Indonesian People Are Bilinguals English Language Essay

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People who can speak more than one language is called bilingual and those who can speak more than two is called multilingual people. As a result, they can master the language in the form of spoken and written. The student's books of ILP English Program are also written in English. This study is aimed at finding out the multilingual characters and multicultural elements applied in ILP student's books for first graders of SD PL ST YUSUP Semarang. This documentary study is analyzed in qualitative nature by giving detailed explanation for data. The step to collect the data is reading the books and the steps to analyze the data are identification, classification and interpretation. The result shows that there are some characters whose refer to their country like Maalik represents Malaysia, Bunga represents Indonesia and also others while the multicultural elements are expressions, physical characteristics, and situation such as Hello, what's your name?, Nice to meet you, etc. The result shows that there are some characters that we can identiy from the names, and some elements behind certain condition like the expressions used in asking and aswering.

Keywords : multilingual, multicultural

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Indonesian people are bilinguals because they can speak more than one language. Nowadays, the number of people who can speak more than 2 languages is increasing. This condition reflects the condition of Indonesia where there are many vernaculars actively spoken among the people. Those vernaculars are used in daily conversation as well as our mother tounge. Indonesian children mostly speak using Bahasa Indonesia in their daily conversation and only a few of them who can speak in their own vernaculars.That makes Bahasa Indonesia becomes the mother tongue for Indonesian people.

Many efforts have been done in order to preserve local language, whereas on the other side there is another langauge that we must acquire as our second language. The second language is English. People say that English is an international language known and spoken by most people all across the world. Lots of people talk in English and it becomes the most widely spoken language in the world. As s result there are many books published using two different languages known as billingual books. The possible languages used are English and local language or native toungue.

Statement of the problems

There are some problems in this research namely:

What multilingual elements are used in ILP English Book for first graders of SD PL ST Yusup Semarang?

What multicultural elements applied in ILP English Book for first graders of SD PL ST Yusup Semarang?

Objectives of the study

This research is aimed at finding out:

Multilingual elements used in ILP English Book for first graders of SD PL ST Yusup Semarang.

Muticultural elements applied in ILP English Book for first graders of SD PL ST Yusup Semarang.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Multilingualism

Indonesian people are born having ability to speak in more than one languages. An instant thought will give an indication that it must have been inheritaged from the ancestors. Factual information behind this is that Indonesia is a multicultural country in which it is not just about different cultures inside but also other elements like languages. Thus, we still have to learn another langauges to be able to use them in our daily activity.

Indonesian government decides that English is the first foreign language that must be taught in formal schools from kindergarten up to high school level. Therefore the students must learn English through the subject taught in schools in order to master it. In schools, they learn how to use English in written and oral form. Some schools even provide student's extra curricular activity to support this condition like providing Student English Club.

Definition of Multilingualism

Indonesian people are bilingual or multilingual. Being a multilingual person makes someone can speak or write in different languages. Dictionary defines multilingual as using, speaking or written in several different languages. (Longman, 2004:1081). Mulitilingualism is a condition in which someone is able to speak or write in different languages.

Wigglesworth (2008:262) quoted Ross' statement that Being bilingual or multilingual themselves, they know that it is realistic for their children to be proficient in both Warlpiri and English. That the children speak Warlpiri is very important to them because it is their heritage language and speaking it expresses a Warlpiri identity. That the children speak English is also important to them so that the children can operate effectively in the wider society as well as in the local community.

Immersion Program

Immersion programs are choice-based educational alternatives offered within a larger public school system. Program success and long term viability is measured primarily to non-immersion students' academic achievement relatives to non-immersion peers as measured by standardized tests administered in the country's majority language (Genesee et al, 2004). Other distinguishing features of well-implemented immersion programs have to do with curricular and instructional elements (Fortune et al, 2008:10). For example:

Curriculum is content-driven and language-attentive

Language, culture and content are integrated

Classroom tasks are designed to challenge students both cognitively and linguistically

Instructional strategies and elicit frequent use of the immersion language

Classroom interactional dynamics encourage peer-peer communication

Cooperative learning techniques seek to build more equitable and socially respectful student relationships

Bilingual Program

Nababan (1980:209) said that bilingualism and multilingualism are common in Indonesia. However, the educational system does not seem to be designed to promote this bilingual/multilingual situation. The educational system is unilingual, with Indonesian language as the sole medium of instruction. This does not mean that the government does not provide for the vernacular in the curriculum. The Indonesian Constitution stipulates that "In the ares with a regional language that is maintained well by its people (e.g. Javanese, Sundanese, Maduranese, and others), the language will be respected and maintained also by the State" (translation of Explication of aticle 36).

