When we refer in the question context, “oral communication in english: forms, functions, and strategies to a group of english language instructors at a local college/university”, the first think in our mind is oral communication Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast online in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender. Communication as an academic discipline, sometimes called “communicology, relates to all the ways we communicate, so it embraces a large body of study and knowledge. The communication discipline includes both verbal and nonverbal messages. A body of scholarship all about communication is presented and explained in textbooks, electronic publications, and academic journals. In the journals, researchers report the results of studies that are the basis for an ever-expanding understanding of how we all communicate. Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the different parameters of human symbolic interaction.
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2.0 The Oral Communication Process
According to Shannon’s (1948) model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field. It provided, for the first time, a general model of the communication process that could be treated as the common ground of such diverse disciplines as journalism, rhetoric, linguistics, and speech and hearing sciences. Part of its success is due to its structuralist reduction of communication to a set of basic constituents that not only explain how communication happens, but why communication sometimes fails. Good timing played a role as well. The world was barely thirty years into the age of mass radio, had arguably fought a world war in its wake, and an even more powerful, television, was about to assert itself. It was time to create the field of communication as a unified discipline, and Shannon’s model was as good an excuse as any. The model’s enduring value is readily evident in introductory textbooks. It remains one of the first things most students learn about communication when they take an introductory communication class. Indeed, it is one of only a handful of theoretical statements about the communication process that can be found in introductory textbooks in both mass communication and interpersonal communication (http://davis.foulger.info/research/unifiedModelOfCommunication.htm)
Shannon’s (1948) Model of the communication process
The ecological model of communication, shown in Figure 6, attempts to provide a platform on which these issues can be explored. It asserts that communication occurs in the intersection of four fundamental constructs: communication between people (creators and consumers) is mediated by messages which are created using language within media; consumed from media and interpreted using language.This model is, in many ways, a more detailed elaboration of Lasswell’s (1948) classic outline of the study of communication: “Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect”. In the ecological model, the “who” are the creators of messages, the “says what” are the messages, the “in which channel” is elaborated into languages (which are the content of channels) and media (which channels are a component of), the “to whom” are the consumers of messages, and the effects are found in various relationships between the primitives, including relationships, perspectives, attributions, interpretations, and the continuing evolution of languages and media.
It is in this layering of interdependent social construction that this model picks up its name. Our communication is not produced within any single system, but in the intersection of several interrelated systems, each of which is self-standing necessarily described by dedicated theories, but each of which is both the product of the others and, in its own limited way, an instance of the other. The medium is, as McLuhan famously observed, a message that is inherent to every message that is created in or consumed from a medium. The medium is, to the extent that we can select among media, also a language such that the message of the medium is not only inherent to a message, but often an element of its composition. In what may be the most extreme view enabled by the processing of messages within media, the medium may also be a person and consumes messages, recreates them, and makes the modified messages available for further consumption. A medium is really none of these things. It is fundamentally a system that enables the construction of messages using a set of languages such that they can be consumed. But a medium is also both all of these things and the product of their interaction. People learn, create, and evolve media as a vehicle for enabling the creation and consumption of messages.
The same might be said of each of the constituents of this model. People can be, and often are, the medium (insofar as they act as messengers), the language (insofar as different people can be selected as messengers), or the message (one’s choice of messenger can be profoundly meaningful). Fundamentally a person is none of these things, but they can be used as any of these things and are the product of their experience of all of these things. Our experience of messages, languages, media, and through them, other people, is fundamental in shaping who we become and how we think of ourselves and others. We invent ourselves, and others work diligently to shape that invention, through our consumption of messages, the languages we master, and the media we use.
Language can be, and often are, the message (that is inherent to every message constructed with it), the medium (but only trivially), the person (both at the level of the “language instinct” that is inherent to people (following Pinker, xxxxx) and a socialized semiotic overlay on personal experience), and even “the language” (insofar as we have a choice of what language we use in constructing a given message). Fundamentally a language is none of these things, but it can be used as any of these things and is the product of our use of media to construct messages. We use language, within media, to construct messages, such as definitions and dictionaries) that construct language. We invent and evolve language as a product of our communication.
