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MUSIC for Us
I believe that all of you already know about Music. Music is something important in our life. Every people in this world need music in their life, include us. Because music is already become the parts in our life who can not ignored by anything else. We also know so many musicians in the world. Beethoven and Mozart are the famous ones that dedicated their life in music. Britney Spears, Westlife, Celine Dion, Deep Purple, The Beatles, Ungu, and many more, are the examples that peoples who bind up in music. But have you really know and understand what is music exactly? What is the definition of music? What are the functions of music? As we know that music can affects our life. But what kinds of affects? We also know that music is the parts of Arts. Maybe it's easy to describe the materials of arts and architecture-wood, or stone, marble, oil canvas, bricks and mortar. Literature and poetry are formed by words. But what is music? Maybe you already know that many kinds of music today, but I think that's not explained what is music, we still not understand. So many perceptions and theories that try to explain what is music exactly. I have my own opinions and perceptions about music, maybe you too. And I want to share it by this paper. But not just from me, I have already looking for the materials that have relations about music in my research. Perhaps we can know more details what is music and the definitions of music by this one. I'm the one who like music very much, I always listen music in my daily activities. When I go to sleep, I always hear music to accompany me in my sleep. When I do work, like doing this paper, I listen music too. I think, when I listen music everything felt easy for me. But I'm not just the listener I can playing music instrument too. I prefer Guitar than the others music instrument. I learned it from my father, not just me but all of my brothers can do it too.
Ok, I will share my opinions about music as long as I know. I think music is the parts of Mystery. Because the Mystery is the main resource of Arts and Science, I believe that. Without mystery, peoples may not have interests to find the answers of all things that happened in their live and their environments. Music influences and attunes us with the mystery that resides within our depths. The healing power of music can awaken our patterns of wholeness and unleash our potential for becoming alive. Music, with its own special vocabulary of rhythm, melody, harmony, pitch, and tone, speaks directly to the unconscious. It makes the connection with deeply buried feelings and emotions by reaching the layers of the psyche, which are cut off from normal state of consciousness. Music is something that has tones that arranged into good compositions and then become output that we called sounds. The sounds then combined with each other then make good combinations that we called music. Music becomes the parts of people's life because it has some effects in their life. Music can affect peoples in different ways, or maybe in different situations or conditions in a directly or not. If we see, music can influences people in many shapes or types, it depends on their own sensitivity. That's my own opinions about music, but its better to us to know more explanations about music in the other sides. I mean from different resources or from the other people that have capabilities, especially about music. I have already looking for the materials and the resources in various sources that have relations in music. Not just explains what is music exactly, but its also explains the effects of music in our life in many sides. Let's see, perhaps it's important to us to know how music was first known by human. “The idea of music came from the bird singing.” I think that was right, it's reasonable for us. As we know that birds have the unique sounds. They have many kinds of sounds and each of birds have different sounds with each others. Maybe the most beautiful sound is Jalak Bali bird. But that's just my opinion, maybe all of you have different opinions about the most beautiful sound of bird. Ok, we will not talking about bird sound anymore but focus in music. We also know that there are many kinds of music. For examples there are rock music, pop music, jazz music, blues, dangdut, and so many again. But we will not talking about the kinds of music, we will talking about the effects of music in our life but in more specific parts. I means the effects of music in people emotions, intelligence, health and so on. I think its will more interest to us to know more about each effects. When I look into myself and looking for the effects of music in my life, I know that music can influence me in many aspects. For example by listening music I feel free from all the sorrows. Music is also become my habit, I can do work with listening music. Music helps me full when I doing something job, like doing this paper too, I listening music. Did you know that you can perform better at your work with music? Whilst there may be many reasons for wishing to listen to music in the workplace, it really improves your productivity! I think not just me, maybe some people have the same habit like me. Not just help me when I doing works, I always listening music when I go to sleep. I usually listening instrument music when I go to sleep, it can make me more calm in my rest. That's the simple effect of music in my daily life, let see more in other sides. In my research, music can influence the emotions of people too. Like when he or she listening the music, it will be get the respond by the listener. There are many kinds of respond that possible happens. Perhaps the respond will be different with each others, it depends on the sensitivity of each person. For example, music can show and explain the expresses of person and some music represents people. Moreover some people believes that music is vehicle for its expression. For example if someone feel sad and stress, they can listening music to reduce or cure their sadness or their stress. If you feel happy, maybe to express your happiness you listen music with strong beat. Or in more extreme actions, music can express their love to someone. For example when you falling in love with someone, you can express it by music as your