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Students are dynamic and developing subject. They have general nature with human attributes, namely the subject and activity. They have a strong curiosity and thirst for knowledge, which is the intrinsic motivation of development of students. Especially for learning English, it need to wake up, need to mobilize and need to guide, which need to stimulate education, although these things are the inner power source of students in the development. On English speaking teaching in secondary schools, encouraging education is even more highlighted for its importance. Motivation is to optimize the external conditions of education, students in a timely wake-up internal, causing their interest in learning to induce the motivation to learn, to promote their active development, interested in English, so as to achieve success
As early as 78 A.D. when Marcus Fabius Quintillions, the very famous elocutionist and educator in the incipient stage of The Roman Empire, was chosen as the first teacher to give lectures focused on elocution, he laid stress on carrying out joyful and encouraging education, namely, making children learn everything with great fun. After he retired in 90 A.D. Quintillions wrote his masterpiece Lnstitutio Oratoria, in which he clearly put forward his view of improving the teaching methods. He claimed that teachers should use praise, commendation and encouragement to show their love and care for their students and create a perfect environment that is good for students' study. In recent years, there is a growing concern about the role of encouraging education playing in middle school's English teaching. Moreover, a lot of schools take courage to carry out reform and innovation in middle school English teaching and use encouraging teaching measures to stir up the students' intrinsic potential, let the students become intimate with English as well as to make encouragement a chaperonage with students' growth and enable them to learn English with great interests and high efficiency so as to achieve success and self-confidence. This analysis has certain theoretical significances. Since the implementation of the new lesson for encouraging education is an important guarantee to stimulate students' interests in studying English and to enhance the teaching effects, it is necessary to probe encouraging education theories, its significance and how to apply various kinds of encouraging education methods appropriately. Meanwhile, properly pay attention to some important points during the implementation process.
"Encouragement Education" is the way of making the class as the role to encourage the students to learn with interests and to ensure the initiative and motivate learning; Encourage students to give full play to its inherent potential and initiative, thus contributing to a positive initiative to learn and master the required knowledge, skills and abilities. It is the way of improving their ability to adapt to fierce competition in the market and meet future challenges. Since the implementation of the new lesson for encouraging education is an important guarantee to stimulate students' interests in studying English and to enhance the teaching eon theories, its significance and how to apply various kinds of encouraging education methods appropriately. Meanwhile, properly pay attention to some important points during the implementation process. This thesis analyzes the role of the encouragement in the English speaking teaching in middle school.
Students'ability in spoken English is mainly fostered in high school. First of all, students may easily overcome psychological barriers at early period. In the second place, a new concept may come into being - language is used to communicate and convey information. Thirdly, students' elementary communicative skills are cultivated at this stage, and the learning lays a solid foundation for later study. As the lack of the encouragement in English Speaking teaching in middle school. From the aspect of practical significance, this analysis is also worth making. According to middle school education psychology, teachers' appraisal and proper application of encouragement and criticism is one of the most significant ways to promote the progress of students. A teacher's role as a manager of his class is best embodied through his use of encouragement. By language or non-language measures, a teacher can praise, criticize, encourage or punish his students; show approve or disapprove of his students' behaviors; expect students to continue or stop certain kinds of actions. If a teacher can use encouragement and criticism properly, he maybe possibly help students better understand what they've seen and heard and arouse their enterprise, self-respect, sense of honor and collective spirit.
the Lose of Encouragement in Oral English
Teaching of Middle School
I. the Situation of Siddle School's Oral English in China
In China, there is a common phenomenon among the English subject in middle that their ability of verbal communication falls far behind their basic knowledge and theory level. That is to say, they lack practical English application. They can hardly use what they have learnt in real life. According to a recent survey, only 4 percent of students can speak and use English to communicate efficiently with simple words after graduation from middle school. This formation of phenomenon and trend are not transient, nor accidental, but long-term and inevitable, because we have been influenced by the test-oriented education and "instillation" teaching methods, which dates back to junior high school English teaching.
At present, students mainly study English formally and systematically at the middle school. This stage is crucial to train students' spoken English; it also has a significant impact on students' later development.
The development of students' ability in spoken English is mainly fostered in middle school. Firstly, students may easily get over psychological barriers at early period. In the second place, a new concept may come into being - language is used to communicate and convey information. Thirdly, students' elementary communicative skills are cultivated at this stage, and the learning lays a solid foundation for later study.
Nowadays English plays an important role in Chinese people's life and work. Its function is more and more prominent. At present, more than 300 million Chinese people are learning the language, but how many people have learnt excellently? And why is it so?