As for messages, they reiterate all of these constituents. Every message is a partial and incomplete precis of the language that it is constructed with, the medium it is created in and consumed from, and the person who created it. Every message we consume allows us to learn a little more about the language that we interpret with, the medium we create and consume messages in, and the person who created the message. Every message we create is an opportunity to change and extend the language we use, evolve the media we use, and influence the perspective that consumers of our messages have of us. Yet fundamentally, a message is simply a message, an attempt to communicate something we imagine such that another person can correctly intepret the message and thus imagine the same thing.
This welter of intersecting McLuhanesque and interdependencies provides a second source of the models name. This model seeks, more than anything, to position language and media as the intermediate building blocks on which communication is built. The position of language as a building block of messages and and communication is well understood. Over a century of study in semantics, semiotics, and linguistics have produced systematic theories of message and language production which are well understood and generally accepted. The study of language is routinely incorporated into virtually all programs in the field of communication, including journalism, rhetoric and speech, film, theater, broadcast media, language arts, speech and hearing sciences telecommunications, and other variants, including departments of “language and social interaction”. The positioning of the study of media within the field of communication is considerably more tenuous. Many departments, including most of those named in this paragraph, focus almost entirely on only one or two media, effectively assuming the medium such that the focus of study can be constrained to the art of message production and interpretation, with a heavy focus on the languages of the medium and little real introspection about what it means to use that medium in preference to another or the generalized ways in which all media are invented, learned, evolved, socialized, selected or used meaningfully. Such is, however, the primary subject matter of the newly emerging discipline of media ecology, and this model can be seen as an attempt to position media ecology relative to language and messages as a building block of our communication. This model was created specifically to support theories of media and position them relative to the process of communication. It is hoped that the reader finds value in that positioning
3.0 Interpersonal Communication
Judging from the types of interaction in communication, communication can be distinguished in three categories: interpersonal communication, small group communication and public communication in Malaysia context. What is Interpersonal Communication: Interpersonal communication is the exchange of information among persons with at least one or the other usually between two people who can immediately know. According Devito (1989), interpersonal communication is the delivery of messages by one person and receiving a message by another person or a small group of people, with different effects and the opportunity to provide immediate feedback. Interpersonal Communication is communication between people in face to face, which allows each participant to catch other people’s reactions directly, either verbal or nonverbal. Interpersonal Communication is communication that only two people, such as husband and wife, two colleagues, two close friends, teachers, students and others.
Interpersonal communication is the communication between the communicator with communicant, communication is considered the most effective type of effort to change attitudes, opinions or behavior of a person, because of its dialogic form of conversation. At the launch of communications, communicators know for sure whether positive or negative communication, successful or not. If he could give the communicant to the opportunity to ask the widest. Classification of Interpersonal Communication developed a classification of interpersonal communication to the intimate interaction, social conversation, interrogation or examination and interview.
Intimate interaction, including communication between friends, family members, and those who already have a strong emotional bond.
Type of face to face communication essential to the development of informal relationships within the organization. For example, two or more people together and talk about the attention, interests external to the organization as a political issue, technology and others.
c) Interrogation or inspection is an interaction between a person who is in control, is requested or even demanded information from the other. For example, an employee accused of taking the goods, the organization will superiors to know the truth.
d) The interview is one form of interpersonal communication in which two people engage in conversation in the form of questions and answers. For example, a boss who interviewed his subordinates to seek information about a job.
3.1 The purpose of Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication may have several purposes.
One goal of interpersonal communication was found personal or private. When we engage in interpersonal meetings with other people we learned a lot about ourselves and others. Interpersonal Communication provides an opportunity for us to talk about what we like, or about ourselves. It is very interesting and exciting when discussing feelings, thoughts, and our own behavior. By talking about ourselves with others, we provide an incredible source of feedback on the feelings, thoughts, and our behavior.
Discovering The World Outdoors
Interpersonal communication only makes us to understand more about ourselves and others who communicate with us. A lot of information that we know comes from interpersonal communication, although many of the amount of information that comes to us from the mass media that is often discussed, and finally learned or discovered through interpersonal interaction.
Develop and Maintain Relationships
The Full Meaning One of the biggest desire is to form and maintain relationships with others. A lot of times we use in interpersonal communication to establish and maintain the permanence of social relationships with others.
