Integrated Pyranometer For Photovoltaic System Applications English Language Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

This paper present the development of a handheld solarimeter which is integrated with temperature sensor modules by using the application of Microcontroller PIC16F877A. The solarimeter employs a reference solar cell which is calibrated to measure the solar irradiance. Besides the solarimeter, two temperature sensor modules will also be introduced to measure ambient temperature and photovoltaic module temperature respectively. All measurements from the solarimeter and temperature modules will be controlled by a Microprocessor PIC16F877A which provides programming strategy through basic C language. The designed algorithm is based on the calibration of the used solar cell and the temperature sensor modules. All the measurements of the solarimeter and temperature modules will be displayed on a LCD display. The results show that the developed integrated pyranometer device is accurate and cost effective as compared to the commercial pyranometer devices.

Keywords-solar irradiance, ambient temperature, module temperature, solar cell, temperature sensor, microcontroller.


Nowadays, there is a global need for a renewable energy sources which can provide a green energy that is safe to the environment and will last forever. One of the renewable energy is solar energy and now has been used in our daily life . Solar energy actually has been harnessed by humans since ancient times which are using the technologies keep changing and evolving by time to time. This solar energy can be obtained directly from the sunlight that reaching the earth.

Recently, there are a lot of researches related to solar irradiance measurement due to the increasing need of photovoltaic system. Thus many technologies are developed to produce methods or devices that can measure the solar irradiance. In photovoltaic system, solar irradiance is the measure incident of total amount of solar radiation transmitted to the surface of the solar cell in a given unit of time. It varies throughout the day with the movement of the sun and the clouds. This measurement is normally done in the units of watts per square meter (W/m2) . The measurements of solar irradiance are the important thing for estimating power generation from the photovoltaic (PV) systems and determining the correlations to the electric system loads .

Solar irradiance is usually measured by pyranometers, solarimeters, or actinoraphy. Based on of all the devices, pyranometer is suitable and can be integrating with other devices so that it can be used for photovoltaic system application. Pyranometer is a type of device that used to measure solar irradiance or the radiation flux density .


A solar cell is a device that generates electricity directly from the visible light especially from the sunlight. There are several factors that affect the solar cell efficiency such as effects of cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency [2]. An efficient type of solar cell is due to reduced recombination in solar cell itself. Recombination is a limiting factor for current in a solar cell. Using polycrystalline silicon cell as hat can absorb the solar irradiance from the sunlight.

This project also will provide the data such as the solar irradiance (W/m2), module temperature (oC) and ambient temperature (oC) which can help when evaluating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems.


Callibration of Solar Cell

A polycrystalline solar cell (6V/100mA) is connected to a resistor 100Ω used to measure the solar irradiance. This solar cell supposed to feed the resistor by a certain current and voltage under a certain solar irradiance and ambient temperature. However, the solar cell current can be relatively measured by measuring the resistor terminal voltage.

Hardware Development

In this project, there are five main parts consisting solar cell, digital thermometer sensor, ambient temperature sensor, Microcontroller and LCD as a display. Polycrystalline solar cell been used in this project because solar irradiance is the most influenced parameter on the performance of polycrystalline solar cell in Malaysian climate .

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the hardware design of this integrated pyranometer project.PIC16F877A is a microcontroller operated based on program created by using MPlab software and it interfaces with a solar cell and two temperature sensors. The solar cell is used to measure the solar irradiance based on the terminal voltage of the resistor which is connected to the solar cell itself. The LM35 temperature sensor is used to measure the ambient temperature using analog-to-digital (ADC). The precision of the LM35 sensor is precision temperature sensor which the output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celscius (Centigrade) temperature.

The equations are an exception to the prescribed specifications of this template. You will need to determine whether or not your equation should be typed using either the Times New Roman or the Symbol font (please no other font). To create multileveled equations, it may be necessary to treat the equation as a graphic and insert it into the text after your paper is styled.

Number equations consecutively. Equation numbers, within parentheses, are to position flush right, as in (1), using a right tab stop. To make your equations more compact, you may use the solidus ( / ), the exp function, or appropriate exponents. Italicize Roman symbols for quantities and variables, but not Greek symbols. Use a long dash rather than a hyphen for a minus sign. Punctuate equations with commas or periods when they are part of a sentence, as in

    

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Be sure that the symbols in your equation have been defined before or immediately following the equation. Use "(1)", not "Eq. (1)" or "equation (1)", except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is . . ."

Some Common Mistakes

The word "data" is plural, not singular.

The subscript for the permeability of vacuum 0, and other common scientific constants, is zero with subscript formatting, not a lowercase letter "o".

In American English, commas, semi-/colons, periods, question and exclamation marks are located within quotation marks only when a complete thought or name is cited, such as a title or full quotation. When quotation marks are used, instead of a bold or italic typeface, to highlight a word or phrase, punctuation should appear outside of the quotation marks. A parenthetical phrase or statement at the end of a sentence is punctuated outside of the closing parenthesis (like this). (A parenthetical sentence is punctuated within the parentheses.)

