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A mobile phone is a portable telephone that works using a series of radio networks or cells. The term cell refers to the geographical area covered by the network base station that contains the radio equipment serving the cell. Australians commonly refer to this device as their "mobile", while in the USA it is known as a "cell phone". Mobile phones are essentially a type of radio. With ground based mobile networks, the phones exchange radio signals with towers within geographical "cells". A phone can pass from one cell to another without losing the call. Mobile phones are able to use one frequency for talking and another for listening, allowing both parties to talk at the same time.
Mobile phones have become an important factor of our lives. On the past decade, there were only businessmen and rich people used them because its price quite expensive. Moreover, some people thought mobile phone was a luxury commodity. In contrast, people recently have changed their attitudes about mobile phone because the communication technology becomes important in the new globalization.
Mobile phones are a modernised way of telecommunicating people within a town, state or even another country. These technological devices make life much easier for people with a busy life style and can be a source of entertainment and information. On the other hand, hand phones can also be a real pain to pay for them, as they are quite expensive, can break easily, can have technical difficulties, and be an irritation to others and so on.Â
Over the past few years the popularity of mobile phones has increased dramatically. The public is becoming more and more dependent on mobile phones as a way of communicating.
Digital wireless roots go back to the 1940s when commercial mobile telephone began. Technology, loss of interest and to some extent regulation limited early United State of America's radio-telephone development. As the great inventions like vacuum tube and the transistor made possible the early telephone network, the wireless revolution started only after low cost microprocessors and digital switching were introduced. And when the Bell System built the finest landline telephone system in the world, they never thought of committing mobile telephony. Their wireless engineers were awesomely brilliant and keen but the System held them back. Federal regulations also slowed down many projects but in Europe, where states operating telephone companies controlled their own telecom development, although, without competition, wireless came no sooner, and in most cases, later. Starting in 1921 in the United States' mobile started using radios, operating at 2 MHz, just above the present Amplitude modulating radio broadcast band. [Young] These were mainly for experimental police department radios, with practical systems not implemented till the 1940s. [FCC] Police and emergency services drove mobile radio initiating, with little thought given to private telephone usage.
In 1934 the United States Congress built the FCC (Federal Communications Commission). While regulating landline interstate telephone business, they also started managing the radio spectrum. It was decided who would get what frequencies. It gave higher priority to emergency services, government agencies, utility companies and services, it though helped most people. Radio users like taxi services or tow trucks' dispatch company required little spectrum to conduct their business. Radio telephones used large frequency allocations to serve only a few people. The FCC designated no radio-telephone channels until World War II.
On June 17, 1946 in the state of Saint Louis, Missouri, AT&T and Southwestern Bell gave their first American commercial mobile radio-telephone service. Those Mobiles used newly issued vehicle's radio-telephone license granted to Southwestern Bell by the FCC. They operated on 6 channels in the range of 150 MHz band with 60 kHz channels spacing. Bad cross channels interference something like cross talk in a landline telephone, soon forced Bell Company to use only 3 channels. In a very rare exception to Bell's System practice, subscribers could buy their own radio sets and not AT&T's radios. Installed high above Southwestern Bell's headquarters at 1010 Pine Street, a centrally located antenna transmitting 250W paged mobile phones and provided radio-telephonic traffic on the downlink.Â
There are four generations through which these mobile phones survived:-
FIRST GENERATION: ANALOGUE NETWORKS:-
The main technological advancement that distinguished the First Generation mobile phones from the other previous generation was the use of multiple cell sites, and the ability toÂ transfer calls from one site to the otherÂ as the user travelled between cells during a conversation.