UNESCO is convinced that cultural diversity and multilingualism on the internet have a key role to play in fostering pluralistic, equitable, open and inclusive knowledge societies. UNESCO encourages its member states to develop comprehensive language-related policies, to allocate resources and use appropriate tools in order to promote and facilitate linguistic diversity and multilingualism, including the internet and media. (www.UNESCO.org)

Multiculturalism

Honna (2008:51) stated that Asian varieties of English are tremendously diverse with social roles attached to the adopted language. Each country has used the language in its traditional cultural and linguistic contexts, thereby producing a distinct variety characterized by unique structural and functional features. Proficiency levels also differ with countries where English is a second language (ESL) producing more skillful speakers than their counterparts where English is designated as an international language (EIL). Poeple tend to believe that a common language is a uniform language. But this is not true. English can be a common language on a multinational basis only when its cultural diversity is accepted. A common language has to be a multicultural language (Honna, 2000, 2003).

Definition of multiculturalism

Dictionary defines culture in a society as the beliefs, way of life, art and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a particular society (Longman, 2004:382). While culture in a group is the attitudes and beliefs about something that are shared by a particular group of people or in a particular organization (Longman, 2004:382). The word multiculturalism is defined as the beliefs that it is important and good to include people or ideas from many different countries, races or religions (Longman, 2004:1081).

According to Mahfud in his book Pendidikan Multikultural that multiculturalism is a belief that stresses on the eguality and similarity of local cultures without ignoring the rights and existence of other cultures that is important for us to be understood altogether in multicultural society like Indonesia (2010:xix). Therefore as Indonesian people we shoud be aware of the existence of other cultures so that we can show our respect in order to live in a harmony situation.

Elements of multiculturalism

Dimensions of Multicultural Education by James A Banks have been used widely by school district to conceptualized and develop courses, programs, projects in multicultural education. The five dimensions are: 1) content integration; 2) the knowledge construction process; 3) prejudice reduction; 4) an equity pedagogy and 5) an empowering school culture and social structure.

Content integration deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area of discipline. The infusion of ethnic and cultural content into a subject area is logical and not contrived when this dimension is implemented properly.

The knowledge construction process describes teaching activities that help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural assumptions, frames of references, perspectives, and biases of researchers and textbook writers influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed. The knowledge construction process helps teachers and students to understand why the cultural identities and social position of researchers need to be taken into account when assessing the validity of the knowledge claims.

Prejudice reduction dimension of multicultural education seeks to help students develop positive and democratic racial attitudes. It also helps students to understand how ethnic identity is influenced by the context of schooling and the attitudes and beliefs of dominant social groups. The theory developed by Gordon Allport (1954) has significantly influenced research and theory in intergroup relations. He hypothesized that prejudice can be reduced by interracial contact if the contact situations have these characteristics :1) they are cooperative rather than competitive; 2) the individuals experience equal status; and 3)the contact is sanctioned by authorities such as parents, principals and teachers.

An equity pedagogy exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, socioeconomic, and language groups. This include using a variety of teaching styles and approaches that are consistent with the range of learning styles within various cultural and ethnic groups, such as being demanding but highly personalized when working with American Indian and Native Alaska students.

An empowering school culture involves restructuring the culture and organization of the school so that students from diverse racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and language groups experience equality. Members of the school staff examines and change the culture and social structure of the school. An empowering school structure requires the creation of qualitatively different relationships among various groups within schools. Relationships are based on mutual and reciprocal respect of cultural differences that are reflected in school-wide goals, norms, and cultural practices.