For a long time, English teaching in middle school has been over emphasizing scores, but neglecting proficiency, especially the cultivation of spoken English. Excellent students are always measured by getting high marks in exams. So most parents, teachers and students pursue high marks blindly by all kinds of means, which cause many problems: cheating in exams can never be restrained by any rules; teaching is always carried out around the exams; application of English is always neglected.
As for the teaching mode, teachers have been adopting "instillation" and neglecting "application". The classroom has been "teacher-centered", so students have to take in passively. So some students are excellent in grammar, vocabulary, but poor in oral English.China executes a series of reform on junior English teaching in recent years and spoken English teaching is concerned widely. In addition, the new teaching materials also lay emphasis on spoken English, and teachers, to some degree, stress the training of language application. But there is little progress in spoken English, and the present condition is still unsatisfactory.
II. the Major Lack in Oral English Teaching is the Missing of Encouragement
Teachers force the students to do more exercises in order to pass all kinds of examinations. So there is no time and energy to develop students' competences of English speaking. In Chinese traditional education concepts, headmasters and teachers believe that good students are quiet ones. In the classroom, teachers always require students to keep silent, in class, students only use their eyes and ears to see and to hear, and seldom use their mouths to communicate with teachers and classmates. During class time, teacher speaks more to teach while students just are permitted to answer question when are asked. In fact, the effective study needs the whole coordination, including using eyes and ears, mouth and body languages at the same time. For example: When the students are thinking of how to answer questions, some bow their heads, some hold their heads high, some talk to themselves and some want to get help from their classmates. When the students get answers, some speak loudly and some still keep silent. When the students can't find the answer, some keep silent, and some bow their heads and some complain themselves have no abilities. In consequence, keep silent may be helpful for individual study, but it is really not good to train students' communicative competence. In addition to, the traditional teaching approach deeply affects the present English teaching. During class time, teachers only emphasis on words, grammars, sentence structures and text, and they forget the objective of present English teaching. The objectives put forward by National Education Department "Emphasis communication, basis of task, study in the activities, and get knowledge in the process of using language." They forget that their students need more training of listening and speaking. So these problems need to get enough attention of the educators. And people should solve the non-scientific English teaching approaches essentially. And apply them to the specific English classroom teaching.
In China, the number of English learners is increasing rapidly, but few people can study it well and use it freely. There are many main reasons for it.
The traditional English teaching is teacher-centered teaching, English teaching mainly concerns with vocabulary and grammar, under this teaching approach, it is difficult for students to get chance to communicate in class, seldom students get chance to practice their oral English in class. Traditional English teaching is based on examinations. In China, English teaching is controlled by examinations; the purpose of English teaching is for examinations and for high mark. This traditional English teaching approach ignores the training of students' communicative abilities. It is unfair to students to learn. And the teacher always interrupted the students' answer process when he found that the answer is not right, this behavior is not suitable. For example, when a baby learns to speak his/her mother language, his/her mother does not point out his/her mistakes at once, mother's behavior is suitable for her baby to learn language quickly, because skill comes from practice. In recent years, people concern more and more about the functions that encouraging education has in middle school English teaching and relevant researches increase day by day. For a deeply understanding of current situations in which encouraging education is applied in primary school English teaching, analysis of what kind of encouragement is valid to study English well, how to carry on effective encouragement to the students and investigation into some important points that call for special attentions when implementing encouraging education.
the Roles of Rncouragement in English Speaking
Encouraging education and animadversion education are the two major types of education commonly used by teachers in primary school's oral English teaching. But there are obvious differences between the two types of education. Relatively, encouraging education is especially favored and worshiped by most oral English teachers. Encouragement can arouse morale and make a great contribution to mutual union and cooperation among students while animadversion can make people keep a clear mind and help overcome their shortcomings. Thus, it is clear that in the meantime teachers are using encouraging education they should also apply animadversion education to English teaching and try their utmost to make the best of the twp types of education.
I. Encouragement Creates Sound Environment to Learning Oral English
As a matter of fact, in our daily life, every individual adult wants to be encouraged or praised by other people, not to mention a group of naiveté children. To them, a kind of appreciative and encouraging language is needed much more than students in junior and senior schools, or even in universities and colleges, which can help students keep an active enterprising spirit and a strong sense of honor, help students form a habit of learning English initiatively and as well as helping them shape a terrific sense of English and a strong ability to put what they have learned about English into practice.
