As we know there are several resources to run a business. They are land, financial and human resource. Among them the human resource plays a crucial role. We need to hire candidate who meets the requirements of our organization. There are several methods of selections in an organization. Basic method is conducting interviews. But this method will not be successful every time. The interview method will not be succesfull if there is large number of applicants. Hence we need to choose a substitute method. The paper and pencil method can be proper substitute for the problem. We can conduct a paper based exam for all applicants from which we can select group of candidates who meets our requirements. Then we can conduct interview for final list of candidates. Hence we can say that the paper and pencil method must be followed along with the interview to validate a candidate. Because three are several advantages in paper and pencil tests which help to choose the reliable candidate.
This paper is an attempt to suggest some alternatives to the traditional 'paper and pencil' tests in practice. It is important for a teacher reflect on and evaluate their students and accordingly construct valid, practical and reliable tests for use in the interview .In test task design the tester needs to be as precise as possible regarding the performing conditions operations and criteria for assessing the quality of output that the task would reflect. In deciding the format of test, it is useful to be aware of the alternative approaches to language testing and their limitations in terms of validity, reliability and efficiency. Having a strategy in place for your incentive program not only maximizes the program success, but also provides you a method to evaluate its efficiency. Our compressive incentive solutions begin with strategic thinking .Our relationship expert will help your objectives and create a plan that employs the most suitable incentive program.
For example RRB of India (railway recruitment board). They receive enormous applications for a single post. But they will conduct paper based selection process to select the required candidates. Because it is impossible to conduct interview process when the applicants are very high. Even several mnc companies such as Wipro, TCS in India give major priority for paper and pencil method.
Oral responses and oral performances are predicted during the process of interview. The design of interview is such that person's ability is completely tested. There are several authors who worked and reviewed on the validity of interviews.
Ulrich and Trumbo (1965) surveyed 852 organizations and to find that interview is used as a tool in 99 percent of the above companies. Ulrich and Trumbo concluded that the motivation and personal relations are two most important factors that contributed to most of the decisions by interviewers. O.R. Wright (1969) concluded that interview decisions are made on the basis of behavioral and verbal cues, secondly rapport between interviewer and interviewee and also concluded that structured or patterned interviews are more reliable than unstructured ones.
Schmitt (1976) reviewed the literature on interviews and found several factors which are influenced in interview decisions. Examples of factors include research on photographs and theeffects of appearance (Carlson, 1967); contrast effects (Carlson,1970; Hakel, Ornesorge, & Dunnette, 1970; Wexley, Yukl, Kovacs,& Sanders, 1972); situational variables, including quota position (Carlson, 1967); and race of the interviewer (Ledvinka,
Harris (1989) summarized qualitative and qualitative reviews of interview validity and concluded that, contary to the belief that interviews lack validity he suggested interviews had at least moderate validity. He also done research related to issues like interview design, characterstics of applicants, interviewer training, all of which in my opinion are important factors determining the validity of any interview.
Wiesner and Cronshaw's (1988) meta-analysis of employment interview validities was a major integration of the literature. Wiesner and Cronshaw meta-analysis was a major contribution but they did not differentiate the validity by criterion type. Like job performance, training and tenure. These criterions are very important when validating interviews. (Hunter & Hunter, 1984; Lilienthal & Pearlman, 1983; Pearlman,1979; Pearlman, Schmidt, & Hunter, 1980; Schmidt,Hunter, Pearlman, & Hirsh, 1985). Interview validity data for training performance, tenure, and job performance criteria were later reviewed and examined by Hunter & Hunter(1984); Lilienthal & Pearlman, 1983; Pearlman,1979; Pearlman, Schmidt, & Hunter, 1980; Schmidt,Hunter, Pearlman, & Hirsh, 1985). The validity results are reported separately, and appropriate criterion
reliabilities are used.
