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The objective of this innovation to find out the effect of using pictorial illustrations in enhancing memorization of aquaculture terminologies for aquaculture students at pre- intermediate level at Luong The Vinh Universty (LTVU) by using two methods of teaching aquaculture glossary: with and without pictorial illustration. It was hypothesized that the pictorial aided group would show better performance as a result of their benefit obtained from different teaching methods. To serve the purpose, the bottom up innovation combining with the problem solving model were applied to reflect on an immanent change. The results of the analysis from vocabulary tests and questionnaire show that the students who were offered the teaching of aquaculture terms with pictorial illustration could remember more words than the other group. This expected result shows that teaching aquaculture terminologies through pictorial illustrations is more effective than without pictorial illustrations.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Having worked as an ESP teacher teaching English for special purpose (ESP) at Luong The Vinh University (LTVU) for four years, the author realized that the students, except for some excellent ones, were not keen on learning (ESP) terminologies. For those, they fail to recognize or retain the terms they have learned because they have paid little attention on most mentioned terms. That is why they face so many difficulties in studying ESP, of which reading comprehension skill is of great importance. The question is that what should be done to encourage students to be more interested in learning vocabulary and to assist them to remember as many ESP terminologies as possible in order to improve their reading comprension. According to Holliday (1994: 162) "Achieving appropriate methodology depends on learning about what happens between people in the classroom." The key difficulty for them when they shift from EGP field to their ESP field is aquaculture lexis (specialized vocabulary). Aquaculture lexis is one brand of ESP terminologies whose meaning customarily, is only understood by people who working in aquaculture field. In order for aquaculture students to learn aquaculture English proficiently and better prepare for their future job, it is essential for ESP teacher to carry out appropriate teaching techniques that help students to remember the word meaning effectively and enlarge their stock of aquaculture vocabulary. A question came author's mind was whether using pictorial illustration in vocabulary teaching helps enhance aquaculture students' memorization of aquaculture lexis. An innovation research on whether using pictorial illustration in vocabulary teaching helps enhance aquaculture students' memorization of was carried out with third-year-aquaculture students who learn English as a second language.
With a concentration on the vocabulary teaching, the current innovation was designed to investigate the effects of pictorial illustrations on aquaculture student's memorization of aquaculture lexis, by comparing two ways of teaching aquaculture glossary: teaching the aquaculture terms in associate with corresponding pictures and teaching the terms without any pictures. The study aimed at discovering if the students who were introduced new terminologies associated with pictorial illustrations could remember aquaculture more terms than those without pictures, if they manage to remember more terms than their counterparts in particular.
This innovation only covered two teaching methods of teaching with pictures and teaching without pictures due to the scale of the study. In using pictorial illustration for aquaculture words, the study limited its scope only to dealt with aquaculture nouns and unmoving pictures
Is it possible for aquaculture students who are introduced new terminologies associated with pictorial illustrations to remember more terms than those without any pictures?
Null hypothesis: Aquaculture students who are introduced new terminologies associated with pictorial illustrations are unable to remember more terms than those without pictures
Alternative hypothesis: Aquaculture students who are introduced new terminologies associated with pictorial illustrations are able to remember more terms than those without pictures
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1.1 Teaching context
In Viet Nam, ESP has long been considered as an important subject because of its practically-related demand. To meet the demand of the real economic-social life, ESP is used in the curriculum of Viet Nam universities and colleges, and LTV University is no exception. At the University, ESP courses in different discipline areas such as Economics, Construction Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Foreign language and Tourism, Informatics Technology, and Agricultural sciences. However, teaching and learning ESP in Viet Nam in general and at LTV University in particular has still been far from satisfactory. Being an ESP teacher, the author does realize number of problems that the ESP teachers and students at LTV University encounter in teaching and learning ESP
Firstly, ESP teachers lack experience and knowledge in teaching ESP. Many of them have been teaching GE for along time with a little specialist knowledge of ESP so they find it difficult to deal with the content area.