media. Maybe you can sing a song or playing music instrument to show you felling. Music also represents their life to some people. But representation in music is not strictly representation at all. A picture can identify a specific person or thing or event, but with some minor exceptions music without the aid of a title or program or the words of a song cannot do this. All it can do is present qualities, including emotion qualities such as cheerful and melancholy, that may or may not be attributed to or characterize some specific individual. . Another way in which music arouses emotions is by getting us to respond sympathetically to emotions expressed in the music by the composer, or his surrogate in the music. “The American Academy of Pediatrics fears that rock lyrics pose threats to the health and well being of adolescents everywhere. Again most of their concerns revolve around drug use, sex, accidents, and suicide”. Physicians view adolescence as a difficult period for teens because of the biological and psychological changes that occur. Adolescents are expected to develop a solid set of moral values during this time. Usually they learn this through their observations and perceptions of adult standards and behaviors. The adult standard for values and behavior presented to them in certain types of music raise questions as to what it is kids are actually learning. Physicians use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health. Music containing explicit lyrics can misrepresent the reality and possibly damage the mental health of an adolescent.
A study conducted in 1989 by three American scientists found that students who listened to music with lyrical topics of homicide, suicide, or satanic practices were more likely to have remarried or unmarried parents and were more likely to be white males in urban public schools. Another study found that there is a strong connection between a preference for rock music that has destructive themes and destructive behavior, and connections between rap music and below average grades. The same study however concluded that there is a link between preferences for heavy metal above average grades. Finally, there is good evidence that music arouses emotions and moods in a more direct bodily way as well, influencing the autonomic system and the motor activity of listeners. These various mechanisms of emotional arousal often function simultaneously so as to produce powerful, complex, ambiguous emotional states. The Music is mediums that can accommodate our expressions. Its can be our communication media that very useful in certain time and certain conditions. That's the simple affects that music can do in our emotions. Let see the effects of music in our intelligence, child brain and so on. We begin life being affected by music; babies first begin to respond to music while still in the womb. Whether or not it's true, everyone has heard that playing classical music for your baby supposedly helps him or her become smarter. A study done in the United Kingdom concluded that children are able to recognize and even prefer music that they had heard while in the womb up to three months before birth. Although the genera of music made no difference, the babies who were exposed to songs with a faster tempo showed a stronger preference for that song than those who had heard something slower. Researchers have also found that the playing of soft background music or a mother's humming actually helps premature babies. Those who are subjected to the music tend to gain weight faster and are able to leave hospitals earlier than those who aren't. As we know that music has taken apart to develop people intelligence. The simple example, we can memorize the lyrics of our favorite song as faster and easier. From the research, the result show that music with a tempo around 60 beats-per-minutes can activates both the left and right sides of the brain, which assists in processing more information at once. Singing and playing an instrument of music also has the same effects. I was read the articles from Dr. George Lozanov, a psychologist from Bulgaria, used classical music at about 60 beats per minute to devise a better way of learning a foreign language. Using this method, students “could learn up to one half of the vocabulary and phrases for the whole school term (which amounts to almost 1,000 words or phrases) in one day.” The student's retention rate was an incredible 92%, and he managed to prove that entire languages could be learned fairly well within thirty days with this approach! Moreover, the famous scientist, Albert Einstein, have the special experience about music that changed his life. As a child, Einstein did very badly in school, and the teachers recommended that his parents not even take the time to continue teaching him. His parents ignored the teachers and instead bought him a violin. Throughout his life, Einstein improvised on his violin in order to figure out his problems and equations, and music was a key factor helping him become the genius we now know him as. And he also spoke his theory of relativity, “It occurred to me by intuition, and music was the driving force behind that intuition.” The other examples that show the music can develop our brain from the best Musician, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Many research show that Mozart music gives many contributions for people's development, especially for brain and intelligence. This has since been named “The Mozart Effect.” In recent decades, an enormous amount of research has been conducted on the specific ways in which sound, rhythm, and music can improve our lives. The results of the research using Mozart's music have been especially stunning and have given rise to the term the Mozart Effect. It use the phrase to encompass such phenomena as the ability of Mozart's music to temporarily heighten spatial awareness and intelligence; its power to improve listeners' concentration and speech abilities; its tendency to advance the jump in reading and language skills among children who receive regular music instruction. But the Mozart Effect refers to more than just raising children's test scores. By learning to recognize and consciously implement the Mozart Effect in our child's life, you can:
* Begin to communicate and connect with him even before he is born.
