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In Cambridge College Flow of Communication, Information and Knowledge is academic type. Student taking classes with lecturer, Student discussion with classmates and student communicate with admin office.
Communication is defined as the transfer of understandable information from one person to another. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs and behavior. As a process, communicating has synonymous such as expressing feeling, conversing, speaking, corresponding, writing, listening, and exchanging. Communications range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings. Animals h other bees communicate with each other, often in an elaborate way. for example, a bee discovering a plentiful supply of nectar several fields away from the hive, will return and give directions to its fellows by flying a series of complex patterns in front of the hive. The other bees will the fly straight to the food source. Although animals communicate they do not have a language they make noises.
Type of Communication
There are five types communication.
Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.
It does not take up much executive time but it constitutes a permanent record. One must concise and to the point. It involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word. The importance of written communication is that is it almost the most popular way of keeping contact with relatives and friends far away from us. We need written communication for our education and ways to contact people plus because some of our speeches are different than others and hard to understand.
It helps us to make personal contact with the audience and to connect them to the content. It is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Oral communication prepares students for those studies and professional settings in which clear, credible, effective presentations and productive teamwork which are important.
It is one of the oldest disciplines in the humanities. It is used to communicate any idea can be included in the field of visual communications. In the evolution of visual communications from ancient cave paintings all the way to modern time it includes signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, computer graphics and electronic resources.
Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a person's face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings. One of the important factor is non-verbal communication (NVC).this refers to all other forms of communication that do not involve verbal expression using words, and can be broken down into three main areas .
Facial expressions smiles, narrowed eyes transmitting friendless, anger or disbelief,etc.
Gestures pointing fingers, " thumbs up" signs, shakes of the head, transmitting an emphasizing focus, congratulations or disagreement,etc.
Movements quick pacing up and down, finger-drumming, leisurely strolling, transmitting impatience, boredom or relaxation.
Physical Contact shaking hands, prodding with the forefinger, clapping on the back, transmitting greetings, insistence or friendship.
Positioning keeping a respectful distance, looking over someone's shoulder, sitting close to someone, transmitting awareness of differing status, a close working relationship or relaxed mutual trust.
Posture standing straight and erest,loughing, sitting hunched up, leaning forward, spreading oneself in a chair, transmitting alertness and care, self-confidence or even over-confidence, nervousness or ease.
3.Para-linguistics feedback sounds of surprise or agreement of annoyance or impatience "uh-uh","whew","oops","tsk","tut-tut"etc. A heightened awareness of what people are "saying" non-verbally greatly assists the manager or secretary to read a situation and to act-perhaps to head off a personality clash or to calm an irate customer.
Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose
Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features.
Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it.
Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go on and on.
Communication Approaches in an Organization
In our organization there is Alan's role for developing the e-learning strategy. He can now delegate to a team of all the mentors those who have recently undertaken the program to allow him more time for innovating developments as well as working one to one with tutors and curriculum areas to support late adopters this new structure allows for more people with designated responsibilities in e- learning in general which in turn informs across the whole organization as staff cascade gained knowledge, they do this through the dissemination channels that have been developed and for communication our organization has a central plan which is made by Alan who have created comprehensive e-learning and models outlining his clear approach to staff develpment.He works closely with senior managers and experts, being both reactive and proactive in relations to staff needs, and over the past couple of years has produced a glossy term Professional Development in house brochure. He works hard on communication and promotions.
In our college we get information through notice boards, class discussions, exchanging of notes, and course work exchange with the classmates, discussing the topics with lecturers. In our college we get a lot of knowledge to communicate with other peoples. In Cambridge Management College flow of knowledge is through communication, sharing information and discussion etc. Through classes we can communicate with other student and give tasks to complete their studies.
Acquiring the skills of good communication is not difficult. Using them when it really matters is the difficult part. To help, there are several things you can keep in mind...
It takes two sets of skills, which I have called expressive and listening skills, to give and get information. A further set of skills is then needed to manage the overall process.
Often, however, there is more good will between people than is at first apparent. When everyone understands all the information, and when there are good enough relationships between people, resolution often emerges easily.
The two most common barriers to effective communication, I think, are a lack of skills, and the rules which forbid certain information. Using the skills within the existing rules may resolve many issues. The difficult issues, however, may not be resolvable within the rules.
It is when you use your communication skills to renegotiate the rules that real improvements in relationships and in problem solving become possible.
1. Developed a significant number of online support mechanisms, including a staff intranet, student intranet, electronic registers, Webster (online ILP) and vRC (Virtual Repository Centre). It currently uses Blackboard for its virtual learning environment. The staff intranet is a key communication tool, outlining all available internal staff development courses. It is designed to present information clearly so that staff can take control of their own development. Key topics can be communicated by sending messages to all staff on the intranet. There is also a 'hits counter' so users know what other staff are looking at and what is popular. The 'Top 5 list' provides direct links to the most popular, which can prompt others to look at new areas of development.
2. Information about Strategic Teaching, Strategic Learning and Thinking Skills.
Teachers, whether brand new to the classroom, or veterans of many years of service, are always looking for ways to make what they do more effective and more efficient. Efficiency is a measure of what is obtained (results) in relation to what was expended (resources). Effectiveness is a bit more elusive. To be sure, effectiveness in anything, including teaching, can be difficult to describe and to measure. The following is a discussion about some fundamental principles that may lead to actual improvement of instruction. Please read on.