The first fully automatic cellular system was theÂ Nordic Mobile TelephoneÂ (NMT) system, simultaneously launched in 1981 inÂ Denmark,Â Finland,Â NorwayÂ andÂ Sweden. Nordic Mobile Telephone was at that time the only mobile phone network featuring internationalÂ roaming service. TheÂ SwedishÂ electrical engineerÂ Ã-sten MäkitaloÂ begin to work on this vision in 1966, and is thought as the father of the NMT system and also some consider him as the father of the hand phone
SECOND GENERATION: DIGITAL NETWORKS:-
In theÂ 1990s, the 'second generation' (2G) mobile phone systems came out on earth, mainly using theÂ GSMÂ standard. These 2G phone systems differed from the previous generation because they used Digital transmission instead of Analogue Transmission, and also by the emergence of advanced and rapid phone-to-network signaling. The rise in mobile phone usage as a result of 2G was very rapid and this era also saw theÂ startÂ ofÂ prepaid mobile phones.
InÂ 1991Â the first GSM network was introduced inÂ Finland. In general the frequencies used by 2G systems in Europe were higher than those used in America, though with some overlap. For example, 900 MHz frequency range was used for each 1G and 2G systems in Europe, so the 1G systems were rapidly shut down to make some space for the 2G systems. In America theÂ IS-54Â standard was deployed in the same band asÂ AMPSÂ and dislocated some of the existing Analog channels.
Interfering with the introduction of 2G systems was a trend away from the larger and heavier phones toward tiny 200-300g hand-held cell phones, which soon became the tradition. This advancement was possible through technological enhancements such as more powerful batteries and higher energy-efficient electronics, but also was largely related to the higher density of cellular sites caused by daily growing usage levels. This decremented the demand for high transmission powers to reach distant towers for customers to be satisfied.
The 2nd generation gave a new variant to communication, asÂ SMS messaging became possible, firstly on GSM networks and eventually on all digital networks. The first cellular SMS message was sent in the United Kingdom in 1991. The first person-to-person SMS message was sent in Finland in 1993. Soon SMS became the preferred communication method for the youth. Today in many advanced markets the common public prefers sending text messages over voice calls.
2G also introduced the ability to make use of media content on hand phones, when Radiolinja (now Elisa) in Finland introduced the first downloadable ringing tone as a paid content. Finland was also the first country to have the honor of introducing advertisement on the cell phone when a free daily news headlines service on SMS messaging was launched in 2000, sponsored by advertising.
THIRD GENERATION: HIGH SPEED IP DATA NETWORKS:-
The main technological difference that differentiates 3G technology from 2G technology is the use of packet-switching instead of circuit-switching for data transmission. This process did not concentrated on a technology, but rather on a set of requirements for example (2 Mbit/s maximum data rate for indoors, 384 kbit/s for outdoors)
Unfortunately there were many different standards with different contenders introducing their own technologies, and the thought of a single unified worldwide standard broke down and many different standards have been introduced.
The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was started by Do Como in Japan in May 2001. NTT Do Como gave the first commercial 3G network on October 1, 2001, using the WCDMA technology. In 2002 the first 3G networks on the opposing team CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology were launched by SK Telecom in South Korea, and Monet in the USA. By the end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone (now Softbank). European launches of 3G were firstly in Italy and the UK by the Three/Hutchison Company, on WCDMA. 2003 saw a further eight commercial for 3g were introduced, six more on WCDMA and 2 more on the EV-DO standard.
During the advancements ofÂ 3GÂ systems,Â 2.5GÂ systems such asÂ CDMA 2000 1xÂ andÂ GPRSÂ were made as extended versions to existing 2G networks. These extensions provide only some of the features of 3G without fulfilling the promised higher data rates or complete range of multimedia services. Just beside these is theÂ EDGEÂ system which theoretically covers the requirements forÂ 3GÂ system, but is so narrowly above these systems that any practical system would be possible to fall short.