* Stimulate brain growth in the womb and throughout early childhood.
* Positively affect his emotional perceptions and attitudes from prebirth onward.
* Provide patterns of sound on which he can build his understanding of the physical world.
* Reduce his level of emotional stress or physical pain, even in infancy.
* Enhance his motor development, including the grace and ease with which he learns to crawl, walk, skip, and run.
* Improve his language ability, including vocabulary, expressiveness, and ease of communication.
* Introduce him to a wider world of emotional expression, creativity, and aesthetic beauty.
* Enhance his social abilities.
* Improve his reading, writing, mathematical, and other academic skills, as well as his ability to remember and to memorize.
* Introduce him to the joys of community.
* Help him create a strong sense of his own identity.
It shows some effects that can happen by using music on the brain, its can support for cognitive development and verbal skill. The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, cause the brain to be more capable of processing information.“Listening to music facilitates the recall of information. Researchers have shown that certain types of music are a great "keys" for recalling memories. Information learned while listening to a particular song can often be recalled simply by "playing" the songs mentally”.
Musical training has even better effect than just listening to classical music. There is clear evidence, that children who take music lessons develop a better memory compared with children who have no musical training. Music would need to influence the way a person thinks in order to change the way a person acts. Knowing this, it is first important to understand generally, the concept of music psychology. Psychology is the study of the brains various functions. Music psychology is the scientific investigation of the relationship between the human mind and music. Music psychology uses psychological theory and methods to interpret and attempt to understand musical behaviors of the brain. The aim of music psychology research is to identify the role of music in brain functions and to characterize the way a person perceives it. This type of psychology was first developed and studied in Canada in 1978, however most music psychology work now is done in Sydney Australia. Music psychology is still a branch of psychology which means its primary objective is to learn something about the function of the brain. Music psychology is not to be confused with musicology. Musicology is another important type of study that is relative in answering questions on the effects of music. Musicology is the historical and scientific study of music. Musicology research is intended to identify the way music is heard. This type of work studies aspects of music such as tempo, frequency, and volume. Musicologists also study music throughout history and examine the way different genres have expanded and changed.
Most researchers and scientist agree that music does have a positive effect on the brain development of infants and small children. Music helps them learn rhythms, improve their language, and promotes the overall growth of their mind by challenging them and placing new concepts to learn in front of them. The way the brain responds to challenging types of music and the way the brain responds to math and science are nearly identical. The music exercises the part of the brain that will also be handling arithmetic. Without the child being able to comprehend addition or subtraction parents are still capable of improving its math skills later in life. I think those are few examples that show how music can affect human's brain. The other's effects that can happen by listening music is in our health. Actually when we see more depth the functions of music, it have some advantages by using music in our health. Maybe we also ever heard about music therapy, where music become therapy medium for certain cases or illness. For example, “ music can help reduce both the sensation and distress of both chronic pain and postoperative pain. Listening to music can reduce chronic pain from a range of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc problems and rheumatoid arthritis, by up to 21% and depression by up to 25%, according to a paper in the latest UK-based Journal of Advanced Nursing. Music therapy is increasingly used in hospitals to reduce the need for medication during childbirth, to decrease postoperative pain and complement the use of anesthesia during surgery. There are several theories about how music positively affects perceived pain”:
* 1. Music serves as a distractor
* 2. Music may give the patient a sense of control
* 3. Music causes the body to release endorphins to counteract pain
* 4. Slow music relaxes person by slowing their breathing and heartbeat
Music has a strong relationship with health. Aside from the psychological aspects of music, there are also real physical effects on people as well. “Music is used in therapy, rehab, and may even function as a painkiller. Music seems to add many physical benefits to our health. The only exception is that it is ineffective with certain personality types. If people are unwilling or skeptical, the music may have no effect”.