Secondly, facilities used for teaching and learning foreign language are limited. Classrooms are not appropriately arranged for language classes which are not equipped with modern facilities such as Videos, Televisions or projectors.
Thistly, ESP materials do not meet the student's needs. Major ESP materials at Luong The Ving University is collected from the internet and redesigned by ESP teachers. The ESP books are lacking illustration for learning terminologies. Students fail to recognize or retain the terms they have learned because they have never contacted with most mentioned terms.
The last, in term of methodology, with the spread of learning central approach in Vietnam, strong versions of CLT is adapted in teaching ESP at the university. However, traditional method of teaching that is Grammar traditional method was still employed by ESP teachers. The teacher plays a key role in the classroom, speaking most of the time, explaining new terminologies and translating in to Vietnamese, students take notes passively. According to Mc Cook and Levis (2002, p. 148) refer to Ellis (1996) and state "Innovation will only succeed only if there is cultural continuity between CLT and more traditional forms." Hird (1995) also points out that "creating a positive learning environment" and "maintaining a cooperative atmosphere" were important for Vietnamese teachers.
From the above- mention arguments, it can be said that teaching context is one of vital aspects influencing the implementation of an educational innovation. In this situation, the teaching context played an important factor related to the success of the writer innovation.
2.1.2 The important of vocabulary in language teaching and learning
Regarding to the important of vocabulary in language teaching and learning Wilkins (1972, p.11) strongly confirms that "without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be convey." Mention on the important functions of vocabulary Harmer (1993: 153) states "If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary provides the vital organs and the flesh." Vocabulary is considered one of main feature in all language teaching and students must pay attention to learning words such as learning structure and practicing sound system (Edward 1997, p.149)
Apart from reading, speaking and writing skills, vocabulary regarded as an indispensable tool in language teaching and learning.
2.1.3 What does it mean to know a word
Referring to what does it mean to know a new word, Laufer (1997) shows that in most linguistic analyses, a word is described as a set of properties or features. Learners not only need to know the form of the words but also need to be conversant with its grammar. In agreement with this Ellis and Sinclair (1989) make a list of criteria for knowing a word: spelling and pronouncing the word correctly, recognizing the word in written or spoken forms, recalling the word when needed, using the word with the correct meaning, using the word in a grammatically correct way, knowing which other words that can (and can not) go with it, using the word in the right situation, knowing when and when not use it, knowing its positive or negative
connotations. Regarding to the aspects of vocabulary acquisition, Harmer (1993, p.75) points out learners need to be provided with the word sense relations to other words. The connections are composed of synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms. The learners should be aware of all aspects to fully know lexical term because "the goals of vocabulary learning must be more than simple covering a certain number of words on a word list." (Yanping & Xueqing, 2004, p. 17). On the other hand, all the criterion "can not occur simultaneously" (Sheehan, 2004, p.17) because learning and knowing words are an incremental process and it may take years of learning to fully know a word. In the context of this innovation, the concept of vocabulary memorization applies only to the meaning of the target words encountered in the specialized text (aquaculture text) and does not necessarily involve complete knowledge of the lexical items with all of its possible meaning.
2.1.4 Dual coding theory
Mentioning on the dual-coding theory of information storage Paivio (1986) explains that memory is composed of two separate but interrelated codes for processing information- one verbal and other visual. Although the verbal and visual systems can be activated independently, there are interconnection between them that allow dual coding information. The verbal system associated with right hemisphere processing; specialize in processing and storing abstract concepts and linguistic information such as words, sentences. On the other hand the visual system, associated with left hemisphere processing, specializes in processing and storing image or picture-like presentation. From the dual theory, three proposions are raised as follow
a. Different processing of words and pictures
Words and pictures are processing differently, according to Frost (1988) when looking at a picture, it is often required to access its semantic presentation meanwhile when looking at a word, it does not necessarily access its semantic presentation. Bajo (1998, p.581) states "a picture must be meaning fully identified" in contrast, a word "may be named before its meaning is active." It means that, picture accesses meaning directly and phonemic features indirectly. On the contrary, words access phonemic features directly, and meaning after some phonetic processing.