Changing Attitudes and Behavior
Many times we use to change the attitudes and behaviors of others by interpersonal encounter. We can wish they chose a particular way, such as trying a new diet, buy a certain item, see the film, wrote the book to read, to enter certain areas and believe that something is true or false. We have a lot of the time period involved in the interpersonal position.
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To Play And Pleasure
Playing covers all activities that have the main goal is to find pleasure Talking with friends about our activities during the weekend, discussing the sport, telling stories and funny stories in general it is a conversation to pass the time. With that kind of interpersonal communication can provide an important balance in mind the need relax from all the seriousness in our environment.
The members of the psychiatric, clinical psychologist and therapist interpersonal communication in their professional activities to direct clients. We all also work to help others in our interpersonal interactions daily. We consulted with a friend who dropped out of love, in consultation with the student on a course that should be taken and so forth. Interpersonal Communication Effectiveness Interpersonal Communication Effectiveness started with five general quality to be considered: transparency (inclusive, and accountable), empathy , the attitude of support, and equality.
3.2 Openness (inclusive, and accountable)
Quality of disclosure based on at least three aspects of interpersonal communication. First, effective interpersonal communicators should be open to the people who interact . This does not mean that people should immediately open up all the history may attract, but usually does not help communication. Instead, there must be a willingness to open themselves to disclose information that is usually hidden, so long as the disclosure itself is worth. The second aspect of transparency refers to the willingness of communicators to respond honestly to the next stimulus. People who live, not critically, and no response in general is a dreary conversation participants. We want people to react publicly to what we say and we are entitled to expect this. There is nothing worse than a lack aeven much more enjoyable. We show openness to spontaneously react the way for others. The third aspect concerning the “ownership” feelings and thoughts. Open in this sense is acknowledged that feelings and thoughts that you throw is really yours and you are responsible for it. The best way to express this responsibility is the message that using the word.
Henry Backrack (1976) defines empathy as “the ability to ‘know’ what is being experienced by others at a certain moment, from the viewpoint of the other person, through the eyes of other people. Sympathy, on the other is the feeling of others or go to feel grief while empathy is to feel something like a person who experienced it, is in the same boat and feel the same feeling the same way. Empathic person is able to understand the motivations and experiences of others, feelings and attitudes, as well as their hopes and wishes for the future. In nonverbal, to communicate our empathy by showing (1) active engagement with people through facial expressions and gestures are appropriate, (2) includes a centralized concentration eyes, attentive posture, and physical proximity, and (3) touch or caress the proper.
The attitude of support (supportiveness)
Effective interpersonal relationship is a relationship where there is the attitude of support. The formulation of a concept based on the work of Jack Gibb. Open communication and empathic cannot take place in an environment that does not support. We showed the attitude to be supported by descriptive, not evaluative, spontaneous, non-strategic, and provisional, not very confident.
3.5 Positive attitude (positiveness)
We communicate a positive attitude in interpersonal communication with at least two ways: express a positive attitude, and positively encourages people to interact with our friends. A positive attitude based on at least two aspects of interpersonal communication. First, interpersonal communication, if someone has developed a positive attitude toward themselves. Second, positive feelings to the situation of communication in general is very important for effective interaction. Nothing is more fun than to communicate with people who do not enjoy the interaction or does not react favorably to the situation or environment interactions.
4.0 Small Group Communication
Small groups can as any collection of individuals who touch each other for a particular purpose and have a degree of organization among them. Most researchers define a small group should be composed of at least three members and no more than twelve or fifteen members. If a member of a group that fewer than 3,easy to apply and when a member of more than 12 people were the group will have trouble. In small groups, each group member must be free to interact and be open to all members of the group. Each team member must have a purpose or a common goal and they should work together to achieve that goal.