ANALYSIS

Unit of Analysis

The research method used in this research is descriptive in nature. The researchers only describe the phenomena found in the object of the study. The unit of analysis in this reserach is words ,phrases and expressions found in ILP English Book for first graders of SD PL ST Yusup Semarang.

METHOD OF THE STUDY

There are two steps applied in this study namely method of data collection and method of data analysis.

Method of data collection

The data collection method applied in this research is done by:

Doing library study

Reading ILP student's books

Documentation

Method of data analysis

There are some steps applied in this data analysis method, namely:

Identification

Classification

Interpretation

FINDINGS

The findings in this study is the words and phrases found in the ILP student's books for first graders of SD PL ST YUSUP Semarang.

Discussion of the findings

Identification

The researchers found some words and phrases from ILP Student's Books for first graders of SD PL ST YUSUP Semarang as follows:

NO

TOPIC

CHARACTERISTICS

Characters

Expressions

Vocabulary

1

Introduction

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff

Greetings:

Hello...?

What's your name?

I'm fine.

Nice to meet you.

Noun : boy, girl, dragon, home

2

Following Instructions

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff

Giving Instructions:

Sit down, get into a line, make a circle, etc

Noun : lamp, door, shelf, vase

Adjective : smart

3

The Alphabet

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff

Learning ABC

Noun : rock, curtain, flower, slippery side, bridge, etc

4

Using Numbers

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff

Count and write:

There is...boat.

There are...flowers.

Adverb : here, there

Adjective : dangerous

Verb : press, hear

Noun : cushion, magic

5

Talking about Colours

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Magic Book

Asking and answering about colours:

What's Bunga's favorite colour?

Is it blue? Yes, it is. No, it isn't.

Noun : rainbow, pumpkin, ocean

Adjective : free, sun

Verb : blow, read

6

In Our Schoolbags

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Magic Book, Maiia

Asking and answering about things in the schoolbags:

What's in your bag? A book, a ruler and a pencil.

Verb : carry

Adjective : beautiful

Noun : school, tunnel, torch

7

Birthdays

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Magic Book, Maiia, Prince

Asking and aswering about age:

How old are you? I'm eight years old.

How old is Marcus? He is six years old.

Adjective : sad, last, alone, happy

Verb : wait, cheer

Noun : castle, decorations, party

8

Where we live

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Magic Book, Maiia, Pirates

Talking about homes:

This is the living room.

There's a table.

Where's Smuff?

Noun : table, chair, sink,bathtub, bed, toilet, pot

Adverb : behind

Table 5.1. Data Identification of Green Adventure Unit 1

NO

TOPIC

CHARACTERISTICS

Characters

Expressions

Vocabulary

1

Animals

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Pirate, Squeak

Asking & giving answers:

What's that?

It's a monkey

What are they? They're elephants

Noun : zoo, ship, neck, tail

Verb : look

2

Pets

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante

Talking about Pets:

Have you got a pet? Yes, I've got a fish

Has he got a pet?

Yes, he's got a turtle

Noun : night, morning, world, picture

Verb : rest, hiss, slither, swim, bark

3

Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff,Squeak, Maiia, Magic Book, Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante

Listen and write what they eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner:

Keiko eats.....for breakfast.

Punja............................

Noun : map

Adjective : soft, hungry, full

Verb : land, write, hold, open

4

What we like to eat

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak

Talking about likes and dislikes

Questions and answers

Do you like apples?

Yes, I do.

Does he like apples?

No, he doesn't.

Noun : basket, giant, picnic

Adjective : yummy, yucky, quickly

Verb : eat, jump, climb

5

Our Face

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak, Giant

Talking about the face:

This is my nose.

These are my ears.

This is his/her mouth.

His/her nose is big/small.

Adjective : small, big, huge

Preposition : up, down

Verb : see, smell

6

Our Body

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak

Asking and talking about our body:

What is this? This is my/his/her head.

What are these? These are his/her knees.

Verb : talk, nod, walk, draw

Adjective : scared

Noun : pillow

7

What We Look Like

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak

Describing people and pets:

I've got blonde hair.

He's/she's got black hair.

I'm/he's/she's short/tall.

Has he/she/it got black hair/ a small nose?