b. The superiority of pictures over words
Paivio (1991, p.265) strongly claims that "mnemonic superiority of the image code over the verbal code" which make pictures more direct, more accurate, and more memorable than words. The reason why is pictorial cues gone into the memory more directly and accurately than words. Noldy, Stelmack and Campbell (1990) explain that pictures are more accurate because they are more distinctive and more unique than the words that label them. To explain why pictures are more memorable than words, Noldy, Stelmack and Campbell (1990) also confirm the early processing of pictures is controlled, influenced by attention, meanwhile the early processing of words is automatic, unaffected by attention.
c. Dual codings are more memorable than those coded only in one mode.
Referring to the effects of combining visual and verbal cue alone, Saavedra (1999, in IARE, 2003, p.16) asserts that "the proponents of this theory believe that dual coded information is much easier to retain and retrieve because of the availability of two mental representations (verbal and visual) instead of one." In the sense, Jones (2004) supports that the combination visual and verbal cues are more effective than either cue alone. Mayer's generative theory of multimedia learning (1997, 2001) shows that in order to meaning fully comprehend a text in a multimedia format, learners must select relevant pictorial and/or linguistic information from it, organize the input in to coherent visual and verbal mental representations, and then integrate the later by constructing referential connections between the two.
Base on the above- mentioned dual coding theory, It can be said that pictures are faster and easier to recall than verbal information.
2.1.5. Common activities of teaching word meaning using pictorial illustration
There are many dissimilar ways in which the meaning of words can be communicated and explained. According to Allen (1983) teacher may bring the real objects to the class room and associate the objects with words. Or teacher may perform the actual action and associate the action with the word denoting it. Teacher may also show the relevant picture of the object or the event which communicates the meaning of the word. With the addition of activities, Thirumalai (2002) states teacher can give explanations in the student's own language or use the words in English already known to the students to give definition in simple English.
In connection with the use of picture to present the word meaning, teacher may display the image of the concept by performing following activities: drawing the concept on the board, sticking or hanging pictures on the wall, using projector to display the image. Concerning to these types of activities, teacher may write the word on the board and pronounce the words, then students will associate the written form with the pronunciation of the word. Seeing the images, associating the images with the written form while hearing the word pronounced all help the students to internalize the meaning as well as the form of the word.
To sum up, teachers may investigate many vocabulary teaching methods in order to assist students enrich their vocabulary.
2.2 Literature review related to innovation
2.2.1 Innovation and its rationale
To illustrate the term innovation, Cook (1996, p.16) states the typical basic of innovation is a new change and "innovation is understood as a change which introduces some thing 'new', that is the introduction of an element or a configuration which was not or had not been there before."
In the same vein, Nicholls ( 1983, p.4) asserts innovation is "an idea, object or practice perceived as new by an individual or individuals, which is intended to bring about improvement in relation to desired objective, which is fundamental in nature and which is planned and deliberate".
The success and failure of an innovation is unpredictable, White (1998) states innovation, on one hand, can be perceived as an attempt to change thing for the better, but on other hand, can be viewed as an intentional try out to find whether a new idea works well or not in a particular social and cultural context.
The author comes up with these varieties of viewpoint, it should be noted that the definition of innovation can be understood as a new way of doing something for the purpose of improvement and the findings may be positive
negative or accidental. This innovation was considered a representative innovation theory because the innovator realized that the current vocabulary teaching method was not effective. The writer would like to change the traditional method by using pictorial illustration in teaching terminologies with the purpose that the innovation could help students enhance remember more new words.
