International Students In The Uk English Language Essay

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In order to describe speech frame, the speaker employs logos, ethos, and pathos all together. In terms of logos, speaker uses syllogisms in speech for reasonable steps. Keith and Lundberg(2008 :36) states that 'formal reasoning works by means of arguments called syllogisms, in which two true premises validly imply a third statement, the conclusion of the argument. In the context, the speaker's main theme is U.K universities' tuition affordability. He calls on the audience to stop increasing tuition fees for international students. In order to draw logical structure, in the beginning he chooses to introduce his personal story and experience as one of international students who study in the U.K higher education institute. He brings audiences' attention to the current fact that tuition fee for international students are increasing and the students feel concern about increasing tuition fee. He does this to bring awareness to audiences of his topic. In order to prove his point, he presents 3 points. First is the fact provided by one media that tuition fee will go up in the next every year. Second, he shows 2 figures that tuition fees have covered up to 70% of university tuition budget and contributed greatly to the U.K economy. Third, one statistics surveyed by one American institute reveals that majority of international students agree with the speaker. These two premises arranged in a logical order helps the audience follow his speech and give some hints to the audience that speaker intends to insist that tuition fee for international students should not be increased in conclusion. The second form is ethos. There are some indications that he tries to provide credibility to audiences in his speech. Keith and Lundberg(2008 :39) provides some ways which are action, deeds, understanding, and expertise to gain an audience's trust. In his speech, he produces three types of ethos- deeds, understanding, and expertise--in order to build credibility. First ethos is deeds. The speaker himself is the person directly concerned about this topic. This means he has a locus standi to speak about the topic in good faith. Second one is understanding. Speaker shows that he understand the audience's point of view in terms of increasing tuition fee by mentioning 'current economic recession has reduced government funds for you.' Final one is expertise. He elaborates on his speech by providing data why his arguments are reasonable. He uses the sources to add credibility from recent and reliable norms in your speech such as BBC, Higher Education Statistics Agency, and OECD indicators. These provide substantial evidence that argues for the particular theme. The third form is pathos. In his speech, there are 3 elements of ethos. First, in order to produce emotions for audience, speaker references his personal stories as examples of how international students feel about increasing tuition fee. Other two elements are languages. Keith and Lundberg(2008 :40) refers that 'speakers address pathos partly by choosing language that convey emotion.' Speaker brings the idea of 'Shared responsibility' to raise emotional connectivity with audiences from the speech's overall emphasis and uses a pronoun of 'we' that his purpose is to develop a bond of sympathy and to achieve the joint goal of being both affecting and appealing.

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For the purpose of presenting speaker's intention to appeal the audience effectively, he applies two cannons; arrangement and style. In terms of the arrangement of the speech, the organization of this speech is arranged in a simple way to deliver well-organised speech. He gives a speech with four steps in composition; an introduction, development, turn and conclusion. In the beginning of speech, speaker shows some respect to the audience and starts talking with his personal background and experience. In this part, the speaker attempts to achieve three aims; to grab the audiences' attention, to establish rapport with the audience to create a good impression, and finally to introduce his topic what he will speak about. His introduction previews main theme of his speech to help the audience anticipate what they are going to hear and makes the speech easier to follow. In the phase of development, he provides the fact that tuition fee for international students will increase and gives four reasons why the audiences need to consider affordability of tuition fee for them by offering each relevant data to support his argument. The arguments the speaker suggested is formed with reinforcing not just his idea but also audience' point of view. He provides relevant materials tries to support his argument and to make explicit reference to the target audience. His supporting materials researched from latest data and by credible organisation leave another room for tuition fee from being raised and possibly enable audience to reconsider their tuition policy. In the stage of turn, he continues his argument by offering another his experience while his time for studying at some of the U.K higher educational institutions to support his argument that tuition fee should not be raised. His main purpose in this stage is to create a commonality with the audience focusing on emotional appealing. Speaker regards this stage as a good opportunity to share his ideas with audience. His comment here tries to leave a positive impression on him. His mention of 'current economic recession in the U.K' and 'values of responsibility between speaker and audience' can allow audience to have specific feelings about speaker's topic. In the end-state, speaker concludes his speech by stressing his topic of tuition fee for international students once again. He states his main idea of his key points highlighting 'The idea of shared responsibility', and particularly accentuate his bottom-line message 'Please do not increase tuition fee for international students'. Two final components here are the call-to-action with 'This is the decision you can make' and speaker's personal endorsement and support with 'I truly and surely believe you can do it'. This conclusion tries to give the audience specific instructions on what to do in the future and may approach more compelling to the audience. With the object of delivering his speech effectively, and catching audience's attention, he shows style in various manners. In general, he uses plain and direct language and tries to avoid connoted norm in his speech. Additionally, he uses transitions to link his speech; 'Let's take a look at some facts.', 'Let me move on to my second story.' and 'That brings me to my final point.' These two styles let the audience understand his speech clearly and find out the timing that he moves to a new section of the speech. In terms of choosing words, he chooses his words carefully not to disrespect the audiences or avoid argument. For example, he gives proper respect to the audiences by addressing 'please', instead of 'should' or 'must' even in imperative sentence. He delivers a speech rather to find meaning than to bring argument. In other words, his purpose is not arguing or defending on the negative aspects of this increasing tuition fee, but tries to focus on the positive aspects with sharing value of responsibility. On the other hand, there are three tripling in his speech; 'not just I face, or international students face but the entire U.K universities face', 'no matter who we are, where are from, and how much we have got', 'with providing value, services, and commitment', and 'but about your students, the students' futures and your universities' futures.' These repetitions and rule of three allows effectively audience to recognize the key points what he wants to deliver and to have a solid appreciation of the problem. Final evident point of his speech style is repetition. Speaker borrows one Anaphora with 'Our tuition fee…' and three Antistrophes of 'face', 'in the U.K' and 'be able to afford.' In particular, he repeats his main theme 'Please do not increase tuition fee for international students' three times distributing properly in the context. In particular, he mentions this in closing period with his earnest request of 'I truly and surely believe you can do it.' This positive note can make audience to remember the last sentences and to be motivated and inspired.

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