Lingua Franca All Over The World English Language Essay

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It is a fact that English is known as lingua franca all over the world. Most of the People communicate in English all over the world. Through this process, it is a natural phenomenon that many words of the local languages become part of the variety of English that is spoken in a specific region. The research is to find Pakistani local words that have become an element of the English language used in Pakistani culture. It is a study of Pakistani local words that have become the component of English in everyday communication. For this study we have selected the language of newspaper as it represents the language in use. English daily "Dawn" and "The News" were selected for this purpose as they are the most recognized and reliable newspaper in Pakistan. This paper illuminates that there are a large number of local words which are part of English due to many factors.

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Newspapers have become the necessity of modern man. Most of the people start their day by reading the newspaper they cannot make up their morning without newspaper. This is the reason that newspapers have got their way all over the world. They are available in every language all over the world that even a common man can get benefit of them. Newspapers reveal and expose that what is happening around you and keep us in contact with the society. Usually, they reflect all the fields of life whether they are general, public, local, social, political, cultural etc.

English newspaper is a major source of language learning for English language learners. By reading newspaper they can improve their skill of reading. But it never means that they have to read the newspaper thoroughly, they can usually find out their interested topics and scan it if it is interested they read it thoroughly. When they read the newspaper on daily basis they may absorb a lot of information and have a good storage of vocabulary.

Newspaper is a great tool for language teachers to demonstrate the skills of reading and writing and it also helps to form the structure of English. By reading the newspaper the student will be able to comprehend the concepts of grammar and its application. It is the beneficial for the learners to learn English inside or outside the classroom. By using the newspaper the students may also update their current knowledge with learning English.

It is a common analysis in Pakistan that when we observe the content of English newspaper we usually find such words that are emerged from English into Urdu or other local languages due to culture association and bilingualism. One must have command on English language to describe the ideas in an effective way because the news profession is associated with proper usage of words and phrases.

English plays a vital role in every field of life, it is necessary for news editors and reporters of Pakistan to play an effective role in news editing. This research is an analysis of language conversion in Pakistani English newspaper due culture association or bilingualism. Based on the data gathered from Pakistani English newspaper, this research shows the English words that have been converted into Urdu or other local languages of Pakistan. This research demonstrates how the English language is used in anon-native context. This also indicates that different verities and changing are associated with bilingualism and multilingualism.

This research aims to show the different verities of English due to language conversion in Pakistan and indicates the vital role of Urdu and other local languages to form the Pakistani English. We have discussed those specific features that have been occurred as a result of conversion. We have analyzed the data which is concerned with Urdu words and phrases. This research describes the various causes due to which language changes occur in Pakistani context.

English is a global language that has a unique status all over the world. It is the language of millions of people around the world. It is an observation that the amount of non-native speakers of English is more than the native speakers. English is an international language and it used widely all over the world because the trend of speaking English is increasing day by day and the people have started using English in their daily conversation. When they use it in a non-native context it expands as a replaced and reoriented language.

English has acquired a dominant position in Pakistan. It is not only useful for being professional but it is considered the sign of victory, authority, and social supremacy. This kind of authority is clearly seen in Pakistan and the people swap from their local languages to English to be dominant member of the society. On the other hand, Urdu is also considered an official language as English. It is the language of literacy in Pakistan. The educated people of Pakistan consider it an ordinary thing to use Urdu feature into English. When two or more languages exchange or get in touch with each other it causes conversion.

English has its own social and cultural status that is distinguished from the other languages at the word and phrase level. It is natural phenomenon that when English language gets in touch with Urdu it borrows a lot of words from Urdu and other local languages. A large amount of Urdu and other loan words have been entered in Pakistani English. They may at word, phrase or clause level. This research is to see through the conversion data in Pakistani English newspapers.

The data is collected from the Pakistani English newspapers:

1. Dawn (daily) (Lahore)

2. The news

Statement of the Problem

This research is based on the analysis of English newspaper and to check the frequency of words occurred in Urdu or other local languages.