Qualities required in an employee:
The selection is done mainly to observe the desired qualities in an employee. There are certain qualities to be observed in an applicant. They are
The employee must have proper listening skills with which he will be able to perform the prescribed tasks. Hence he must be good listener. He must take initiative in every task given to him. He must take initiative in the task and can provide encouragement to others. He must be hardworking. He must deliver his maximum efforts in completing the tasks given to him. Most important quality of any employee is problem solving he must be able to find the solution at the time required. He must be able to solve the tasks assigned to him. Taking responsibility is another criteria here every employ must feel responsible towards their work and organization. The success is not possible unless they feel it as their responsibility. Discipline is the most important root of success. A well disciplined person will be most successful. He must be well disciplined in his actions, dressing sense and punctuality. Even he must communicate with his colleagues in a disciplined manner without any arrogance. The most important part in any organization is team work. Hence the candidate must be friendly with his colleges which can lead to a proper team work.
Hence every candidate is required to present their strengths in their caves. The qualities of a person can be identified by conducting aptitude and physiology tests. Many of the companies like Mc Donald's, Sainsbury conducts physiology test in their written tests to know the behavior the applicant. The personal behavior of the person will be validated in interview.
TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT TESTS:
There are certain types of assessments which are generally being used by most of the companies while recruiting their staff. The type of test will mainly depend upon the selection. If the selection is made for professional post then there will huge process in the selection where every test are performed to check th applicants capability then finally the deserved candidate will be approved . these tests will enlight the abilities of the candidate thus we can judge whether is applicable for the post. Here re the list of tests which are generally conducted in any organization in their selection process.
Cognitive Ability Tests
Job knowledge Tests
Physical Ability Tests
Work Samples And simulations
OVERVIEW OF EMPLOYMENT TESTS:
1. Assessment Centers:
To measure different types of job related skills we use assessment centers which we can assess communication kills, personal interviews, technical skills and job knowledge tests. inorder judge the behavior of peoples ,these centers the multiple raters' .At the end of this ,the overall performance by the persons can be judged. These skills may be either mental ability skills which judge the behavior of the candidate. Apart from these the candidates must meet the technical skills which are essential for their work.
2. Biographical Data:
Biographical data widely varies job knowledge skills , teamwork ,specific skills and so on which uses questions such as education ,training and work experience leads to a success on he job. This data can also ask about attitudes, assessment of skills and personality. This includes both employment history and academic performance of the candidate. Here the experience of the candidate also plays a crucial role while choosing the deserving candidate.
3. Cognitive Ability Tests:
To provide success for jobs cognitive tests uses questions or problems which will measure the ability of persons to learn easoning,reading and comphrehension.Inorder to solve therelated problems. It assess a persons potential by providing information about verbal or mathematical reasoning.
These tests consists of behavior and experiences of a person's honesty ,responsibility and orientation. These tests are mainly based on previous experiences or ask questions about person's interest from which inferences are drawn about future. This tests shows the personal behavior of the candidate. With this we can judge the nature of the candidate and his discipline. The team work skills and responsibility nature can be observed during this process.
Interviews are mainly depend on the communicationskills,team work skills to assess a job.Inorder to evaluateknowledge, well designed interviews require skills and ability for a job, that may be either face to face or by phone.
6. Job Knowledge Tests:
Multiple choice questions or essay type items are involved in job knowledge tests to evaluate technical or professional. These obis are mainly depending upon the knowledge of the person which can reduce the business cost for hiring that needs skills and abilities. Specific training should be developed by the takers.
7. Personality Tests:
Personality tests are often used to have the potential tube successful in job that deals with an interpersonal interaction or work settings like openness,agrreableness and stress tolerance.
8. Physical Ability Tests:
These tests are conducted to explore candidates who are physically capable for the required post. Here we consider attributes such as strength , speed and balance.
9.Work samples and simulations:
These are used to assess general skills such as organizational ,analytical and interpersonal skills for measuring job skills or job knowledge. This can be used to provide for developing specific feedback which performed on the job to as their levels and skills.
Types of Surveys:
Surveys can be divided into two broad categories:
Questionnaires are usually paper-and-pencil instruments that the respondent completes.In this survey we can see Open ended questions.These are further classified as mail survey and grouped administered questionnaires.Mail Survey is the type of survey at which one time or other,received a questionnaire in the mail.This is an inexpensive to administer.We can send the exact same instrument to a wide number of people.A sample of respondents is brought together and asked to respond to a structured sequence of questions.