By the end of 2007 there were about 295 Million subscribers on 3G networks worldwide, which showed 9% of the total worldwide subscriber base. Almost 2/3 of these are on the WCDMA standard and 1/3 on the EV-DO standard. The 3G telecommunication services generated over 120 Billion$ US of revenues during 2007 and at many markets most of the new arriving phones activated were 3G enhanced phones. In Japan and South Korea the market no longer supplies 2nd generation cell phones. Earlier in the decade there were some doubts about whether 3G might happen, and also whether 3G might become a complete commercial success. By the end of 2007 it had become crystal clear that 3G was a real deal and was clearly on the path to become a profitable exploit.
Live streaming of radio and TVÂ to 3G hand phones is one future direction for the industry, with companies such asÂ Real NetworksÂ andÂ DisneyÂ recently broadcasting services.
FOURTH GENERATION: ALL IP NETWORKS:-
The main technological development that separates 4G from 3G technology is that it diminishesÂ circuit switching, and uses an all-IP network. Thus all data including general voice calls is transmitted using packet switching. This kind of phone delivers or receives calls overÂ internet,Â Local Area NetworkÂ orÂ Wide area Networks usingÂ VoIPÂ as opposed to the custom circuit switching method.
The world's largest distinctive mobile operator isÂ China MobileÂ with more than 500 million hand phone subscribers. The world's largest cell phone operator group by subscribers is United Kingdom basedÂ Vodafone. There are more than 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production around the world. More than 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each, and more than 150 mobile operators have at the minimum of one million subscribers by the end of 2008 (source wireless intelligence).
In these cell phone handsets, in Q3/2008,Â NokiaÂ was the world's largest producer of mobile phones, with a global device market shares of 39.4%, followed by SamsungÂ (17.3%),Â Sony EricssonÂ (8.6%),Â MotorolaÂ (8.5%) andÂ LG ElectronicsÂ (7.7%)is at the last . These manufacturers accounted for over 80% of all hand phones sold at that time.
POSITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF HAND PHONES ON SOCIETY
Having a mobile phone means that one can reach to his home or office even when he is on the road or stuck in traffic, now people don't care if someone is busy so they can't meet him or if he do not respond to the people, the can just send a voice message or short message sending (SMS) to him, then the man will know that someone really wanted to meet him. This feature of hand phones has made a great influence over the mankind as if someone can't say but he can express through words.
Even if someone had an accident he don't really have the problem of waiting there for hours for police to come they can just call the police and their relatives, beside these telecommunication advantages the hand phone had moved far away then just contacting someone, these days a mobile phone is a special gadget that can do almost everything to entertain its owner, if someone wants to have a good phone with a good camera or an MP3 player he can just buy one from Sony Ericsson company , if a man wants a luxury phone he can have it from different companies like blackberry, Nokia, HTC, etc. we can see in our lives that a free man sitting in a train waiting for his destination is always playing with a gadget called mobile phone.
Mobile phone has helped different organizations in different ways such as the advertising co. can just send an SMS or an MMS to peoples to advertise their products, now that the cell phones are able to connect to the internet wherever you are, the advertising companies just sent their advertisements through internet, they no more need to go door to door for advertising campaigns, it saved their time and their labor cost.
Now these days we are not worried about the heavy bulky car phones of 1980's, they are now just as small as a packet of cigarettes, as the things are becoming more and more complex, the mobile phones are also becoming complex but the bright side is that this complexness is not increasing its size, although it's becoming more and more smaller.
The positive implications of cell phones can be realized with these facts that, almost 75% of the people having cell phones do not leave their homes without it, one in four of the people find it harder to replace these phones with their wallets, 15 % of all the Americans use these mobile phones as social networking, 15 - 25% lover couples do text each other rather than meeting, the Alarm clock feature is so enormously used that almost 75% of the people now use these mobile phones instead of an Alarm clock.
Their importance in the society is so much appreciated among business man that now a day they are keeping this MOBILE PHONE as an important issue among their advertisements and their knowledge about how people use mobiles.
Cell phones has made so much influence on the people of Russia that they buy mobile phones higher than they can afford, it is very beloved to them all of their pictures and memories are on mobile phones rather than computers, they are almost emotionally connected to their phones.