Everybody knows it is conducive to improve students' study interesting by strong study atmosphere. This is the reason why many students want to enter a famous school. It is a practical experience of the author's, she is a minority ethnic, and she hardly speaks and understands Chinese when she had just entered primary school. But because the classmates are all Han nationality people except for her, she quickly learned Chinese in such a strong Chinese atmosphere. From now on, her study had been improved day after day. As a result, good study atmosphere is important to listen and speak. This atmosphere does not only come from tacit agreement of teachers and students but also come from strong desire of seeking knowledge. Teachers and students are two chief elements in the classroom. So their harmony is an important base of English listening and speaking. In the stage of high schools, students have brisk thought, wonderful activity after school time and strong self- respect. Therefore, teachers play a role of coordinator, talk with students frequently, and understand their needs. Like this, there are more topics to train listening and speaking in the classroom. Of course, this good atmosphere mostly also comes from the students' interest of learning knowledge. The students will constantly study and explore new approaches when they thought that it couldn't satisfy their demands for the level of listening and speaking. For this reason, if English teachers in high schools want to develop students' competence of listening and speaking, they must firstly train students' learning motivation and learning interest of speaking
II. Improvement of Students' Interest
Encouragement also can increase the students' interest. In the practice of education, many well-known educationists emphasize that interest is important for students to study(2). Comenius is a great famous educationist. He thinks that interest is a major way to create a joyful and light teaching situation. Mr. Tao XingZhi is a Chinese educationist. He thinks that a good teaching approach must rely on study interests of students' study. This approach let students feel happy in the process of study. Piaget is a famous psychologist. He points out that all the brain works rely on interest. From above, people should know that interest is very important for students' study.
Interest is a positive tendency for people to realize objects, or join activities. When people are interested in something, they will remember it, or research it. On the contrary, if students are interested in the learning of speaking, they will try to study and master it. When the students are not interested in the learning in speaking, they will pay no attention to it. Particularly¼Œthe oral English is practices of normal communication. The interest plays more important role in improving the abilities of English speaking. Improvement of Students' Interest is the major work for teachers. How to train students' interest? At first, teachers' words must be humorous in the classroom, and the teacher should pay enough attention to students' reaction. In addition, the teacher should guide the students try to understand some background cultural knowledge to communicate with each others freely.
III. the Conversion of the Traditional Teaching in Oral English
Firstly, transfer to the methods of "student-centered, teacher-led"
In China, the traditional English teaching is teacher-centered teaching, English teaching mainly concerns with talking to students, under this teaching approach, it is difficult for students to get chance to communicate in class, seldom students get chance to practice their oral English in class.
Because of the influence of traditional teaching¼Œteachers and students of middle schools ignore speaking all the way, especially by middle schools. It is impossible for students to practice oral English more under the pressure National Entrance Examination. At present China, National Entrance Examination still takes the most important position in Chinese education system. As a result, teacher of middle schools, he or she must adjust their teaching orders and approaches, the teacher dare not use more time to focus students' communicative ability, especially oral English in class teaching, the teacher just force the student to listen to meet the demands of National Entrance Examination. Moreover, in traditional English teaching, the teacher used to use mother language to explain target language, this is a wrong teaching behavior, the teacher should change the approach with encouraging education and to explain target language by using target language, only in this way, can the teacher guide the students to develop their speaking ability rapidly and to strengthen their communicative ability. The students would be the center of the teaching to learn the oral English speaking with the great encouragement from teachers. The abilities of the communication would increase rapidly with the increase of the interest.
Secondly, transfer the center from examination to the application
Traditional English teaching is based on examinations. In China, English teaching is controlled by examinations; the purpose of English teaching is for examinations and for high mark. This traditional English teaching approach ignores the training of students' communicative abilities. It is unfair to students to learn. And the teacher always interrupted the students' answer process when he found that the answer is not right, this behavior is not suitable. For example, when a baby learns to speak his/her mother language, his/her mother does not point out his/her mistakes at once, mother's behavior is suitable for her baby to learn language quickly, because skill comes from practice.
The goal of teaching and the goal of learning, to some degree, are impacted by exams, and the exams themselves emphasize memorizing, but neglect application of language. The main purpose of Chinese students studying English is to apply it and communicate. Therefore, English teaching should be like this: studying is for application; teaching is for learning; examinations are for application, the goal of exam is to promote teaching and learning. Mr. Tao Xingzhi opposed to overemphasizing the result of the exams and the proportion of students entering schools of a higher grade. Many teachers have this experience: in class, when something about the custom in the western countries is introduced, the students are very interested in it, so the teacher talks more so he can't finish the content prepared beforehand. After class, the teacher is regretful for he has "wasted" much time on it, because it is not required in the syllabus. He didn't "grasp the main point". From this we can see how deeply the test-oriented education has affected English teaching in junior high school.