2.2.2 The models of innovation
a. The problem-solving model
Problem solving model is concerned with problem finding and problem shaping. According to Havelock (1973, p. 87), after identifying possible solutions, a process of adaptation, trial and evaluation follows, during which users assess whether the solutions they have devised really solve their problems. If the solutions are deficient or unsatisfactory, the process begins again until the users find the solutions that work (p.87). To emphasize the problem solving model in theory the mainly method to promote in education Markee (1997, p.67) points out "coupled with a normative - reductive strategy of changing is theoretically the most popular approach to promoting change in education." By characteristics, this model is combination with the bottom up process of innovation as determined by White (1988, p: 118)
"If an innovation is indigenous to an institution, the process will tend to be from the bottom up whereas an innovation introduced from outside may follow a top- down process." The problem solving model was applied in this innovation research because the researcher who realized the problems of her classes, articulated and solved the problems. She was working as the inside change agent with the participation of the students as the clients.
b. The social interaction model
Mentioning the origination of the social interaction model (Havelock 1973 as cited in White 1988) states that the social interaction model is understood as the flow of knowledge from research to practice takes place via social networks, rather than through the series of logical steps. Regarding to the exchange relationships of the social interaction model Havelock (1971, p.42) also asserts "social interaction is not merely a matter of passively receiving from others; it is also a matter of give-and take, of mutual influence and two-way communication". Referring to the role of social interaction model in EFT innovation, White (1988, p.126) points out "Social interaction model may well be an appropriate way of accounting for the diffusion of some innovation in EFT."
In addition, social interaction model is summarized as a process in which people act towards or respond to each other.
In this innovation, the researcher is also connected to the social interaction model in the sense that based on the use of pictorial illustration in teaching terminologies it can be effective to aquaculture students in particular and ESP students in general (Civil construction, Information Technology, Mechanical engineering).The effective findings of the present innovation may be applied by ESP teachers and included in the curriculum and materials for the students at LTV University.
2.3.3 The type of social change
In this innovation, the author has been teaching English for Aquaculture-majored students at (LTVU) for more than three years. She understands her students' needs, desires, their weaknesses and strength, their learning styles and preference in their learning of Aquaculture English. The author was also the person who carried out this innovation thus she was the one who clearly understood what techniques and teaching aids need to be used, what to teach and how to reach her goal in each vocabulary lessons. The researcher herself realized the need for change and she also thought of the solution, therefore it could be described as a bottomed-up process and immanent change is the typical of social change in this innovation. As pointed out by Markee (1997, p. 48). "Immanent change (or self-motivated change) occurs when the persons who recognize a need for change and those who propose solutions to a perceived problem are all part of the same social system."
2.2.3 The roles of stakeholder
Stake holder refers to a person, group or organization that is actively concerned with the innovation. White (1988) states stakeholders as all the people who are involved in an innovation. Discussing about the role of the stakeholders in education Fullan (1982, quoted in Markee, 1997, p, 43) strongly confirms that "Teachers are key players in all language teaching innovations; however, many other individuals also have a stake in the innovation process." The teacher firstly must search instructional resources and materials and help students access them. She (or he) also needs to be the ones who helps students identify and coordinate the best means to achieve their goals (Cook, 1997, as quoted in Brian, 1997).Taking these into consideration, in this innovation the role of an adopter, implementer, and also change agent was for the author because only the author herself realized the problem and she was the person who performed this innovation to achieve the goal. The students took part as the clients who received the innovation.
2.2.4 The Institution and Classroom culture
(LTVU) is located in Loc Vuong Ward Nam Dinh city. It was established on December 5th, 2003 and named after Luong The Vinh a well-known First Doctoral Candidate who was born in Nam Dinh Province in 15th century. With the desire to become a center for human resources training of a high quality and for conducting scientific research, not only in the southern area of the Red River Delta, but also nationwide, the University focuses on improving quality, innovating the present training programs and developing new one, enhancing standards of lectures to meet innovation requirements of training program.