Another positive use of these mobile phones is the research made by these small things; this small device has helped a lot of industries to do research by doing votes and asking of suggestions through messages. The use of internet on mobile has been so extensively used that some people merely use their computers, they prefer mobiles over computers, and this small device can help now in checking mails, reading news, weather forecast, and other social networking websites.
Through these cell phones time has been softened, one needs not to be worried when he can't attend the meeting, he can just tell his partners on phone about his reason of being busy, the schedules are now micro-coordinated like it's enough to say that I m in a mall now, where are you?, the other person also just gives a micro text and the talk of 10 minutes is shrinked to half a minute, One other advantage this small piece of integrated circuit has done that we don't have to fix date and time to do the communication, we can just do it while walking or travelling.
This massive usage of mobile phones has introduced a new zone called teens only zone, it says that more than 80% of the population greater than 45 year of age people had never used the service of short message sending, which is extensively used by teenagers, now there is another issue about PERVADE INOTO REAL LIFE, now many dictionary publication companies have introduced new dictionaries for just SMS, it can be realized from the fact, JEEP Cherokee used these words as their advertisements "A4X4DABLE".
MOBILE GAMING, THE REAL DEAL:-
The gaming application in mobile phones is also a good business for the businessmen, according to the report made in 2005 that 80% of western countries' WIFI users will play online games through wireless device; they are about 200 million people. According to a survey, the profit through mobile gaming can be; Airtime minutes +flat free subscription+ pay per play would make almost 5 billion dollars. One of the beginnings most popular games was gladiator from JAMDAT, 850,000 peoples played this game.
During 2005, mobile gaming had generated close to US$2.4 billion in revenue
for operators. An impressive number, Maybe not when compared with the overall
Online games market that is estimated to have reached close to US$29 billion in
the same year. So, what needs to be corrected or achieved within the value chain
to ensure that mobile games revenues gain a greater percentage of the overall
rewards? Paul Rasmussen gives the lowdown on this mobile gaming hotly tipped market.
Online gaming has become a mainstream entertainment business with innovative ideas, including more powerful and sophisticated games consoles, being launched with increasing frequency. But this US$29 billion business has ambitions to become even larger and could rival the global recorded music industry by 2008, claims a recent study by DFC Intelligence. Key to achieving this goal, states DFC, is recognizing the growing diversity among markets, platforms and business models.
If mobile gambling looks a potential minefield, then developing multiplayer mobile games might prove more fruitful. Whereas online single player games are generating just over 20% of global mobile games revenues today, this will fall to just 10% by 2010. Taking over will be online multiplayer games, defined as those played over the network against other users. "These new games had generated almost 28% of total global revenues in 2005, and are forecast to grow much rapidly than online single player
Gaming revenues and to continue to take a larger share of global revenues," says Clark-Dickson. This increase is due to the reason that publishers and mobile operators will launch more games that will allow mobile gamers to play against each other, and will introduce community features that will encourage increased multiplayer game downloads. By 2010, online multiplayer games are predicted to generate annual revenues of US$2.3 billion, almost 21% of global revenues, which is not a small amount.
The deployment of WCDMA technology will have an increasing affect on the attraction of multiplayer games as the unpredictable latency issues associated with GPRS overcame. Games capable of giving 3 Dimensional and multiplayer features are very much in demand and mobile operators are unwilling to consider a game unless it has these high attributes, says, CEO of Terra Play, a middleware platform developer. There's too much to learn from multiplayer games that are played in the fixed environment, but realizing the fact that that mobile traffic charges can dramatically affect uptake and usage. Closely associated with the success of all forms of gaming is the need to build a community of likely minded mobile gaming players. It has become an important factor of the long term viability of cell phone games, and in some of the particular multiplayer versions, says, head of mobile data with O2. What these games' communities also generate is greater loyalty to the game with the reducing of subscriber's churn, as well as giving users and publishers with much detailed information about these players' habits. Perchance the final component needed to turn mobile gaming to the predicted mass market is wide acceptance that the handset is a viable platform and that recognizable brands from other media are deeply involved. In Europe alone the Millionaire game was sold more than a million units. While this is a huge brand, it's important for customers to start associating their handsets with the thought that it's a gaming device. The introduction of firms such as EA (Electronic Arts), which will spend a lot of money promoting its games, can act as a beacon for mobile."