Objectives of the Study

This study aims to find out the words of Pakistani languages that have been occurred in English newspaper, in Daily Dawn and The news.

To compare the common words occurred in both newspapers.

Research Questions

How do the Pakistani languages affect the English of newspaper?

To what extent are the words of Pakistani languages used in "The News" and "The Dawn"?

Significance of Study

This study of newspaper provides us a thorough survey to what extent the Urdu words have been used in English newspapers. As newspaper is a source of communication and among the people it is also a medium of communication. Through English newspaper one can enrich his/her vocabulary and increase reading skill and speed. It is beneficial for studying English Language because it contains a lot useful words. This is a beneficial research for

Language improvement of policy makers

Teachers

Students

Readers

Assessment institutions.

Delimitation

The researchers have studied ten newspapers issues of both "Daily Dawn" and "The News" on daily basis due to the time cost constraints and because they are the oldest source of information.

CHAPTER 2

Literature Review

Discourse of Newspaper

Writing of English newspaper started from 17th century. At first the newspaper was started only with news not having comments as commenting was regarded against the rules of journalism. Newspaper language was established in 19th century as a specific variety of style described for the particular communicative purpose. It contained a structure of phraseological, interrelated lexicon and grammatical means not only providing information, instruction but also amusing the readers. Newspaper contains views and comments of news reporters.

As the basic function of newspaper is to convey information of the text that is printed for this purpose is known as newspaper language variety. The vocabulary used in newspaper writing is literary and neutral but it has its particular features. It contains bookish words that are emotionally colored and based on metaphors, special political and economic terms, non political term words, stereotyoped expressions, abbreviation and foreign words. Every news that is written in the newspaper is transmitted through the language. When a message is transmitted through language it entails values of encoding. That's why the language encompass is cultural and emotionaly loading (Reah, 1998).

Discourse refers to written and spoken communication. In the oxford English dictionary the definition of discourse of newspaper is given as the reporting of recent occurrences and events conveyed to a person as new occurrence, new information as a subject of talk. A large number of audience is addressed through the newspaper. The reader of the newspaper assumes to receive reports based on the facts. Actually, the reader often wonders about the facts described in newspaper. But the author expects that the reader may accept the reports as facts.

It refers to how language is used in newspaper to shape the beliefs and ideas. The facts are collected and described objectively by journalists then they are presented in a newspaper in language that is agreeable and undistorting to readers.

Language of Pakistani English Newspaper

English newspapers published in Pakistan contain such language which carries a lot of linguistic features that are taken from the local linguistic characteristics to make the communication successful for the local readers. (Grover, Nishi, Deepak, 2004). The insertion of local linguistic features makes interaction easier with the reader. In a non-native world the function of language will be different according to the requirements of the users. This may transfer the language in such a way that it might be unknown to the native people.

Modern means of communication are the sources that promote such a variety. Newspapers are one of the major means of communication. Obviously, Pakistani English newspapers are considered as a mean of promoting Pakistani English language variety as a separate variety. There is logic behind the idea of such a linguistic change. The logic is not only the ability to write and talk fluently but also the ability to make the communication comprehensible.

Language changes with time and there are a lot of features that cause that change. As a person grows a lot of factors like family, region and culture can influence the language development of a person. A culture can introduce different words which gradually become part of the language. Human beings can express thoughts and communicate with each other through language. Simply the word that is uttered by a person carrying some meaning is known as language, whereas, the culture may be referred to the activities and doings of people. Every culture has its own identity. Culture includes religion, dress, art, games, music, rituals and law. This idea of language change has been discussed by different school of thoughts. Here we find the diversity among the linguists about language change in non-native contexts.

Purists are of the view that if non-native speakers have to decide the future of language and they have to decide its future language structure it will collapse and result in an incomprehensible language. (Kachru, 1992). On the contrary, the sociolinguists have different opinion. They believe that the sociolinguistic features of English in its international context are not well understood. According to Hassan (2004) when a language is taken by one community from another it raises from a number of elements in a society.