Today, maybe many people have problems and because of that, many people got stress in their life. They can not manage their problems, cause so complex and disrupt their pleasure. Problems in their work, family, educations, and many more that make them stress. But music can reduce the stress, without medicine, we just listen the certain music that's become the medicine who can reduce the stress.
“How does music reduces stress?
* Physical relaxation. Music can promote relaxation of tense muscles, enabling you to easily release some of the tension you carry from a stressful day.
* Aids in stress relief activities. Music can help you get "into the zone" when practicing yoga, self hypnosis or guided imagery, can help you feel energized when exercising and recover after exercising, help dissolve the stress when you're soaking in the tub.
* Reduces negative emotions. Music, especially upbeat tunes, can take your mind off what stresses you, and help you feel more optimistic and positive. This helps release stress and can even help you keep from getting as stressed over life's little frustrations in the future. Researchers discovered that music can decrease the amount of the cortisol, a stress-related hormone produced by the body in response to stress”.
Music also take important parts to reduce Chronic headaches and migraine remedy. Music can help migraine and chronic headache sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the headaches. Relaxing classical music is safe, cheap and easy way to beat insomnia. Many people who suffer from insomnia find that Bach music helps them. Researchers have shown that just 45 minutes of relaxing music before bedtime can make for a restful night. Relaxing music reduces sympathetic nervous system activity, decreases anxiety, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate and may have positive effects on sleep via muscle relaxation and distraction from thoughts.
Perhaps you also know that certain music already used to worship activity. For example, I'm Christian and every Sunday I go to church for worship. And we use songs to become parts of worship in church, it's usually called praises songs. The songs are express the feelings by personal when we praise The Lord. Maybe not just Christian that use music in their worship, I believe almost religions use music in their worship. Because music can become medium that use to describe the contain of their feelings. Sometimes when we listen the praise music or song we will feel peaceful and calm. Music is clearly essential to humans. Of that there can be no doubt. And it occupies such a prominent place in our daily lives, through the various broadcasting media, recordings, in supermarkets, dentist's waiting rooms, elevators, aircraft, hotel lobbies, bars, even out on the streets, that there is virtually nowhere one can go without hearing music. With music so ubiquitous, so pervasive, and so universally prominent in all societies there arises the question of how it should be dealt with in education. “The first point to make is that music is essentially something we listen to; not necessarily do. The plain facts are that the minority perform music for the majority to listen to. There are in fact few cultures where everyone is a performer. The vast majority of humans spend their time listening to music, and it is the effects of that listening on our sentience as humans which contains the power of music”. That's the effect of music that we can reach and we will not find it in another way, just music can do that. In the other sides, music also has important things for human life, that's music become the mean of support for some of people in this world. I mean, some people can get job or work because of music. Some people who taking care and dedicate their own life in music, they can fulfill their needs. As we know that today so many music industries that exist in the global business. The music industries already become the good prospect for the people who have work in this way. People will not doubt again for their future life because of their choose to dedicate in music. As we know that many job that we can find in music industries, such as singer, conductor, band's player, composer, song maker, and many more. So there is a good case for claiming that music is a natural and inevitable part of the evolution of humans everywhere. In our contemporary media-dominated society music is the central component in the profitability of the entertainment industry. Can we even imagine a movie without music? Movies sell as much for music and its ability to encapsulate key components of the story as anything. From Casablanca's “As time goes by” to Titanic's “Our love will go on”, millions across the world know the power of music to evoke the deepest sense of who we are, what we know about being human, and life itself. Perhaps some of us have dreams like examples that I have said before. Music is the parts of entertainment industries that become consumers needs. We can see so many music competitions that make people interest. In the television, internet, radio and others, we can listen the music. If we going to mall, park, or other public places, we can listen music available there. Now, if we already know about music and the functions, how if we assumed that there no music in our life? what are the