Mobile phones did a great business in multimedia also like using ringtones, downloading songs and games.
Cell phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the firstÂ ringtonesÂ were started selling to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. Soon other multimedia content appeared for example news, videogames, jokes, horoscopes, TV programmes and advertisements. In 2006 the total value of hand phones paid media content crossed internet paid media content and was worth 31 $US (source Informa 2007). The capital of music on cell phones was worth 9.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion US dollars in 2007.
The mobile phone is sometimes called the Fourth Screen (if calculating cinema, Tele Vision and PC screens as the first three) or the Third Screen (counting only TV and Personal Computer screens). It is also known as theÂ Seventh of the Mass MediaÂ (with Printing, Recordings, Cinema, Radio, TV and Internet the first six). Most early contents for mobile showed to be copies of legacy media, such as the banner advertisements or the Tele Vision news highlight video clips. Recently exclusive content for mobile has been appearing, some video contents has been produced exclusively for hand phones.
The introduction of media on the mobile phone has also produced the chance to identify and trace backÂ Alpha UsersÂ or Hubs, the most altered members of any social community. AMF Ventures calculated in 2007 the relative accuracy of 3 mass media, and the result was that audience measures on mobile were 9 times more accurate than on the internet and ninety times more accurate than on TV.
NEGATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF CELL PHONES
Increase Road accidents; because people use their hand phones while driving and they will get distracted by the hand phone, which leads to an accident.
Hand phones can cause interference with microelectronic devices such as:
Plain and air navigation devices
Using hand phones in places where they are not allowed to be used like in lecture halls, library, meetings and Masjids can cause disturbance to other people.
Increasing expenses and burdening the consumer, especially in countries where there is a monopoly on mobile services and the prices are very high.
The possibility of health damage due to mobile phone radiation. It can lead to serious diseases such as cancer.
Health effect on children due to their use of mobile phones, there is no doubt that the impact of mobile phones on children is more visible and harmful compared to its impact on adults, a child aged one absorbs twice the amount of radiation from mobile phones, and children at the age of five years old absorbs 60% more absorption of adults.
According to a study conducted in 1996 at the University of Utah, USA it was observed that the radiation from mobile phones is absorbed by the children's brain four times faster than adults, and thus the effect of these rays extends far deeper than the ears.
The mobile phone sends and receives electromagnetic signals and these signals jeopardize the health of your children.
A study conducted in Germany in 2004, shows that a person in the area of 400 meter from the base station of cellular phone increases the risk of cancer by three fold.
The excessive use of mobile lead significantly to over-staying up late, waking up late and feeling very sluggish in the morning, as a result of insomnia, not sleeping during the night.
Mobile phones effects deep sleep which results to underutilization of necessary hours of sleep, lack of exposure to growth hormone which is essential for the maintenance and restoration of the body tissues during this phase of deep sleep, it seems that the effects of mobile phone on the nature of sleep is beyond the impact of behavioral and exposure to waves that is received by the mobile phone when they are in use, it has a negative impact on the ability to go to sleep, and they may increase the symptoms of headache and lack of concentration.
Hand phones can help improve the psychological tension, distraction, lack of concentration and causes family problems, and continuing to use mobile phone in the home for business purposes, may reduce the level of satisfaction in marital life and increase the severity of mood disorders, and leads to problems in the climate of the house.