At LTV University, GE is taught for 1st year, 2nd year students and ESP to 3rd year students. Students come from different towns or cities so they have different backgrounds, for instant, some students comes from urban areas (Nam Dinh, Thanh Hoa, Thai Binh) learn English better than other students from rural areas. Besides, they are taught by the same syllabi of GE and ESP. Students are facing many difficulties in learning ESP, especially, for Aquaculture-majored students. Aquaculture is a newly-born major in Vietnam and is taught at a few universities. Students of aquaculture major, who are trained to be aquaculture engineers, need English for a variety of communicative situation of their jobs. For such reasons, aquaculture engineers must have a good knowledge of aquaculture, particularly the vocabulary of their field- aquaculture lexis- for their work successfully. In such circumstances, the lecturers of aquaculture English for non- native students are facing the tasks to meet the requirement by means of reliable syllabus, class materials and techniques, in order to facilitate learners to adequately master aquaculture English and aquaculture terminologies. In terms of teaching Aquaculture English at LTV University, it is a fact that the use of illustrations still remained limited not only the course books but also in the vocabulary teaching in class. The main course book A course of English for Aquacultures (LTV University, 2008). The content of the book was collected from different sources on the internet. In respect of the vocabulary teaching in the institution, it is found that the ESP teachers do not use pictures in their teaching. Some teachers explain that it takes time and money to collect and present pictures to the whole class. In class the ESP teachers often require students to read through the texts for the first time and list the new words on the board, and then they supply the words meaning and phonemic transcription. In teaching aquaculture gloss at (LTVU), the teacher poorly supplied the definition without any other assistance. Teaching the words list in such way does not raise students awareness and interest about the words, students may not remember the words longer (Carrell, 1984). . Learners may not remember the new words because "the learning is not given any further assistance". In a study of L2 vocabulary learning techniques, Oxford and Crookall (1990) show that most learners are capable of associating new information to concepts in memory by means of meaning full visual imagines that make learning more efficient. According to Underwood (1989, p.19) "we remember imagines better than words, hence we remember words better if they are strongly associated with imagines." The definitions by Nicholls (1983, p.4) and White (1988, p.114) show that innovation can be summarized as an attempt to "seek for appropriate method". Considering this and hinging the assumption that if the teaching of aquaculture vocabulary is associated with pictorial illustration, aquaculture students will acquire the words better, this innovation was carried out in order to find an effective way in teaching terminologies.
For above reasons, Luong The Vinh University is deemed as an ideal culture for this innovation comes to pass because "cultures are not rooted in absolutes. They are products of human activity and thinking and, as such, are people-made." (Murphy 1986 quoted in Holliday 1994, p. 260). The success or failure of an innovation is unpredictable, it depends on organizational culture, the social features of all the people involved. In the same vein, Halliday believes "there is a deep element to what happens between people in the classroom, consisting of psycho-social, informal and micro-political factors influenced by the wider social environment, and that only by attending to these can appropriate methodologies be devised".
This innovation was made the first move by the needs for change and it was derived from teaching context and classroom culture of the university where it occurred so it was a successful innovation.
Chapter 3: Innovation methodology
3.1 Innovation methodology
Pre-experiment method was used in this study to investigate the effect of using pictorial illustration on students' vocabulary memorization. Nunan (1998) points out that experiments are often carried out exploring the strength of the relation ship between the variables.
3.1.1 The material
The vocabulary lessons were designed with 45 minutes and aquaculture items were mainly selected from specialized texts in the course book for aquaculture students: A course of English for Aquaculture (LTV University).
Each lessons were presented about 25 aquaculture terminologies and the terms were chosen based on some criterion such as; the frequency of using, visual complexity, part of speech and for whether the words involved concrete or abstract concepts. The pictures used in this study are those depicting nautical concepts and some supplementary pictures for concepts that belong to general purpose were also presented to helps strengthen learner's interpretation of the specialized terms. With special reference to nautical concepts, the pictures used in this study were collected from the internet sources.