Baumgadnar (1985) further elaborates this point by relating it with the language of Pakistani newspaper. He proves his point by giving a number of evidences from local Pakistani newspaper increasing them into various types. One of the major types of innovation is word borrowing. Thomason and Kaufman (1988) describe that borrowing is the involvement of the characteristics of other language into the native language of a speaker. The language of native speaker does not change but the change occurs due to adding incorporated characteristics. Coetsem's (1988) defines the borrowing as when the language speaker is using the language in any other context, it incorporates the features of other languages. If Urdu speaker is speaking English language the transfer of the English language into Urdu is called borrowings.

According to Bloomfield (1933), who was the first who attempted this study and classified the lexical borrowing into dialect borrowing and cultural borrowing. Dialect borrowing is where the borrowings are from the same speech and cultural borrowing is where the borrowings are from different languages. In cultural borrowing the words from the other cultures are borrowed. The word "spaghetti" is an Italian word which is used in the culture of language from where it is borrowed. Certainly, it is an essential phenomenon especially when we talk about the effect of different languages on English.

Baumgardner (1993) observes a large amount of loan words from the regional languages of Pakistan which have got their way in daily communication. The borrowed words are also used with grammatical system of English words like "jirgas" and "goondas" which are taken from local language but used in English grammar.

Non-native Varieties of English

According to Kachru (1978) who first introduced the nativized English variety in South Asia and he calls it English of South Asian people. Kachru points that South Asian English is another linguistic phenomenon that helps in the identity of culture. He states that nativization should be considered the result of innovative trend in linguistics. These innovations are determined through the localized form of second language. After this development the new and non-native varieties of English were gradually recognized like Indian English, Sri Lankan English, Singaporean English, Nigerian English and Pakistani English.

New varieties of English are termed as "there are many recognizable varieties of written and spoken by a large number of people". No new variety of language is developed in isolation but it is dependent on the people's communication needs who speak and write it. This kind of variety is known as interference variety because there is interference of culture and language in the culture and first language of the user.

Several changes occur when the people of a language use it in various cultural situation or social context. When a non-native speaker uses second language, he develops totally new version of expressions according to the communication requirements. If the bilingual person is the user of non-native variety then the different kinds of switching transcription of codes, mixing and alteration are manifested in creativity. When two or more languages get in touch with one another it causes the innovation. One of the major means of creativity in language is bilingualism (Talaat, 2003). The non-native verities are widely spread and have stable position that they are regarded as native like English. (Quirk, 1983).

Bilingual Creativity in Pakistani English Newspaper

The stylistics innovation and experimentation has found its peak in literature and journalism. English writing tradition is old before the partition. But in present decades writing is recognized at a national level. A national award is awarded by a national academy of letters for literature and journalists every year. English press has a large influence in the sub-continent, the reason is that the educated class which is involved in the policy making reads and utilizes it. One can find at least a recognized English newspaper in an average-sized city.

Pakistan is a country with multilingual speaker. Urdu is its national language and it is the mother tongue of almost 7.57 percent people of Pakistan, although it is used at a wide range in the urban areas of Pakistan. English is still the official language of Pakistan as it was when British ruled in the subcontinent. There are some other major languages of Pakistan that are:

Pakistani languages

Languages

Percentage of speakers

Urdu

7.57

Pashto

15.42

Sindhi

14.10

Punjabi

44.15

Balochi

3.57

Other

4.66

Source: Census 2001: 107

English is the official language of Pakistan. It is government language, military language, language of business contracts, signs of shops, many street signs and other enterprises use English. It is the language of law also. In most of Pakistani schools, medium of instruction is English and it is taught to all Pakistani students at school level, while at university and college level medium of instruction is English. English is boasted by the media and press of Pakistan at large scale. All the major newspapers of Pakistan are published in English. A major news channel of Pakistan is Dawn news.

