Looking At The Act Of Public Speaking English Language Essay

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Introduction

Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages. Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions.

Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, however the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur.

Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, pictures, graphics and sound, and writing.

Refers to Wikipedia, Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures and evaluating. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur.

According to University of Wisconsin-Madison : Oral Presentation Advise, an oral presentation is similar to giving a speech, but the idea that it is a presentation invokes images of visual aids and teaching tools rather than just a single person talking behind a podium, as with a speech. An individual can give an oral presentation alone or as part of a group.

An oral presentation might come with the added component of using some type of technology, such as a slide show, video clip or audio portion. In this case, it might be called a multimedia presentation. Most oral presentations require the presenter to use a combination of spoken words and visual aids in order to present an idea or an explanation to a group of people.

They are several reasons why oral presentation are so important being carried out in English compared by other languages. As all student in this country trying to improves their knowledge in English, this is their chances. Try to talk commonly in English in their daily life and try to inject some of their knowledge in their communication with others. In oral presentation spec, it can be the way to upgrade their skill and ways to communicate with others.

By speaking and communicating maybe in front of hundreds of people using English, the person not only teach themselves how to control and communicate better, but the most important aspect is that they will improve their way to talk in English.

The other aspect is that, English is a common languages in the world. It is easy to understand and the thing is, every nation in this world learns this languages in their school. In some ways, English can be said as an international language and this language better understand by people.

Oral Communication Content

2.1 Speaking In A Formal Academic Context

In this chapter, listed 2 sub topic. They are Skills/Strategies in Relation to Academic and Professional Public Speaking and The Important of Audience Analysis.

2.1.1 Skill/Strategies In Relation To Academic And Professional Public Speaking

Before encountering an audience to present a paper, it is advisable that presenters do their home work. This would range from investigating on the audience, researching and writing the topic to presenting in front of audience members, and interacting with them.

It is very important for the presenter to make the initial preparations such as analyzing the audience, determining the purpose, gathering materials, organizing and writing main ideas, and preparing visual materials.

2.1.2 The Important Of Audience Analysis

Before encountering an audience to present a paper, it is advisable that presenters do their home work. This would range from investigating on the audience, researching and writing the topic to presenting in front of audience members, and interacting with them. It is very important for the presenter to make the initial preparations such as analyzing the audience, determining the purpose, gathering materials, organizing and writing main ideas, and preparing visual materials.

The important of the audience is that they are the one that hear and respond to the oral presentation. They are human and of course, they need to be attracted with some kind of presentation that can make them focus and rely on what the speech is all about. The presenter must alert and make the audience listen to them. Study them first or during the presentation.

If the respond is positive, that means the presentations is good and have its own quality but different situation if there are some or many audience start ignoring or just talking among them. The presenter must do something and of course, they need to act fast to avoid more audience feel boring.

2.2 Preparing Oral Presentation

In this chapter, there are 4 sub topic that will be discuses. There are purpose a topic, choosing appropriate support materials, writing in text and rehearsing the presentation.

2.2.1 Purpose a Topic

Topic given can be analyzed and be studied by the presenter before the presentation. It's important to ensure that the idea refers to the topic can be elaborated smoothly. There are many ways to study and prepare the topic.

They are so many reference can be made such as browsing the internet or using the old fashion way, refers to the book in the library or in the bookstore or just buy a magazine.

2.2.2 Choosing Appropriate Support Materials

Collecting material related to the topic of presentation would be one of the most important initial steps in preparing an oral presentation. If the content area that the presenter has been requested to talk about is unfamiliar to them, starting from scratch should be the practice.

The presenter should be aware from which sources to obtain the materials. Materials can also be in the form of drawing from one's experiences. Materials obtained need to be adapted so as not to go beyond the limitation of the content and also the time allocated for the presentation.

2.2.3 Writing In Text

The writing process can be a lot smoother if the presenter adheres to the outline. The speaker is at a stage where he/she has most of the materials ready. There are two aspects that a presenter should bear in mind when writing: first is language use; and second is style. Lastly, sentences constructed should be grammatically acceptable so that clarity and comprehensibility would be the outcome.

The presenter's notes can be in the form. What the presenter needs to do is to include the key words and the detailed points pertaining to the content. If the presenter is not comfortable with just including the main points, he/she can include the detailed points with longer sentences or phrases written on the cards.

The main aim of having the cards is to ensure a smooth delivery. One can forget easily what one is talking about, when one is in front of so many pairs of eyes. If there are no cards, there is nothing that a presenter could fall back to if they forget in the midst of the delivery.