The word culture is the result of combining the words “Budhi” and “power.” The word “Budhi” is borrowed from the Sanskrit language mediators fitness of mind and intellect, while the “power” is a Malay word meaning Polynesia ‘authorized strength, power and influence. When combined the word “culture” is to mean power of mind, spirit or energy of moving the soul. Culture as a way of life which is made by people who are members of certain groups and include elements of social systems, organizational structures of economic, political, religious, beliefs, customs, attitudes, values, cultural tools such as those generated by community members. Generally speaking, culture is a way of life practiced by an individual or group of individuals (society). It includes various tools that are created and used, ways of thinking and beliefs passed down from generation to generation. Culture does not only refer to the heritage, ethnicity or race, but it is also determined by age, gender, age, lifestyle and economic status. The Group is the first time in life as we join the family system, a group of friends at school, or maybe our neighbors. Most times this group provides the communication needs for affiliation (affiliation), authentication (Affirmation) and affection (affection).
4.3 Working Group
This type of group on a more formal and the rewards will be received as a result of completion of a task. The group we got and learn the values and norms of behavior we are. It a standard (standard) for us to compare ourselves. In other words, we assess our successes and failures based on results given by all members of the reference group. Reference group may be primary or secondry. Group that is accompanied by an individual. However, her participation intended to be the benchmark. Participation is simply alone. For example, individual in uniform units sometimes just to meet alone.
Gender aspects are important elements in determining the value, actions and way of life. In many communities, members are given certain privileges and recognition based on gender. Thus, gender becomes a key determinant of the tasks and roles assigned. For example, in Malay society, men are given priority to be a leader or leaders, especially in families and small groups. In a small group of men usually like to dominate the group and its members, but the problems that exist in small groups are often created by men.
The practice or habit is the basis of the so-called tradition. It refers to the procedure to do something that is followed by every member of the group concerned and for generations. For example, in each of the ethnic cultural groups, there are certain procedures (traditional) to celebrate births, marriages and deaths. Every human community to impose rules (taboos) to control the behavior of certain members. Taboo is actually a manifestation of what is important for each group.
5.0 Public Communication
Communication is a complex process of exchanging messages through words, symbols, expressions and body language. Public communication involves the sending and receiving of messages on a large scale to and from the general public. Public communication includes mass media, public relations and public speaking, but can include any form of sending a message to a large group of people. Effective public communication is a skill that is learned and perfected over time. Public communication is the sending and receiving of messages on a large scale that impacts groups of people. For the communication to be considered effective, the messages must be clearly and accurately sent and received with full comprehension.
The purpose of effective public communication differs based on the intention of the message. For example, a public relations representative might use mass media to repair a company’s public image after an alleged scandal breaks out. In this situation, effective public communication is intended to inform the public. On the other hand, a billboard’s intention is to entice an audience to buy a product or service. Effective public communication is used to inform, educate, persuade and inspire the audience.
Effective public communication can manifest itself in different ways. Public speaking in any form is considered public communication. This can be a school assembly, a business meeting or a presidential speech at TV, radio, newspaper or any other mass-produced medium, is another type of effective public communication.
The result of effective public communication is the successful delivery of a message to a large group of people where each individual is impacted and moved to take action. Effective public communication is able to relate to the individual needs of the listeners while speaking to the masses. Effective public communication causes listeners to respond to the public communications message.
Effective public communication must refrain from biased words, philosophies and ideologies. For example, when the president is making a speech, his words and thoughts need to be portrayed in a universal way so that one group does not feel isolated or left out. Effective public communication keeps statements generic and neutral to gender, race and religious beliefs.
My conclusion for “Oral Communication in English: Forms, Functions, and Strategies in the Malaysian Context in short, the transmissive model is of little direct value to social science research into human communication, and its endurance in popular discussion is a real liability. Its reductive influence has implications not only for the commonsense understanding of communication in general, but also for specific forms of communication such as speaking and listening, writing and reading, watching television and so on. In education, it represents a similarly transmissive model of teaching and learning. And in perception in general, it reflects the naive ‘realist’ notion that meanings exist in the world awaiting only decoding by the passive spectator. In all these contexts, such a model underestimates the creativity of the act of interpretation. Alternatives to transmissive models of communication are normally described as constructivist: such perspectives acknowledge that meanings are actively constructed by both initiators and interpreters rather than simply ‘transmitted’. However, you will find no single, widely-accepted constructivist model of communication in a form like that of Shannon and Weaver’s block diagram. This is partly because those who approach communication from the constructivist perspective often reject the very idea of attempting to produce a formal model of communication. Where such models are offered, they stress the centrality of the act of making meaning and the importance of the socio-cultural context.
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