English has become a medium of communication and to convey the message for many years but the cultural aspects are not conveyed in English language. This term is adopted by the news reporter to report the news items. These trends are used for various purposes like irony, cultural meaning and satire. Urdu symbols and metaphors are used regularly and frequently in Pakistani English. These kinds of symbols and metaphors represent the localized behaviours and attitudes and Pakistan social traditions. It is necessary the reader/listener to be familiar with the situation and cultural background to understand the metaphor and the meaning carried by speaker/listener. According to Littlemore (2001) the metaphors are inferred through the knowledge that is shared with culture because these metaphors are culturally associated.

Rationale of the Study

This study shows that a lot of Urdu and other local words are used in English newspapers. This kind of conversion is introducing a new variety of English in Pakistan and even the vocabulary is changing. The major cause of this change in vocabulary is the switching of English with local languages of Pakistan. An intensive and detailed study of newspapers indicates that in Pakistani English columns especially in news section localized words are found to a great extent. The comparison of "the News" and "The Dawn" shows the difference between the local and standard variety of English. This research indicates that the emerging trends in English newspaper have a great influence on Pakistani English at words and phrase level. This research shows the varieties of English when it is used by non-native speakers of English. Newspaper is a great source of language learning for students but if the language is not comprehensible they may get confused and will not be able to learn language properly. Language teachers often ask their students to read English newspapers to improve their language. English newspaper is used in a multilingual, multi-national and multi-cultural classroom. If it would contain the cultural and local expressions the students may face barriers in learning language. This study was designed to investigate language of English newspaper so its finding can be used to highlight distinctive features of English newspaper. Further, it would help teachers of English to use English newspaper as materials for teaching.

CHAPTER 3

Methodology

Research Design

This study is quantitative in nature but the data is presented in numerical form. So we can say that it is the quantitation of qualitative research. It is based on Meta analysis of newspaper. The use of this method is appropriate with the purpose of this study. Research is conducted while using qualitative approach. Because the result of the data analyze is in the descriptive phenomenon such as words and sentences. This research is based on content analysis methodology. Content analysis is described as an organized analysis of content. With the mid of 20th century content analysis started to be used as a method with other research method like participant observation, surveys, experiments, qualitative research and types of data.

Population

The population of the study was "Dawn" and "The News" published in 1941.

Sample

We have randomly selected ten copies of "Dawn "newspaper and ten copies of "The News". "Dawn" from May 31, 2012 to June 9, 2012 and "The News" from May 12, 2012 to May 21, 2012.

Data Collection

Pakistani English daily "Dawn" and "The News" were selected for the research. The newspapers for ten days were selected for anaysis. The borrowed words were isolated from the papers and their frequency of use was also recorded. The words then were put into a table according to their frequency of occurrence. Data was collected using a corpus of twenty English newspapers. The newspapers were scanned carefully and all Urdu and local language items were taken out.

Data Analysis

Data of this research was analyzed by using simple percentage and comparison of words of both newspapers "The News" and "Dawn". At first the frequency of the words taken from the newspapers was compared and checked in parts then the highlighted items from all the newspapers were compared at the end. The research was conducted by using content analysis methodology. According to Dr. Klaus Krippendorff ( 2004), content analysis must contain these steps.

Steps

The process of content analysis starts from which kind of data is analysed? The data that is analysed is based on the text of newspaper.

The second is how the data is defined? Tha data is defined by comparing two newspapers and checking the frequencies.

The next is what is the population from which the data is gathered? The data is gathered from the newspapers.

Then the data is analysed from Pakistani context.

The target of inferences is to compare the Pakistani English news language with Standard English.

CHAPTER 4

Analyses of the Data

This chapter presents an analysis of the data that is gathered from English newspapers. In this chapter the result of reading ten newspapers are discussed i.e. "The News" and "Dawn". For this purpose, the findings are clearly presented in tables. These findings are also divided into different sections and frequency of the findings is also mentioned.