Noun : mess, problem, fire place

Adjective : broken

Verb : sew, fix

8

Our Giant

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak

Describing the physical appearance of the giant.

None

Table 5.1. Data Identification of Green Adventure Unit 2

Data classification

Among five elements of multilingualism, the researchers only classify multilingualism into dialect, the interaction of word and image and metaphors of translation.

No

Elements of Multilingualism

Dialect

Interaction of word and image

Metaphor translation

1

Greetings:

Hello...?

What's your name?

I'm fine.

Nice to meet you.

Bunga, Marcus and Smuff are practicing the greetings by shaking hands, waving hands and pointing at one of them using the pronouns.

Let's take him home

2

Giving instructions:

Sit down, get into a line, make a circle, etc

Bunga, Marcus and Smuff practice giving instructions by putting into action.

Someone's at the door

3

Learning alphabet : ABC

Bunga, Marcus and Smuff play a race game about spelling.

There is too

4

Counting and writing:

There is...boat.

There are...flowers.

Bunga, Marcus and Smuff are following a secret message using numbers as clues.

Oh no….it's gone

5

Asking and answering about colours:

What's Bunga's favorite colour?

Is it blue? Yes, it is. No, it isn't.

Bunga, Marcus, Smuff and Magic Book are practice asking and answering colours.

I sit in the sky after it rains, what am I?

6

Asking and answering about things in the schoolbags:

What's in your bag? A book, a ruler and a pencil.

Bunga, Marcus, Smuff Magic Book and Maiia are talking about their school bag and then drawing a picture of it.

A way out

7

Asking and aswering about age:

How old are you? I'm eight years old.

How old is Marcus? He is six years old.

Bunga, Marcus, Smuff, Maalik, Keiko, Sheng Xi, Dante, Magic Book and Maaia are aksing and answering about age.

Oh….that's terrible. Poor you.

8

Talking about homes:

This is the living room.

There's a table.

Where's Smuff?

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak are talking about their homes.

Who knows what's behind that door.

Table 5.2 Data Classification of Multilingualism of Green Book Unit 1

No

Elements of Multilingualism

Dialect

Interaction of word and image

Metaphor translation

1

Asking & giving answers:

What's that?

It's a monkey

What are they? They're elephants

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Pirate, Squeak are asking and answering questions with friends.

We came home through a magic door onto your ship and now we now we need your help to get home.

2

Talking about Pets:

Have you got a pet? Yes, I've got a fish

Has he got a pet?

Yes, he's got a turtle

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante are talking about pets.

You're a cat. You can't have a pet mouse.

3

Listen and write what they eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner:

Keiko eats.....for breakfast.

Punja............................

Marcus, Bunga, Smuff,Squeak, Maiia, Magic Book, Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante are asking and answering about what they eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner

Now, you can fly home.

4

Talking about likes and dislikes

Questions and answers

Do you like apples?

Yes, I do.

Does he like apples?

No, he doesn't.

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak are asking and answering about likes and dislikes

It looks like a giant picnic.

5

Talking about the face:

This is my nose.

These are my ears.

This is his/her mouth.

His/her nose is big/small.

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak, Giant are asking and answering about face.

All the better to see, hear, smell you with….

6

Asking and talking about our body:

What is this? This is my/his/her head.

What are these? These are his/her knees.

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak are asking and answering about body.

My goodness. What an adventure.

7

Describing people and pets:

I've got blonde hair.

He's/she's got black hair.

I'm/he's/she's short/tall.

Has he/she/it got black hair/ a small nose?

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak are asking and answering about people and pets.

I'm a purple spider.

8

Describing the physical appearance of the giant.

Yasmin, Punja, Sarah, Malik, Indah, Keiko, Dante, Marcus, Bunga, Smuff, Maiia, Magic Book, Squeak are describing the physical appearance of giant.

None.

Table 5.2 Data Classification of Multilingualism of Green Book Unit

Green Book

Elements of Multiculturalism

Content integration

The knowledge construction process

Prejudice Reduction

An Equity Pedagogy

An empowering school culture

Unit 1

The content used in this book refers to western cultures like musical instruments, songs, food, alphabets and language used.