effect in our life? Can you imagine what will happen if we life without music? We will discuss about this problem. As we know together that music is important part in our life, because music has many functions and these functions impact in our life. The world would be a very quiet place. “Music is in many ways the fabric of our lives and the definition of society. It is a reminder of how things once were, an indication of how things are, and a view of where society is headed. Music is a direct reflection of the picture of society. Music can be a way to deliver messages, a poetic medium, a fine art, or nothing more than a source of entertainment”. No matter what it is used for, music is the perfect art and our lives would be that much less complete without it that life as we know it would not at all be the same without music. “Music is the perfect art. It has movement, because it progresses over a set period of time. All musical works have a beginning and an end. However, music does not restrict the audience in the way that movies or graphic art does. The listener can create whatever image she or he wants to when listening to music. It is an art that appeals to the conscious mind, but the best music also appeals to the subconscious. No thought is required to enjoy good music, though it is often thought-inspiring”. That's why many people believe that music become as “Universal Language”. With language, we are required to have these outside referents from which we are able to determine meaning and are able to communicate. Music has no such easily detectable referents and thus is disqualified as a language. Anthony Storr even goes so far as to ask what the use is of music. He claims that "music can certainly be regarded as a form of communication between people; but what it communicates is not obvious. Music is not usually representational: it does not sharpen our perception of the external world, nor, allowing for some notable exceptions, does it generally imitate it. Nor is music propositional: it does not put forward theories about the world or convey information in the same ways as does language." It would seem then that we tend to confuse the issue by applying rules to music and claiming that it does not fit into the framework of language. We put music into terms that can only apply to language and of course music comes up short. Music (absolute music) cannot compete with linguistic meaning. But it does not seem fair to condemn it on those bases when we begin to examine its relation to our emotive responses. We can imagine that we life without music, we will life in silent world, without any sounds or music. That's why music also needs more attention from us. We are must taking care of the music existence in our life. It doesn't matter what kinds of music that we like, because I think all kinds of music are good. Traditional music or modern music has their own riches. Traditional music is also the important parts of our life, because of them we can learn about the music and how to improve music to be better in the future. Modern music also takes important part of our life. Modern music is the improvement or new innovations form music development.
1. DX Raf on 2/25/2009 in Entertainment & Arts » Music
2. "American Musicological Society." www.ams-net.org. 2008. 30 May 2008 <http://www.ams-net.org/>.
4. Ho YC, Cheung MC, Chan AS. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology. 2003 Jul;17(3):439-50. PubMed
5. Citation Information. Journal of Literary Theory. Volume1, Issue2, Pages395-419, ISSN (Online) 1862-8990, ISSN (Print) 1862-5290, DOI: 10.1515/JLT.2007.024, /April/2008 Published Online: 28/05/2008
6. Flora, Carlin. "Music: Opiate in a Minor." www.psychologytoday.com. 11 July 2006. Psychology Today. 31 May 2008 <http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20040405-000004.html>.
8. Wubbenhorst, Thomas M. "Personality Characteristics of Music Educators and Performers." Pom.Sagepub.Com. 1 Apr. 1996. 25 May 2008 <http://pom.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/1/63>.
9. "Music Psychology." www.Elsevier.com. 2007. 1 June 2008 < www.elsevier.com/wps/product/ows_home/678674>.
10. Anthony Storr. Music and the Mind. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992. p.2.
 DX Raf on 2/25/2009 in Entertainment & Arts » Music
 "American Musicological Society." www.ams-net.org. 2008. 30 May 2008 <http://www.ams-net.org/>.
 . Ho YC, Cheung MC, Chan AS. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology. 2003 Jul;17(3):439-50. PubMed
 Citation Information. Journal of Literary Theory. Volume1, Issue2, Pages395-419, ISSN (Online) 1862-8990, ISSN (Print) 1862-5290, DOI: 10.1515/JLT.2007.024, /April/2008 Published Online: 28/05/2008
 Flora, Carlin. "Music: Opiate in a Minor." www.psychologytoday.com. 11 July 2006. Psychology Today. 31 May 2008 <http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20040405-000004.html>.
 Wubbenhorst, Thomas M. "Personality Characteristics of Music Educators and Performers." Pom.Sagepub.Com. 1 Apr. 1996. 25 May 2008 <http://pom.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/1/63>.
 "Music Psychology." www.Elsevier.com. 2007. 1 June 2008 <www.elsevier.com/wps/product/ows_home/678674>.
 Anthony Storr. Music and the Mind. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992. p.2.