Table 1

Statement No.1: Content Analysis of "The News" May 12, 2012 and "Dawn" May 31, 2012

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Bandwagon

1

Jo muhajir suby ka ghaddar hai wo maut ka haqdar hai

1

Tolas

7

Sipah-i-Sahaba

1

Kanals

2

Shalwar

1

Marla

1

Seth Sahib

1

Pehlwan

1

Qaumi Aman Jirga

1

Madrassa

1

Sasti Roti

1

Bazaar

4

Ashiana

1

Ghee

15

Haj

1

Shriat

1

Patwaris

2

Kilos

1

Fard Malkiat

1

Lashkar

1

Hajj

1

Sports Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

-

-

Subh-e-Nau

1

In this table, the most frequently used word is "ghee" and after it "tolas" is used. The words in the table have their equivalents in English language like "shariat" is the Arabic translation of Islamic decree and "haj" has its equivalent in English. All the words like "pehlwan" "lashkar" "jirga" have their translation in English but they are used in local languages in the newspaper due to culture association. In the table above "The News" has more words as compare to "Dawn".

Table 2

Statement No.2: Content Analysis of "The News" May 13, 2012 and "Dawn" June 1, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Jiyalas

2

Qaum parasti

1

Posh Area

1

Shalwar Qameez

3

Hudood

4

Muttahida Mahaz

1

Zina

4

Zila

1

Kuch khas

1

Fatwa

2

Tazir

2

Ulema

2

Hiraba

1

Naqis-ul-iman

1

Jungle

2

Alim

1

Kanal

1

Sajda

1

Tamgh-i-shujat

1

Naqis-ulaqal

1

Dahibaras

1

Pakora

1

Shalwar kameez

1

Wagon

Bharpoor

Patwaris

Darul Amman

Panchayat

Jirga

1

1

3

1

3

3

Showbiz Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Awami suit

1

-

-

Yahan log sirf dou wajah sy nahin rokta bara gaari aur bara darhi

1

-

-

Ajrak

1

-

-

Boy girl scene he nahin khatam hota

1

-

-

No bank ki naukri, No denting painting ka kam

1

-

-

Walayati

1

-

-

Naughty toh hamari Veena Malik ya Nargis lagti hain.

1

-

-

Aurat doshmany na manzoor

1

-

-

Janubi Punjab

3

-

-

Tabla

1

-

-

In this table the most frequent word is "hudood". This word is translated as "limitation" in English language but that is used in the newspaper as an Islamic term that relates to the culture of Pakistan. In the table above "The News" has more words than "Dawn".

Table 3

Statement No.3: Content Analysis of "The News" May 14, 2012 and Dawn" June 2, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Nazim

3

Sabzi Mandi

1

Maulana

4

Satra Meel

1

Musalmanon ky zawal sy dunya ko kia nuqsan pohncha

1

Zila

1

Daku Raj

1

Sasti Roti

1

Lakh

3

Ashiana

1

Mandi

1

Sheesha

2

Baboos

1

Jamaat

1

Kanal

1

Patwaris

2

Sardar

4

Bazaars

1

Mela

Ulema-e-islam

Qabristan

Shaheeds

Insaf ho to aisa ho wah wah Pakistani qanoon zindabaad

Patwaris

Thanedar

Jihadist

Nazim-e-aala

Madrassa

Nazim

Peshawar sadar tehrik ke ainay mein and baghaat-e Peshawar

Roti kapra aur makan

Masala

Darbar

Mufti

Yaar

Dosti

Sardar

Burqas

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

In the table above the word "Maulana" is used frequently. This word is not found in English language. It has its association with Islamic culture. The above mentioned words are either absent in English language like "burqas" is translated as "All enveloping shrouds" and madrassa is translated as "seminary". "Jihadi" is translated as "martyr". Similarly the other words "mufti" "sardar" "dosti" "roti kapra aur makan" (bread, cloth and shelter) "nazim" have their equivalent in English but all are emerged into local languages. "The News" has more words than "Dawn".