In order to use any instructional technique effectively, anyone who teaches must, of necessity, understand the fundamental principles and assumptions upon which the specific technique is based. There is certainly no shortage of descriptions or labels for activities that may be classified as pertaining to instruction. From the ever-popular lecture method to complex student-teacher, student-student interactions, instruction encompasses a broad range of teacher behaviors. At one end (the lecture method) the teacher is an imparter of information, and the students are the intended recipients of the information the teacher imparts. At the other end of the range of teacher behaviors are methods in which teachers interact with students in vastly more complex ways. Most researchers and experts in the field are in agreement that the most permanent and meaningful learning takes place at this end of the range. Strategic teaching, and, concomitantly, strategic learning are techniques in which significant student-teacher interaction and resultant learning and thinking are at the high end of the scale. If you have comments, ideas, or suggestions, please let me know.
To learn strategic teaching techniques, and to foster the ability of students to engage in strategic learning, it is important to define some terms. In fact, one of the principles of strategic teaching is to define terms. Below are terms that are relevant to this process.
Strategic teaching describes instructional processes that focus directly on fostering student thinking, but goes well beyond that. Strategic teaching and strategic learning are inexorably linked. A strategic teacher has an understanding of the variables of instruction and is aware of the cognitive requirements of learning. In such awareness, come a sense of timing and a style of management. The strategic teacher is one who:
1. Is a thinker and decision maker;
2. Possesses a rich knowledge base;
3. is a modeler and a mediator of instruction.
Variables of instruction refer to those factors that strategic teachers consider in order to develop instruction. These variables, as the name implies, change, and therefore the teacher must be aware of the nature of change as well as the actual variables themselves. These variables are:
1. Characteristics of the learner;
2. Material to be learned (curriculum content);
3. The criteria task (the goals and outcomes the teacher and learner designate);
4. Learning strategies (goal directed activities in which learners engage).
In teaching content at the elementary, middle, or secondary level, the strategic teacher helps guide instruction by focusing on learning strategies that foster thinking skills in relation to the content. In connecting new information to what a student already knows, learning becomes more meaningful, and not simply retained for test-taking purposes. There are numerous strategies that teachers can develop that accomplish this purpose. To give one information is not difficult, but to help one be able to develop the tools to both know what information is relevant and the means to acquire it, is perhaps the most important function of any social studies teacher. There are numerous techniques for engaging students in thinking about content.
Besides thinking skills, there are such practical matters as how best to present a lesson on weather, teaching map and globe skills, helping students work together in groups, how to question effectively, and how to answer student questions. The first and foremost criterion is that the teacher thoroughly know the content, the second criterion is that the teacher have a set of rules for classroom management that are understood and implemented, and the third criterion is that the teacher have the resourcefulness and knowledge to rehearse unfamiliar techniques, and more importantly, have the capacity to adjust any lesson plan to maintain academic focus. Many of these tasks are learned on-the-job. Nothing you can learn in any course is more valuable than learning what to do when you don't know what to do. When you can do that, you are well on your way to becoming a great teacher.
Strategic learning is, in effect, a highly probable outcome of effective strategic teaching. Reduced to its essentials, strategic learning is learning in which students construct their own meanings, and in the process, become aware of their own thinking. The link between teaching, thinking, and learning is critical. As a teacher, if you are not causing your students to think about what you are presenting, discussing, demonstrating, mediating, guiding, or directing, then you are not doing an effective job. You must be more than a dispenser of information. You must create conditions and an environment that encourages thinking, deepens and broadens it, and which causes students to become aware of how they think. The process of thinking about how we think is referred to as met cognition. In helping students create knowledge, it is useful to think of knowledge as occupying space that can be thought of as a pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid is declarative knowledge, or knowledge of "what is." Declarative knowledge is akin to awareness. One step up on the pyramid is procedural knowledge, or knowledge of "how something works, or functions." At the top of the pyramid is conditional knowledge, or knowledge of "when or why" a particular procedure will work. Conditional knowledge is closely related to the predictive function of knowledge. When students develop a broad and deep system of conditional knowledge, they are able to predict more accurately, solve problems more efficiently, and in a sense, are more free because they can identify and articulate more options from which to choose. Strategic learning is a valuable system to help your students develop conditional knowledge.
The creation of knowledge is, in the most practical and profound sense, a primary and direct result of learning. As teachers, we must strive to assist our students to develop intellectual tools by which they can create knowledge. Any knowledge, once created, becomes a part of a larger system that enhances learning and is capable of integrating and accommodating new information with greater efficiency and reliability. Each person creates knowledge in similar, yet uniquely distinct ways. Connecting information provided or described by others in novel and personal ways is a key to learning and developing knowledge. The more one "knows," the more one can know. The idea of content links or connections is not exactly new, but offers some unique opportunities to chart your own course, learn, and add to your knowledge system. Enter the idea of Constructivism. Constructivism is a philosophy as well as a psychology of education. Constructivism is about how knowledge is created.
Here are some links to sound information on Constructivism in education:
3. Classroom management
While good room arrangement is not a guarantee of good behavior, poor planning in this area can create conditions that lead to problems.
The teacher must be able to observe all students at all times and to monitor work and behavior. The teacher should also be able to see the door from his or her desk.
Frequently used areas of the room and traffic lanes should be unobstructed and easily accessible.
Students should be able to see the teacher and presentation area without undue turning or movement.
Commonly used classroom materials, e.g., books, attendance pads, absence permits, and student reference materials should be readily available.
Some degree of decoration will help add to the attractiveness of the room.