2.2.4 Rehearsing The Presentation

The presenter can practice alone or with their friends. The presenter can audio or video record their delivery. The presenter should practice presenting with visual aids such as recorder or else. The obvious reason for having a rehearse is to be adequately prepared mentally and physically. After the rehearse, if the presenter feels that they has gone over the time limit then the content and probably the visual aids need to be adjusted and reduced according to the stipulated time.

The practice would heighten the presenter's confidence because the feeling of panic could be avoided and the feeling of nervousness could be controlled. For instance, practicing switching on the visual equipment may seem unnecessary and trivial.

2.3 Making Effectiveness Oral Presentation

These is the final chapter on how to make an effectiveness in oral communication. After the preparation have been made, it's time to make an oral presentation in front of the audience. They are 5 topic

2.3.1 Introducing The Topic

The presenter has given a topic and surely they have to bear in mind that they cannot run out of that. One of the solution that can be handy is that the presenter has to make a simple note attach in his palm during presentation. The note can be helpful in case the presenter have no more idea to speech. In other words, the has to make a note before the presentation.

To start, make sure the first impression of the audience towards the presenter is good. For example, the presenter can make a simple introduction of themselves or just a simple joke. The first impression is very-very important.

2.3.2 Presenting The Content

Base on the topic given, the presenter should know how to deliver and how to present the content. According to OUMH1303 module, when presenting the content, it is important to organize the presentation. The more time spend on presentation, the more organized and coherent the content of the speech.

There are listed 3 parts of presentation and there are introduction to the topic, body of a talk and lastly the conclusion.

2.3.3 Drawing Conclusion

The finishing part of a speech is another phase that is important. The audience should be made to feel that the speech is worth listening. A good conclusion should leave an impact on the audience. Some of the ways to end a speech is by asking thought-provoking questions, reciting a short poem, reading a brief philosophical phrase, and by showing a brief summary of the presentation on visuals.

They are 3 types of conclusion refers to Wikipedia and OUMH1303 module ;-

Straight

Summarizing

Inviting participation

2.3.4 Visual

The key in a good presentation is always rely on the presenter itself but to support the presenter to make an impact presentation is also know as a visual aids. The examples of this visual aids devided into 3 groups ;-

Unprepared metarials = consist of information which is not prepared in advance but are displayed to the audience there and then. The examples is writing board and the flipchart.

Prepared metarials = consist of information which is prepared in advance such as pictures, poster, models, slides and many more.

Visual equipment = the examples are LCD projectors, video CD's and computer.

Before the presentation, make sure all the things needed are in good condition. They will be difficulties if any of the virtual aids are not working well and it will effect the presentation.

2.3.5 Delivery Manner

The presenter needs to speak in a clear voice. The voice needs to be projected. Presenters should avoid from speaking in monotone. The speed of the voice production should be appropriate. The presenter should not speak so rapidly as to leave the audience restless, neither should presenter speak so slowly as to cause boredom.

Nonverbal elements such as physical appearance and body movements can convey certain meanings to the audience. Body language could also enhance the listeners' understanding and provide a better interpretation of what the presenter is trying to say. This shall be discussed in terms of physical appearance, body posture, gestures and facial expression.

Eye contact can improve rapport with members of the audience. Eye contact would also improve our voice projection because it forces us to raise our heads. Besides, maintaining eye contact also would give some clues of whether the audience is still with us or has gone adrift. The presenter should move their eyes all round the audience and not just glue their eyes to just a person or just a small group.

Feeling nervous is natural for anybody who is going to face an audience in a public speaking situation. For some individuals the entire body would shake, but for others the hands and fingers could be seen shaking, and yet there are others who would produce trembling voice. It is impossible to get rid of this feeling but it is possible to reduce it so that the presenter can have good control of the situation. There are some strategies that the presenter can employ to minimize fear.

Conclusion

Speaking in public is more towards braveness and in presenting something to the audience. The presenter has to make a very-very good preparation, in other word; they have to study further about the topic given. It's just in case that they are not just talking without no meaning.

No doubt, the first thing that we usually face when speaking in public is nervousness. It's normal to be nervous and have a lot of anxiety when speaking in public. Therefore we must understand our fear or nervousness and the only way to conquer fear is doing the things we fear to do. In order to over overcome our nervousness, we can always take a deep breath or even exercise such as running around the room or meditate before we speak in public can help us conquer the tension.

Lack of confidence is another problem that we usually need to overcome when speaking in public. Confidence comes from early preparation. Therefore we need to be well prepared before speaking in public. As the saying goes, "Practice makes perfect' and we must always remember that we are speaking for the audience benefit. We should organize our presentation as well as know how to connect it with our audience.

4.0 fERERENCES

http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/transaction.html

http://ghirlygz.blogspot.com

http://people.engr.ncsu.edu/txie/publications/oral_presentation_skills.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_communication#Oral_communication

OUMH1310 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION

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