Useful Encouraging Approaches in Oral English
I. The Traditional Encouraging Approaches in Oral English
1. At the premise of paying attention to individuals from psychology, emphasizing the progress of the foundation of subjective cognitive and a clear direction
2. Reduce the distance of the thoughts and feelings between teachers and students for the emotional factors as a guide
3. To achieve the changing role of teachers and students to complete powerful transfer from the interest to power so as to achieve the practical effect of encouraging approaches.
4. To see the effects of incentive approach from the feedback from students and in the cooperation.
5. Evaluate level of language ability of students with diverse means to create the competitive situation of language learning so as to encourage the ultimate goal of teaching;
6. Highlight the status and role of consciousness of the "student-centered, teacher-led" in the quality of teaching, to achieve deeper role by self-assessment of the teaching approach .
II. Further Suggestions
Both from the summary and the personal ideas, I would like offer some suggestions for further study on the application of encouragement in middle school oral English teaching.
First, encouragement should be taken in time. From the communication of students, students' homework ever to their communication, the students' active participation in answering teachers' questions and their results in each examinations, English teachers should also be conscious to catch the student's outstanding points in time. Sometimes not just to catch, but to pay attention to intentionally digging the advantages out. The teacher can give the students an proper encouragement in time to improve students' outstanding points to the much higher level. For example, when a teacher asks his students to comunicate with each other on some English question, she can walk down from his dais and join his students. If she find that someone's speaking is clear and beautiful, she can praise the student with the encouraging words such as "She speaks wonderful./Her pronunciation is very beautiful. We should learn from her." When other students hear the teacher's praises and thus improve their own pronunciation, the teacher could say: "He speaks well. If he keeps speaking¼Œhe will be successful! "
Second, encouragement should be given pertinently. Encouragement can develop one's potential abilities. But English teachers cannot encourage those which do not deserve praise or recognition, otherwise it will make students confused about what exactly they should do. At the same time, encouragement should be done to a turn instead of being made with too much exaggeration. See an example. In some tests, students are required to draw picture in English. But some students may not feel enough by only drawing picture. They will add some stories to describe the picture. To cope with the phenomenon, on one hand, teachers should give positive response to students' creativity; on the other hand, more importantly, teachers must orient students to read the requirements carefully.
Third, encouragement should be made according to students' diversity. After all, what people need vary one to another. This should be taken into consideration in English classes when giving encouragement. To those who lack confidence in studying English well, teachers ought to look with favor upon them while to those who have mastered a certain level of English but prone to arrogance and conceit, teachers must use a slightly damaging language to spur them to guard against arrogance and rashness and keep advancing.
Four, encouragement should be made fairly. We human-beings are a kind of animal who like being loved and understood by others. Children's heart is transparent and pure as glass. They need teachers' encouragement, care, recognition and praise badly. The US psychologist James once said that it is one of the deepest expectations of human nature that we look forward to being praised, admired and respected. Students, especially the laggard pupils need teachers' encouragement more. Teachers must assure the just of encouragement and make all pupils think that their teachers care about them. If so, the motivating force of encouragement can be sown in every child's heart.
The famous Soviet educator Cyxomjnhcknn once said:"As a teacher, he should make his students walk with their heads up." With this purpose, teachers must learn to find their students' merits in an appreciative perspective, use encouragement, praise and affirmative instead of criticizing or blaming. Those who often get encouragement and praise from their teachers will soon gain self-confidence and make good performance in English. Isn't that delightful to see students' success and progress day by day under teachers' proper encouragement?
The well-known French educator Friedrich Adolph Wilhelm Diesterweg once said:"The art of teaching does not lie in the skills of induction, but in encouragement, awakening and inspiration." The knowledge, techniques and technical abilities of oral English study are in badly demand of encouragement. The inspiration of students' thinking and the development of their intelligence also call for encouragement. Besides, in order to cultivate students' sense and usage of language, teachers need encouragement, too. Therefore, the art of encouragement is of great importance in oral English teaching. So every English educator is required to think about how to make full use of encouragement to arouse students' interests in learning English,specially in oral English, how to encouragement students to take an active part in oral English studying and how to improve their oral English capabilities.