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Modernism began in the early to mid 20th century, and represented a self-conscious break from traditional forms and subject matter to search for a distinctly contemporary mode of expression. This period seen the horror of World War I and II and the collapse of accepted truths in science, religion, and politics. This is a time when old beliefs became custom to the everyday way of living, and the traditional ways of the government were either challenged or replaced. The fragments and disillusions caused totally different views in art, music, and literature. People were trying to out do the technology that science was bringing in. The radically new movement turned against the monotonous dominion of the bourgeoisie in the social and cultural life. The movements were called: fauvism is a bold distortion of form and color, expressionism is subjective expression of inner experience, cubism is the reality through geometrical planes, vorticism is bring free from nature and energy creates new forms, and the last movement surrealism. Surrealism is the expression of the working of the subconscious and creates strange juxtapostions. Writers of the Modernism period focused on criticizing and shocking the audience.
Postmodernism did not get to see both World Wars, postmodernism came shortly after World War II and still continues through today. It has several artistic movements that have challenged philosophy, modern art and literature. You can say that Postmodernism left the quest for a different belief system that sparked Modernism. Like the Modernism period Postmodernism extends the view of the world governed by an anarchy, yet Postmodernism celebrates the anarchy instead of trying to keep correcting it. The view of this period goes against anything in the Modernism period. They gave themselves their meaning of literature. This view is reflected in eclectic styles of writing through the use of these devices: pastiche which imitates a previous style, parody which is pastiche with a humorous approach, antihero is where protagonist lacks any qualities generally associated with the role, antinovel is fictional elements that haphazard and devoid of any meaning, magic realism is a matter-of-fact blending of fantasy and reality, multiculturalism is the celebrating the diversity of culture.
During the Modernism period Albert Camus wrote “The Guest.” Albert Camus is known as the great “moralist” of French literature in the twentieth-century. Even though he was a great writer, he is most widely known for his first pictures of humans struggling to understand themselves and the reason they live in the environment they live in. The consciousness of the “absurd” and the subsequent voluntary “engagement” or devotion to liberty and justice “as if” the world made sense are the two elements that complement each other in Camus' moral vision. He dealt with the isolation and fragmentation of the modern times. He mainly used a certain social issue and political revolution to help give him a spark to his ideas on what he should write about. In his story “The Guest” I seen that isolation was used. As Balducci left the Arab there for Daru to take to Tinguit, Daru got to thinking about it. Even as soon as Balducci told him he was in the plans to take the Arab he did not want that job. Daru wanted to be left out of this delivery. The Arab thought that Daru was a different, but crazy man. The Arab found it odd that Daru would sit to eat with him or make him a place to sleep next to him in his room. The Arab is used to being drug behind a horse and not have a white man eat with him. Daru was calm with the Arab, not completely trusting him though. As night came to morning it was time to take the Arab to Tinguit. But instead of Daru taking him there he took him out into the plateau and gave him a package. Which consisted of dates, bread, and sugar that should last him for two days. He also gave him a thousand francs too, and told him to go to the east and that would take him to where he needs to go. Daru did this because he did not want to be apart of the delivering of the Arab. So if Daru were to leave him there and walk away the man would be no more to him. And if he ran away it would not be Daru's problem, though it seems he is trying to help the Arab run away. As Daru started walking back toward the schoolhouse the Arab just stood there alone. Soon when Daru looked back he seen the Arab heading toward the east, in which the direction of the prison was in Tinguit. Daru then went back to the schoolhouse where he sat alone again.
Daru taking this action to not walk the Arab to the city of Tinguit, he was not finishing his end of the deal. Therefore, making this story an isolated story. Isolation is a national policy of nonparticipation of international affairs. Just as Camus feels, Daru feels the poignant loneliness of being caught between two cultures. Because Daru wanted to do what Balducci said to do, but at the same time this Arab had done nothing to him. And he did not want to take him to the city, so he let him go into the city by himself. Its not like Balducci would ever know the truth or not.