Taking part in the innovation is 50 third-year students of aquaculture department are studying at two classes, which are called experiment group (E) and control group (C). There are only two classes of the third- year aquaculture-majored students at Faculty of Agriculture Science at LTV University and the researcher of this study would like to choose the total of number students to participate in the innovation. They are 29 females which is 58% and 21 are men which accounts for 48%. The respondent's age is between 19 and 20. This age criteria were chosen because students of 19- 20 years olds account for major population. According to Hastings (2005), the study did not target learners of different age groups because the gap among student age may cause student different ability of receiving and remembering information. The students have been acquired the equal background knowledge and skills of English by studying GE for two years in a 240 hour teaching progamme at the university. New Headway Elementary and Pre- intermediate has been adopted for the syllabus. In the third-year, they have learnt English for Aquaculture for three weeks (6 lessons) before the experiment.
Both groups were taught the same number of words in specialized texts in A course book for Aquaculture Student (Luong The Vinh University, 2008). The innovation was conducted in three - week programme with two teaching hour of forty-five - minute each week.
3.1.3 Data collection instruments
In order to seek the answer to the research question on vocabulary tests and questionnaires were employed as the data collection instruments.
In this study, the researcher used the same content of the test for pre-test and post-test before and after the experiment to measure the exactly words students could remember. The tests were designed in matching format, covering the same 50 words. The post- test of control and experiment group was the same in content but different in format. The post test of control group matched the terminologies with glossary but the post-test of the experimental group matched the terminologies with the pictures. The data collected from the two tests were analyzed using the t-test. According to Tilley (1990: 165): 'T-tests are a way of deciding if one or two sets of scores are random samples from a specific populationâ€¦t-test aims to determine whether the null hypothesis is rejected or retained. The null hypothesis always assumes that the sample have come from same population. In the other words, it states that the independent variable has a null effect'.
Besides the tests, questionnaires also were collected. The questionnaires are merely open questions. The open-form (unrestricted) type of questions, calling for free response, provides greater depth of response (Brown, 2001; Wallace, 2000). So that the investigator could gather and analyze the data collected simply and at the same time could obtain more valuable information from the respondents. The questionnaire is composed of ten questions were divided in to two sections. The fist section consists of five questions in order to get information on the attitude of the students to using pictorial illustration in enhancing memorization of aquaculture terminologies. There are five questions in the second section is to collect information about student's suggestions for the future program.
The innovation study was carried out at two aquaculture classes E and C at Faculty of Agriculture at LTV University and detail about each stage is presented as follows:
What was done
When was done
One week before the study
A week after the treatment
Table 1- Experiment procedure
First, the pre-test was administered at the beginning of the experiment a week to determine student's prior knowledge of aquaculture vocabulary.
Second, the post-test was administered after the treatment a week to find out whether teaching vocabulary with pictorial illustration enhanced learner's better acquisition of these terminologies.
The time allowance for each test is 30 minutes and the test was delivered for both groups and then collected and graded by the writer.
The data collected from the two tests were analyzed and the results from the data analysis will be presented and discussed in chapter 4.
The questionnaire was complied with the supporter of 25 students at experiment groups after the treatment finishing a week. The innovator got the questions back after half an hour delivery. Questionnaires were collected and the data obtained were processed and analyzed. With 25 questionnaires issued, 25 were collected.
Chapter 4: Data analysis & discussion
4.1.1 Comparing pre-test and post-test results between control and experimental groups.
Control group (N1)
Experimental group (N2)
Table 2: Descriptive statistics for the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental and control group
Table 2 summaries the pre-test and the post-test results of the control and target groups. The pre-test's result of control group and target groups were almost the same. It can be revealed from the table that there were difference between the pre-test and post-test result of that the control students improved after the treatment. The students in target group improved significantly their performance after the experiment. This table indicates that the experiment class has higher means, modes and medians of the post test compared to the pretest. In the pre- test the experimental class had the mean of 50.68 It means that the central tendency of the score is 50.68 However, the mean of the pre- test was 75.44. It was higher than it was in the pre- test. The standard deviation dropped from 10.56 to 8.98. It shows that in the pre-test the dispersion was small. The result shows that the researcher has achieved success to some extent. That is to say the students in the experiment group got better answers in all the test items in the pre- test.