Table 4

Statement No.4: Content Analysis of "The News" May 15, 2012 "Dawn" June 3, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Morcha

4

Shahrah

1

Booti Mafia

1

Jalsaghar

1

Charas

3

Tarraqi Pasand

1

Baboos

2

Junta

1

Kanal

1

Ghati

2

Dera

1

Hakeem

1

Jiyalas

1

Subedar

1

Crore

2

Halwa Puris

1

Jungle

1

Lassi

1

Fajr

Lashkar

Thana

1

1

2

Kulchas

Baba

1

1

Showbiz

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Sufi Kalam

2

-

-

Qawali

2

-

-

Meri bhi last film ni chali yaar

1

-

-

Gup Shup

3

-

-

Sheesha

2

-

-

Masala

1

-

-

In this table the word "Morcha" is used four times. It is translated as "syncope" in English language and the other words like "gup shup" is translated as "gossiping" in English. "jungle" is translated as "forest" and "thana" as "police station". Urdu words are more near to local, social norms and they are used in English newspaper. The News has more words as compare to "Dawn".

Table 5

Statement No.5: Content Analysis of "The News" May 16, 2012 and "Dawn" June 4, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Lakhs

1

Fatwa

2

Sahib Log

1

Acres

2

Aap ke paas oven bhi nahin hai

1

Bunds

1

Chicken gobhi

1

Dupata

1

Paani jaisa

1

Jirga

1

Tamatar

1

Fatwas

1

Normal khana

1

Sarmayadari

1

Dal,sabzi roti

2

Hookahs

1

Dahi

1

Sheesha

3

Seeti

1

Shariat

1

Khatte

2

Malang

2

Lashkar

Chaudhries

Jihad

1

3

4

Showbiz

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Kurta

1

-

-

Crore

1

-

-

In the table above the words have their translation in English like "dahi' is translated as "yogurt" "seeti" as"whistle" "khatte" as "sour" "tamatar" as "tomato" "pani jaisa" as "like water" and all the words mentioned in the table have their equivalent in English. Here the word "jihad" is used four times in "Dawn" Newspaper its English translation is "rampage" but it conveys social and cultural meaning here. "shariat" is translated as "Islamic law" "fatwa" as "diktat" . In the table "Dawn" has more words than "The News".

Table 6

Statement No.6: Content Analysis of "The News" May 17, 2012 and "Dawn" June 5, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Jawan

1

Jirgas

7

Marla

1

Azad

1

Veranda

1

Dawa khana

2

Tola

1

Bazaar

1

Wagon

3

Jamhoori Ittehad

1

Jihadists

1

Milli yakjehti

1

Junta

4

Sardars

8

Ashiana

1

Tehriks

1

Sheesha

1

Kalima

1

Babu Sabu

5

Dua

1

Tarana

Mafia

1

1

Nawab zada

Qaumi Lashkar

Ghair Mehram

Hunarmand Rozgar

Bagh

Falah

Patwari

Marla

Chilla

Bazaar

1

2

2

2

1

1

5

1

1

2

Sports Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

-

-

Fakhar-e-Pakistan

1

In the table above the word "sardar" is used most frequently that is translated as "chief" in English language. "dua" is translated as "prayer" "jamhoori ittehad" as "democratic unity" "bazaar" as "market" "azad" as "independent". Dawn Newspaper has more words as compare to "The News".

Table 7

Statement No.7: Content Analysis of "The News" May 18, 2012 and "Dawn" June 6, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Difa-e-Pakistan

1

Qaum Bhooki Mardi ha

1

Chowk

1

Gudaaz

1

Bazaar

1

Sabzi mandi

1

Jihadists

2

Shalwar qameez

1

Tehrik

1

Lashkar

5

Youm-e-Shuhada

1

Qaumi Lashkar

5

Bagh

Jirga

8

Zinda ha

1

Ghag

1

Mohalla

2

Haj

1

Mafia

Darbar

Ashiana

Nazim

Sheesha

Gutka

Naswar

Matkey wala

Naan

1

2

1

1

1

12

1

1

1

Khaki waley

Nazims

Pehalwan

1

2

1

Showbiz

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Gali

1

-

-

Sports Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

-

-

-

-

Gymkhana

Fakhar-e-Pakistan

2

1

In this table the word "sheesha" is used twelve times in "The News". The word sheesha is not found anywhere in English language. This word is associated with Pakistani culture and it is a kind of drugs. The second more frequent word is "jirga" that is a committee formed by the people of the village to make decisions. The word "khaki waly" is associated with the army of Pakistan. All these words are near to social and cultural norms.