Interviews are a far more personal form of research than questionnaire.In the personal interview, the interviewer works directly with the respondent.Interviews are generally easier for the respondent,especially based on his opinions or impressions.These are very time consuming and resource intensive.The interviewer is considered a part of the measurement instrument and interviewers have to be well trained to respond to any contingency.Almost every one is familiar with the telephone interview.Telephone interviews enable a reasearcher to gather information rapidly.This are most challenging and rewarding forms of measurement.They require a personal sensitivity and adaptability as well as the ability to stay with in the protocol.
Paper And Pencil Interview (PAPI):
This is a process where the applicant is interviewed in written format rather than oral format. It will be printed question are where the candidate nee to workout with his solutions. The candidate must fill the answers in their respective columns. These questions cover all the basics needed to interview a candidate. These tests covers aptitude and physiology and technical questions related to the applied post. With this we can have clear view of capabilities of the applicant hence we can judge whether he can be suitable for the required post. The paper based test will be conducted massively for a period on one hour. the results will be declared based on the performance. The result is declared in the form of marks. Thus the candidates selected in this process are forwarded to personal interview. The paper and pencil base exams are mainly used as the filtration process among the applicants. We can terminate the unrequited candidates at this stage. Thus we will only desired candidates then we need to choose the best talented among them.
Advantages Of Paper And Pencil Interview:
PAPI is a reliable source providing all the possible sorts of writing help for those who are in need.Interview paper is a specific kind of paper to expose our ideas,view points and thoughts.When we are writing a paper based interview,we have to know that it can be written in two possible forms.They are conversational form and narrative form. Conversational form is the way how the interview was conducted and the narrative form in which communicating the main idea of the conversation.First of all you need to decide which questions to touch upon the paper.The right choice of the questions will help to reveal the personality of the interviewer in the most adequate way.Be very accurate not to provoke the incorrect idea of the person.So,decide on what form of the paper you would like it to be,listen to your records carefully,define what questions we would like to include into the paper and make a detailed outline of the paper.The introduction traditionally contains all the detailed information of the interviews.The main body of the interview paper normally includes the main questions discussion.The conclusion is our opinion of everything exposed in the interview paper.
Our Strategic Approach:
Having a strategy in place for your incentive program not only maximizes the program success, but also provides you a method to evaluate its efficiency. Our comprehensive incentive solutions begins with strategic thinking. Our relation ship expert will help us to define our objectives and create a plan that employs the most suitable incentive program.
When people get recognition for their meaningful contributions, they are truly engaged and understand their roles and share corporate values. The positive impact of this connection on both company culture and business goals is undeniable. Reward port helps you to inspire,motivate,recognize,reward and thank. The appreciation plays as an fuel of encouragement for a candidate to work effectievely.
The program is designed to bring out the best in people in diverse ways so that they work to their fullest potential as follows:
Ensures job satisfaction
Reduces employee turn over
Encourages behavioral changes
Recognizes employee contributions immediately
My Context And My Choice:
Critical features of real life use an incorporated into the test tasks by getting the candidates to perform authentic activities in realistic contexts, the more positive the wash back effect is likely to be on the teaching that precedes the test. By analyzing the performance it is easier to state what an applicant do with the language. in most of the cases listening and speaking modules are not tested because a direct test is extremely costly in terms of time and personnel. A paper and pencil test can be taken by a large number of candidates at the same time and can be administered by untrained personnel. It can assess the tests at a later stage if the questions are of closed response type.
By considering the importance of interviews and paper pencil methods we can say that both are equally proportional. The interview selection is possible only if they candidates are limited. Hence we need to make use of paper based exams when the selection is for large organization where the number of applicants are large. paper and pencil based exams can reduce the selection period. Hence I agree that paper bade selection akin be substitute for interview selections if the majority of candidates applied are very high and if it is a massive recruitment. With this can save the selection time by eliminating disqualified candidates at this stage itself. Hence there is an equal role for paper based exams when compared with the interview methods in a selection processs.