The values of standard deviation of the post test for the control are higher than the equivalents for the target group. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test and the differences are statistically significant. There is an improvement in aquaculture terminologies of the two groups after the treatment and the change for the better of the two classes in the pre-tests compared to the post-test. The result of pre-test and post-test were significant that supports the claim that students who were taught aquaculture terminologies by using illustration pictures get better scores than those were taught conventionally.
4.1.2 Comparison the ability to remember the words between two groups.
Table 3: Mean gains of the experimental and control group
The table 3 shows the differences in mean gains of the two group in both pre-test and post-test. The mean gained score of experiment group was 26.4 points higher than that of the control group (12.64 points). Also, standard deviation of control group is smaller than target group (8.24) comparing to (9.23). The T- value (T= 17.04) of the experiment group was significant because the p-value was smaller than 0.05 (p= 0.045) and the values of T- value is 17.04 greater than tcrit (2.11). The statistic mean the null hypothesis that teaching with pictorial illustration does not help learners recognize the word meaning better, therefore rejected. And the alternative hypothesis teaching with pictorial illustration help learners recognize the word meaning better, was accepted. There was a significant difference between the two groups after three weeks experiment. The result suggested that teaching aquaculture terminologies by using pictorial illustration is able to enhance student's memorization aquaculture terminologies.
4.1. 4 Subject attitude of the experiment
In order to elicit student attitudes about the innovator experiment in experimental group a questionnaire including 10 questions was collected by 25 students. Here are the results.
The result from questionnaire (appendix 4) revels that the majority of students have their ideas that they are not only enjoying having participated in the experiment but they are also interested in improving aquaculture terms with pictorial illustration.
With respect to students attitude to the use of pictorial illustration in enhancing memorization of aquaculture terms, the highest percentage fell on the item Pictorial illustration helps me to remember the aquaculture terms better (96% of students answered strongly agree and 4% of them answered agree). 24 students thought that pictorial illustration made them be more interested in and more enjoyable with vocabulary lessons. 20% of students strongly agree and 16% agree that they were attracted by the curiosity of pictorial illustration in learning vocabulary. 23 students are of the same opinion the use of illustration pictures make the class more active and alive. Correspondingly, 92% of students said that using pictorial illustration in teaching aquaculture terminologies help them to understand ESP reading texts more. Student's attitude result from the questionnaires shows that using pictorial illustration in teaching vocabulary is necessary
As can be seen from the result of questionnaires about the students suggestion for the future program. 92% of students shared the same idea that they would like to have more chances to improve aquaculture lexis with pictorial illustration. 21 students confirmed that they continued to exploit pictorial illustration in learning vocabulary. Nearly 100% of students agree that using pictorial illustration in teaching aquaculture terminologies is essential for me to improve ESP reading skill. Exception one student did not fall in with majority of students that the use of pictorial illustration should be considered and included in the curriculum and material for aquaculture. 23 of 25 students have agreed on pictures should be added in technical books to illustrate technical concepts.
4.1.4 Discussion of the finding
Basing on the findings of the data analysis by mean of t-test and questionnaire reported in the previous section, this section provides some discussion on the basic of the main finding.
The first, the research question compares the effectiveness of two teaching methods: one with pictorial illustration and one without pictorial illustrations. The result revealed significant difference between the two groups performance. In an attempt to make pictorial illustration efficient to aquaculture students in particular and students of technical fields in general therefore pictorial illustration should be considered and concluded in the curriculum and materials for the students. Pictures should be added in technical books to illustrate technical concepts.