Table 8

Statement No.8: Content Analysis of "The News" May 19, 2012 and "Dawn" June 7, 2012.

News Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Nazims

2

Jirga

8

Mohallah

2

Sardar

1

Wakalat Nama

1

Bhag gaye

2

Aman ki Aasha

1

Haji

1

Tanzim

1

Mohalla

1

Shariah

1

Sahab

1

Haj

8

Rickshaw

3

Juma

1

Dhobi ghat

1

Lashkar

7

Eid gah

1

Kinnos

Bazaar

Markaz khana

1

1

1

Fatwa

Qari/qaria

Mullah

Sarshar

Lassi

1

2

2

2

1

Business Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

-

-

Haj

1

-

-

Umrah

1

-

-

Bazaar

2

-

-

Parchi

1

-

-

Jihadists

1

-

-

Abadi

1

-

-

Marla

1

-

-

Rickshaw

1

-

-

Patwari

1

Showbiz Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Meena bazaar

4

-

-

Burqa

1

-

-

Chaddar

1

-

-

In this table the word "haj" is used eight times. This word is translated as pilgrimage in English language. The second more frequent word is "jirga" and the third one is "lashkar" and then "meena bazaar" that is translated as "fun fair" in English language. All the words in the table above are the examples of emergence of English language into Urdu. In the table "Dawn" has more words than "The News".

Table 9

Statement No.9: Content Analysis of "The News" May 20, 2012 and "Dawn" June 8, 2012.

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Difa-e- Pakistan

5

Madressah

1

Jirgas

2

Jirga

2

Panchayat

2

Dastar bandi

1

Badl-e-sulah

2

masjid

1

Awami awaz

1

Bazaar

2

Shariat

1

Khatoon

1

Haram

1

Sardar

1

Jihad

3

Juma

1

Lashkar

Masjid

Bazaar

Fauji

Chobara

Rojhan

Charas

Gutka

Matam

Junta

Jihad

Pakory

Chappals

Afsana nigar

Afsana

Tandoors

Badamoon wali naan khatai

Baqar khani

2

1

11

1

1

1

1

3

1

3

1

1

6

2

1

1

1

2

Taleemi

Ashraf-ul makhlukat

Junta

Jawans

Heera

Wajab-ul-qatal

Patwari

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

Showbiz Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Joras

2

-

-

Lakhs

1

-

-

Kameez

1

-

-

Shalwar

1

-

-

Qawwals

1

-

-

Hikmat

1

-

-

Hakeems

1

-

-

Jannat

1

-

-

Mullahs

Ulema

Kinnow

Khatti

Malta

Sangtra

Mausami

Jammans

Phal ka tokra

Mithai

Thaika

Nazms

Ghazal

Jamia

Darwaza

Burqa

1

1

21

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

2

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sports Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

-

-

Gymkhana

1

-

-

Tamgh-e-Imtyaz

1

In the table above the word "kinnow" is used for twenty one times. This word is also absent in English language. Nazms, jora, bakar khani, ulema, jihad, kameez, darwaza, masjid, jamia, thaika, mitthai, and all words in the table have their equivalent in English. In the table above "The News" has more words as compare to "Dawn".

Table 10

Statement No.10: Content Analysis of "The News" May 21, 2012 and "Dawn" June 9, 2012.