A graph within a graph is an "inset", not an "insert". The word alternatively is preferred to the word "alternately" (unless you really mean something that alternates).

Do not use the word "essentially" to mean "approximately" or "effectively".

In your paper title, if the words "that uses" can accurately replace the word "using", capitalize the "u"; if not, keep using lower-cased.

Be aware of the different meanings of the homophones "affect" and "effect", "complement" and "compliment", "discreet" and "discrete", "principal" and "principle".

Do not confuse "imply" and "infer".

The prefix "non" is not a word; it should be joined to the word it modifies, usually without a hyphen.

There is no period after the "et" in the Latin abbreviation "et al.".

The abbreviation "i.e." means "that is", and the abbreviation "e.g." means "for example".

An excellent style manual for science writers is [7].

Using the Template

After the text edit has been completed, the paper is ready for the template. Duplicate the template file by using the Save As command, and use the naming convention prescribed by your conference for the name of your paper. In this newly created file, highlight all of the contents and import your prepared text file. You are now ready to style your paper; use the scroll down window on the left of the MS Word Formatting toolbar.

Authors and Affiliations

The template is designed so that author affiliations are not repeated each time for multiple authors of the same affiliation. Please keep your affiliations as succinct as possible (for example, do not differentiate among departments of the same organization). This template was designed for two affiliations.

For author/s of only one affiliation (Heading 3): To change the default, adjust the template as follows.

Selection (Heading 4): Highlight all author and affiliation lines.

Change number of columns: Select the Columns icon from the MS Word Standard toolbar and then select "1 Column" from the selection palette.

Deletion: Delete the author and affiliation lines for the second affiliation.

For author/s of more than two affiliations: To change the default, adjust the template as follows.

Selection: Highlight all author and affiliation lines.

Change number of columns: Select the "Columns" icon from the MS Word Standard toolbar and then select "1 Column" from the selection palette.

Highlight author and affiliation lines of affiliation 1 and copy this selection.

Formatting: Insert one hard return immediately after the last character of the last affiliation line. Then paste down the copy of affiliation 1. Repeat as necessary for each additional affiliation.

Reassign number of columns: Place your cursor to the right of the last character of the last affiliation line of an even numbered affiliation (e.g., if there are five affiliations, place your cursor at end of fourth affiliation). Drag the cursor up to highlight all of the above author and affiliation lines. Go to Column icon and select "2 Columns". If you have an odd number of affiliations, the final affiliation will be centered on the page; all previous will be in two columns.

Identify the Headings

Headings, or heads, are organizational devices that guide the reader through your paper. There are two types: component heads and text heads.

Component heads identify the different components of your paper and are not topically subordinate to each other. Examples include Acknowledgments and References and, for these, the correct style to use is "Heading 5". Use "figure caption" for your Figure captions, and "table head" for your table title. Run-in heads, such as "Abstract", will require you to apply a style (in this case, italic) in addition to the style provided by the drop down menu to differentiate the head from the text.

Text heads organize the topics on a relational, hierarchical basis. For example, the paper title is the primary text head because all subsequent material relates and elaborates on this one topic. If there are two or more sub-topics, the next level head (uppercase Roman numerals) should be used and, conversely, if there are not at least two sub-topics, then no subheads should be introduced. Styles named "Heading 1", "Heading 2", "Heading 3", and "Heading 4" are prescribed.

Figures and Tables

Positioning Figures and Tables: Place figures and tables at the top and bottom of columns. Avoid placing them in the middle of columns. Large figures and tables may span across both columns. Figure captions should be below the figures; table heads should appear above the tables. Insert figures and tables after they are cited in the text. Use the abbreviation "Fig. 1", even at the beginning of a sentence.

Table Type Styles

Table Head

Table Column Head

Table column subhead




More table copya

a. Sample of a Table footnote. (Table footnote)

We suggest that you use a text box to insert a graphic (which is ideally a 300 dpi TIFF or EPS file, with all fonts embedded) because, in an MSW document, this method is somewhat more stable than directly inserting a picture.

To have non-visible rules on your frame, use the MSWord "Format" pull-down menu, select Text Box > Colors and Lines to choose No Fill and No Line.Example of a figure caption. (figure caption)

Figure Labels: Use 8 point Times New Roman for Figure labels. Use words rather than symbols or abbreviations when writing Figure axis labels to avoid confusing the reader. As an example, write the quantity "Magnetization", or "Magnetization, M", not just "M". If including units in the label, present them within parentheses. Do not label axes only with units. In the example, write "Magnetization (A/m)" or "Magnetization {A[m(1)]}", not just "A/m". Do not label axes with a ratio of quantities and units. For example, write "Temperature (K)", not "Temperature/K".

Acknowledgment (Heading 5)

The preferred spelling of the word "acknowledgment" in America is without an "e" after the "g". Avoid the stilted expression, "One of us (R. B. G.) thanks . . ." Instead, try "R. B. G. thanks". Put sponsor acknowledgments in the unnum-bered footnote on the first page.