The teachers give some supporting activities and materials to students but still those are about English language and the culture.

Some characters are known from their names that represent their origin, for example is Bunga represents Indonesia, Keiko represents Japan

Teachers use materials from this book and it is related to western culture.

The school culture accepts the differences about the strategies used through the activities given in this book.

Unit 2

The topics discussed in this unit is also based on the western culture for example what we eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner except when the teachers ask students to tell their own experience about the food.

The teachers give some supporting activities and materials to students but still those are about English language and the culture. Teachers give some oral activities for students therefore they have to speak about something.

Some characters are known from their names that represent their origin, for example is Bunga represents Indonesia, Keiko represents Japan. Others are Maalik represents Malaysia, Punja represents India, Dante represents Italy and cartoon characters represent students' imagery characters.

Teachers also give some supporting materials taken from other sources but still it is about English and the culture.

The school culture accepts the differences about the strategies used through the activities given in this book.

Table 5.3 Data Classification of Elements of Multiculturalism from Green Book Unit 1 and 2

DATA INTERPRETATION

Multilingualism

Green Book Unit 1

This book has eight topics discussed namely Introductions, Following Instructions, The Alphabet, Using Numbers, Talking about Colours, In Our Schoolbags, Birthdays and Where We Live. Those topics are interrelated one to another so that the students will find it easier in learning the materials given in this book. The activities are given in the form of asking and giving answers in order to make the students fluent in using English. The activity is classified into spoken and written ones.

The elements of multilingualism are dialect, interaction of word and image, and metaphor translation. This Green Book uses English expressions considered as English dialect, for instance greetings, giving instructions, etc. The expressions used in this based on the selected topics. The next element is the interaction of word and image, this interaction is identified by the pictures of characters and the images applied are based on the related situation. The last element is the metaphor translation. The metaphor translation found in this book depends on the users of this book therefore the forms of metaphor involve the animal like mouse, and creature like a giant.

Green Book Unit 2

It is as the same as previous book, this book has eight topics to discuss namely Animals; Pets; Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner; What We Like to Eat; Our Face; Our Body; What We Look Like and Our Giant. The topics are divided into some activities that involving the students individually as well as in groups. The teachers sometime give some supporting materials therefore students are encouraged to learn English subject more and they become active learners. Through asking and answering questions about certain topics, the teachers expect that they know about English terms used, the metaphorical expressions and also the dialect.

The elements of multilingualism are dialect, interaction between word and image and metaphor translation. The dialect used in this book is English dialect which means that the expressions used in this book is English. The second element is the interaction between word and image. This interaction is seen as the relationship between the character and the pictures illustrated the setting. The third element is the metaphor translation. This metaphor is only English metaphor and mainly it relates with the things like animal, creature and body parts.

Multiculturalism

Green Book Unit 1 and 2 are students' books in which the contents are intended to be a working book for students. The explanation given at the beginning of the topic and through the instructions is short but clear. This in line with the level of difficulty so that the first graders who use those two books will have more motivation and be more interested to learn English.

The school culture involving teachers and school staff are encouraged to try to speak in English. The different ethnics among students represent diversity but they still belong to the same root that is Indonesian. The prejudice reduction never occurs in this school as the school participates actively to show equity pedagogy in school environment through English. By doing this, the school environment also empowering school culture to support the teaching and learning English.

CONCLUSIONS

There are some conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis, namely:

Multilingual elements used in Green Book 1 and 2 are limited into dialect, the representation of words and images and metaphor translation. The dialect used is English, the interaction is based on the character and selected pictures related to the setting, and the metaphor is mainly involves animal, creature, and body parts.

Multicultural elements applied in Green Book 1 and 2 are content integration, the knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, an equity pedagogy and empowering school culture. Content integration is the English culture; the knowledge construction process is about English knowledge; the prejudice reduction is never happened during the English lesson; equity pedagogy is carried out referring to the English curriculum applied in the school and the last element that is empowering school culture is done by all school members to apply school's culture to support English lesson.

SUGGESTIONS

To the English Book's authors, they should start thinking of using our own local culture to talk about Indonesian culture using English.

To the other researchers, there is a great opportunity for other researchers to conduct research on this issue.

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