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Madressah

2

Jawans

1

Shahadat

1

Sardar

3

Daira

1

Masjid

4

Namaz-e-jinaza

2

Jaloos

2

Hindu Rajas

2

Parchis

1

Bijli wala

1

Jirga

5

Gora

1

Muttahida mahaz

2

Haj

1

Madressah

1

Kanal

Marla

Insaf

Bazaarz

Desi

Makan Dokan

1

1

1

21

2

1

Tamer

Junta

Jihad

Chashma

Bazaar

Kanals

Mohalla

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

Showbiz Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Churidar kurta

1

-

-

Sports Section

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

-

-

Tanzeem

1

-

-

Fakhr-e-Pakistan

1

-

-

Gymkhana

1

In this table the word "bazaarz" is used for twenty one times. It is translated as "market" in English language. The words "jirga" "masjid" "sardar" are also used frequently in the newspaper. "Dawn" has more words as compare to "The News".

Table 11

Statement No.10: Most frequent items from all newspapers:

The News

Frequency

Dawn

Frequency

Jirga

2

jirga

34

Lashkar

10

lashkar

6

Panchyat

2

panchyat

3

Patwaris

2

patwaris

12

Sardar

2

sardar

13

Bazaar

38

bazaar

9

Shalwar kameez

2

Shalwar kameez

5

Sheesha

12

Sheesha

5

Madressah

Jihad

Haj

Junta

3

7

9

7

Madressaha

Jihad

Haj

Junta

fatwa

2

5

3

3

71

In this table the frequency of the highlighted items of all the newspapers is analyzed. In the comparison of both newspapers we have found that "Dawn" newspaper has more frequent words than "The News", while in the tables above we have found that mostly "The News" has more words than "Dawn" but at the end, the frequency rate of "Dawn is higher than "The News".

Discussion

If we compare Pakistani newspaper "Dawn" and "The News" to Standard English newspaper we find out that Pakistani newspaper often use thrilling and emotional words. Some words are such that are specific only for Pakistani context. They have accepted new meanings. Pakistani new media has invented some new compound words. The loan words that are taken from Urdu or other Pakistani languages are also found in that scenario. We cannot find the equivalent of such words in British or American English variety. In Pakistani news reporting several expressions are collected. The use of such kind of words and phrases in Pakistani newspaper is cultural specific. In Pakistani English news reporting slangs have become a common characteristic. The words like "parchi", "sifarish", "mukmaka" can be interpreted positively as well as negatively. Pakistan English dailies use the Urdu loan words and other local expressions as a permanent feature. We can say that these borrowed words are firmly attached with cultural background of the society.

Here are some words that are analyzed according to its usage and meanings in the context.

Burqah

Burqah is a garment worn by the muslim women to cover the body.

Qawali

It's a type of music that is specifically associated with muslim sufis.

Ghee

It is a form of butter that is used in the cooking of South Asia.

Shalwar

It is an Urdu language word and is used to wear by the people of Asia. It is a loose trouser.

Kurta

It is a garment worn by the people of Asia. It is Pakistan's traditional dress. Mostly people wear it in traditional functions.

Mohallah

Mohallah is a small part of cities and towns. It is an area where people live and share their feelings with each other.

Rikshaw

It is three wheels vehicle and is used as transport in Asian countries.

Gutka

It is a type of drug that is used by Pakistani people especially by Pathans.

Jawan

It is the word that is used for soldier and armed force in Urdu language.

Sahib

It is the Indian word that was used for European. Especially it is used for a person who has strong financial condition.

Tabla

It is a musical instrument of south Asia that is played by hands. Mostly classical singers use it.

Haji

Hajj is an Islamic obligation and a person who performs it is called haji. It is also used for a person who is noble.

Jihadi

A jihadi is a Muslim who fights to win the will of Allah and for religion sake.

Sardar

Sardar is used for chief of tribe, Sikhs in the world are known as Sardar.

Masalla

A mixture of grinded things that is used for Pakistani cooking.

Roti

A round shaped and flat bread that is cooked on griddle.

Limitation

We have studied thoroughly the reasonable amount of English newspaper "Dawn Daily Lahore" and "The News". We have classified the section of newspaper. On the basis of this classification we have checked the frequency of the Urdu words occurred in English.

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