy is to feel something like a person who experienced it, is in the same boat and feel the same feeling the same way.
Empathic person is able to understand the motivations and experiences of others, feelings and attitudes, as well as their hopes and wishes for the future.
We are able to communicate empathy, both verbal and non verbal. In nonverbal, to communicate our empathy by showing (1) active engagement with people through facial expressions and gestures are appropriate, (2) includes a centralized concentration komtak eyes, attentive posture, and physical proximity, and (3) touch or caress the proper.
3. The attitude of support (supportiveness)
Effective interpersonal relationship is a relationship where there is the attitude of support (supportiveness). The formulation of a concept based on the work of Jack Gibb. Open communication and empathic can not take place in an environment that does not support. We showed the attitude to be supported by (1) descriptive, not evaluative, (2) spontaneous, non-strategic, and (3) provisional, not very confident.
4. Positive attitude (positiveness)
We communicate a positive attitude in interpersonal communication with at least two ways: (1) express a positive attitude, and (2) positively encourages people to interact with our friends. A positive attitude based on at least two aspects of interpersonal communication. First, interpersonal communication, if someone has developed a positive attitude toward themselves.
Second, positive feelings to the situation of communication in general is very important for effective interaction. Nothing is more fun than to communicate with people who do not enjoy the interaction or does not react favorably to the situation or environment interactions.
5. Equality (Equality)
In each situation, perhaps there inequality. One may be more clever. Richer, more handsome or beautiful, or more athletic than others. There was never any two people who truly equivalent in all respects. Regardless of this inequality, interpersonal communication is more effective when the atmosphere is equivalent. It means that, should there be recognition of the quiet that both parties equally valued and valuable, and that each party has something important to contribute.
In an interpersonal relationship characterized by equality, non-conflict sependapatan and more viewed as an attempt to understand the difference there than as a chance to drop the lain.kesetaraan does not require us to accept and approve it for granted all the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of others. Equality means that we accept the other party, or pursuant to the terms Carl rogers, equality require us to give "unconditional positive appreciation" to others.