The second, the result of the innovation revealed that using pictorial illustration in teaching aquaculture terminologies was an effective method to enhance student's memorization vocabulary and motivation in learning vocabulary. Besides, the finding also suggested that the way of teaching vocabulary should be applied in teaching terminologies not only for aquaculture subject but also for other ESP subjects.
The dual coding theory states that when both verbal and visual material are present, learners can construct referential connection s between these two forms s of mental representation, and thus learn more effective (Al-Segher, 2001). Oxford and Crookall (1990) further explain that the combination of pictures and text accesses more parts of the brain, thereby leading to greater depth of processing than when text is processed alone. The finding of the current study not only confirm the result of the previous study but further confirm the theory in the literature that pictorial illustration is an effective way to improve learner's vocabulary acquisition (Alghayer, 2001, Bajo, 1998, Campbell, 1990; Frost, 1988; Jones, 2004; Oxford & Crookall, 1990)
Chapter 5: Evaluation and Conclusion
This innovation was successful because of some main reasons
Firstly, it had positive results as expected because it was done with a well planed by early adopter with the desire for change in the vocabulary teaching method and it was derived from teaching context and classroom culture of Luong The Vinh University where it occurred.
Secondly, it was carried out by a combination of problem solving and bottom-up process. This is considered a typical model and process to sort out classroom problems and achieve great success in innovation.
Thirdly, it got supports from the dean, the teaching staff, students' enthusiasm and no resisters.
Fourthly, the students are not only more motivated in the vocabulary lesson lessons but also more confident in learning the fours language skills.
Finally, the positive finding can help students find out the appropriate way to enhance their vocabulary memorization and it can be applied not only in teaching English for Aquaculture but also in teaching other technical subjects.
Connecting the successful innovation to "Five core Characteristic of
Innovation" by Roges (1983 cited in Markee, 1997, p.59): Relative advantage, Compatibility with previous practice. Complexity, Trialability and Obserbility are reflected in this innovation.
Firstly, the writer found that at LTV University, the ESP teachers only lists the new words on the board, and then they supply the words meaning and phonemic transcription. The fact, ESP students didn't keen on learning terminologies so they faced many difficulties with ESP reading skill. Besides, ESP teachers were not aware of the advantages of using pictorial illustration in teaching aquaculture terms. This problem is not so complicated and it may be carried out. The writer decided to make an innovation because she realized that student's memorization can be improved by using pictorial illustration in teaching aquaculture terms. The positive finding of the innovation may be not only applied by the ESP teachers but also included in the curriculum and materials for the ESP students at LTV University as pointed out by Havelock (1973, p. 72) the flow of knowledge from the research to practice take places via social network.
From above mentioned- arguments, five core characteristic of innovation played an important role in the success of this innovation.
First of all, the innovation was not conducted on the basis of the random assignment because there are only two third- year aquaculture students so the study would be more persuasive if the sampling were random
The other reason is that, the research was carried out with a small number of participants (N=50). The result taken from the research would more generalizable and reliable if the study were conducted in a larger number of students.
Lastly, the innovation study coped with aquaculture nouns, for that reason further innovation need to exam the effects of glosses with other parts of the speech such as verb, preposition, adverb, adjective.
In this innovation, the hypothesis whether using pictorial in teaching aquaculture terminology brings the positive effect on the third-year student at Faculty of Agriculture at LTV University was tested. From the innovation finding, it is suggested that using pictorial illustration is one way to effectively increase memorization vocabulary at Faculty of Agriculture Science at LTV University. This also means that the positive finding should be applied to improve the current reading text book on Agriculture in particular and on technical text books at LTV University in general.
In conclusion, the aims of the innovation have been achieved and it is hope that the innovation will make a significant contribution to better the current situation of teaching and learning vocabulary not only in Agriculture Science but also in other faculties at LTV university.