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Thinking is the activity of using your brain by considering a problem or possibility or creating an idea. Thinking could also be seen as ideas or opinions about something. When you do critical thinking, you are the critic. That is, you will have to trust yourself as an evaluator, a surge, a critic. That doesn't mean you should just be content with the ideas and judgments that you already have or that you should simply announce your prejudices and expect everyone use to accept them. It does mean that you can look at your subject, ask good questions about it, and come to a conclusion. It also means that when you make a judgment, your judgments counts for something. You can just accept the judgments that others make, if they are ok, and it also means that it is possible to learn from the judgments of others, but you will be entitled to be your own judge.
Critical thinking also calls for you to take time to consider: responsible critical thinking requires a meditative pause, however brief. In order to make a reasonable judgment about a poem, for example, you have to pause, not just to think it, but to re-think it, to look again at particular lines, to study particular images, to exam the poem closely. In order to make a reasonable judgment about a building, you have to stop and look at it, then move to another side and look again, then move inside and look again. If you are judging a piece of music, you have to listen and listen again until you can begin to know it. That is critical thinking. As you continue to consider your subject, you ask interesting and useful questions-How does it work?
Why is it put together as it is? What goes wrong just here and what works well just there?
How do the parts relate to relate to each other? What effect does it have and what gives it that effect? If it works well, why does it do so? If it works poorly, what has gone wrong? And the questions go on. Critical thinking calls for that.
Critical thinking calls for you to make a judgment. That is you justify your judgment. You cannot guarantee that you will agree with all that you hear, but you can show why you are saying what you say and refuse what you refuse. When you are thinking about a poem or TV programmed, for example, you can quote the lines that illustrate your points or lead you to think as you do; you can also degrease the scenes or episodes that lead you to a judgment. The form of critical thinking, for example, is often determined by your use of evidence.
From the above examples and evidences, it is clear that critical thinking is related to academic competency. Because critical thinking is not just super filial thinking, it is a thinking that is strongly linked with unbiased evidence; not thinking marred by prejudices rather based on logical and scientific evidences. Furthermore, when you think critically, your reading of others written texts will be based purely on what they have said in their materials and probably fairly understanding, from the text, the underlying intents of the writers. Critical thinking will also help when you are writing to considering the following all-important questions critically:
In a critical writing, the writer will carefully consider a subject and come to a conclusion about it. Having come to this conclusion, the writer then goes back to the subject to cite particular passages or features that illustrate or account for the conclusion. For example, this procedure can suffice:
I note that Baze University has particular characteristics.
I note that her students have particular characteristics,
I note that her lecturers have particular characteristics.
I note that her structures have particular characteristics.
As a result, I believe Baze University is a standard institution of learning.
In this form the writer observes particular details and uses them to form a conclusion. Critical writing. Whatever form you use, there are many, critical writing calls for you to provide specific evidence for your judgments, specific illustrations of the points you wish to make. When you show readers the particulars, they can at least track you in your thinking: they can see where you have been and how you got to where you are. Without the particulars, your judgments are only bald assertions.
The following ways or questions are useful to keep in mind as you read any piece of critical thinking or writing:
How and where does the author express his judgments or where have I expressed my primary judgments?
What kinds of questions does the author ask and answer?
What does he take time to consider?
How does the author reveal his knowledge of the subject?
How and when does the author provide illustrations or cite particular evidence?
We can look at any work of literature by paying special attention to one of several aspects: its language and structure; its intended purpose; the information and worldview it conveys; or its effect on an audience. Most good critics steer clear of exclusive interest in a single element. In studying a text's formal characteristics, for example, critics usually recognize the variability of performances of dramatic works and the variability of readers' mental interpretations of texts. In studying an author's purpose, critics acknowledge that forces beyond a writer's conscious intentions can affect what the writer actually communicates. In studying what a literary work is about, critics often explore the complex relationship between truth and fiction in various types of storytelling. In studying literature's impact on its audience, critics have been increasingly aware of how cultural expectations shape experience.
Because works of literature can be studied long after their first publication, awareness of historical and theoretical context contributes to our understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of them. Historical research relates a work to the life and times of its author. Attention to the nature, functions, and categories of literature provides a theoretical framework joining a past text to the experience of present readers. The tradition of literary criticism surveyed here combines observations by creative writers, philosophers, and, more recently, trained specialists in literary, historical, and cultural studies.
The social, cultural, and technological developments of 20th century have vastly expanded the Western critical tradition. Indeed, many critics question just how "Western" this tradition can or should remain. Modern critics in the established cultural centers of Western Europe must heed not only Central Europe and North America but also areas once considered remote, including Russia, Latin America, and, most recently, the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa. At a growing number of universities, professors of literature and related fields pay increasing attention to long-neglected areas of study-for example, works by women and by non-Western writers. The following sketch of various 20th-century approaches names few living critics because it is impossible to predict who among the tens of thousands of writers publishing criticism today will ultimately outshine the others.
A text-based critical method known as formalism was developed by Victor Shklovsky, Vladimir Prop, and other Russian critics early in the 20th century. It involved detailed inquiry into plot structure, narrative perspective, symbolic imagery, and other literary techniques. But after the mid-1930s, leaders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and its subsequent satellites in Eastern Europe demanded that literature and criticism directly serve their political objectives. Political leaders in those countries suppressed formalist criticism, calling it reactionary. Even such internationally influential opponents of extreme formalist as the Russian Mikhail Bakhtin and the Hungarian Georg Lukas would often find themselves under attack. The geographical center of formalist orientation started to shift westward in 1926 when scholars of language and literature, most of them Czech, founded the Prague Linguistic Circle, adopting and refining some of the methods of formal analysis developed by their Russian colleagues.
The text-centered methods of the formalist critics were also welcomed in the United States because they meshed well with the concerns of so-called New Critics, who focused on the overall structure and verbal texture of literary works.
Like feminist, Marxist, and some Freudian critics, nonwhite Western critics and critics emerging in countries newly freed from colonial rule also have challenged many aspects of European and North American culture as socially and psychologically oppressive.
Many New Critics looked at metaphor, imagery, and other qualities of literary language apart from both a work's historical setting and any detailed biographical information that might be available about the author. Other New Critics, however, were more historically or philosophically inclined.
Education is fundamental to Nigerian culture in more ways than providing literacy and job skills. Education institutions are the setting where scholars interpret and pass on the meaning of the Nigerian experience. They analyze what Nigerian is as a society by interpreting the nations past and defining objectives for the future. That information eventually forms the basis for what children learn from teachers, textbooks, and curricula. Thus, the work of educational institutions is far more important than even job training, although this is usually foremost in people's minds. In conclusion:
Activity characterized by the translation of symbols, or letters, into words and sentences that have meaning to the individual. The ultimate goal of reading is to be able to understand written material, to evaluate it, and to use it for one's needs. In order to read, one must follow a sequence of characters arranged in a particular spatial order. For example, English flows from left to right, Hebrew from right to left, and Chinese from top bottom. The reader must know the pattern and use it consistently.