When you want to use a hand phone you have to consider some limitations. For example, if you were in the lift your hand phone will not be connected with any network and you will not be able to make or receive any calls.
You can never be sure of what a person says to you through the phone. For example, someone calls you and says he is in a place, but it turns to be that he is in a different place.
Lastly, hand phones could affect the readings on the hospitals equipment due to the radiation it produces and would lead to risk the health of patients.
Cleveland Clinic in Ohio predicts an alarming increase in infertility of sex organs amongst men who frequently use cell phones. In each of the four categories singled out in the research - sperm count, motility, viability and appearance - those who used hand phones more than 4 hours per day fared the worst in each criteria.Â
The study, led by Professor Ashok, distributed 360 men into 3 categories: those who never used a mobile phone, those who used a hand phone less than 2 hours per day and the last group of men, who used their mobile phones at least 4 hours each day.
The test group of men who utilized their cell phones most often encountered an alarming decrease of 25% in their overall sperm level countÂ when contrast to the group of men who never used a hand phone at all. Of equal interest was the fact that the common mobile phone users showed a 1/3 decrease in their sperm's ability to swim.
The appearance of the sperms also encountered, dropping by 50%. Less than 20% of the frequent mobile phone user's sperm looked normal under the microscope.
There are many different kinds of radiation present in our surroundings on a day to day basis.Â Electromagnetic energy coming from cell phones and radio towers are divided as non-ionizing radiationÂ and are usually thought to be harmless, while ionizing rays from x-rays and nuclear energy has been proven to cause cancer problems.Â
However, in recent years the sheer number of non-ionizing devices in our environment has caused some researchers to think if the hypothesis that this type of radiation is truly harmless at low levels as once thought.
As hand phones, microwaves, satellites and radio have all become much more common,Â people claim to suffer everything from headaches to cancer as a conclusion of their exposure to this "harmless" radiation.
Exposure to radiation from hand phones is a growing interest, not only in the United States of America, but all over the world.Â As more and more studies focus towards a link between hand phone radiation and headaches, different types of cancer and even decreased sperm count, consumers are searching for paths to save themselves from this potential threat.
The problem is that no definite studies are available for now, one way or the other. With some scientists still discussing that hand phone radiation isn't dangerous at all, Recently, a number of companies have created mobile phone radiation blockers to ease the concerns of some hand phone users. Those who choose to use this device can simply use this accessory to block up to almost 99% of cell phone radiation.Â
All hand phones andÂ their towers emit Radio Frequency energy, a type of electromagnetic energy. This Radio Frequency energy differs from the type of electromagnetic energy present in gamma and x-rays and has been thought of until recently to be completely safe. X-rays are a type of highly ionizing radiation, meaning that they damage human cells by stripping electrons away from their normal locations and hence damaging the cells one by one.Â
Since Radio Frequency energy is non-ionizing, scientists considered that it would not have this same effect on human cells. However, research on animals show that the heat evolved by cell phone radiationÂ can indeed harm cells by overheating them. The extent of the damage is impossible to realize or understand until further testing is done, but this type of testing on humans is a moral and ethical no-no.
Furthermore, cell phones are not allowed in health care centers and on aircrafts due to the reason that the microwave radiation might interfere with the electronics.
It does not make sense to realize that there might be interference on sensitive electronic equipment due to the microwaves, but exclude the possibility that these same microwaves might have an impact on our body. After all, the human body is an extremely sensitive electrochemical instrument that uses various wave-based electrical processes (e.g. brain waves), each characterized by a specific frequency.
Concluding, the current safety standards for microwave radiation emitted by cell phones only take thermal heating into account: microwave radiation is considered to be safe if your body temperature does not increase by more than one degree. The non-thermal effects are not taken into account, making the 'safety standards' a mockery of public health.
As we have studied about these electronic devices, they have many advantages but on the other hand they also show some disadvantages that cannot be forgot for this we should try to limit our use of mobile phones, we should try to not imply these things in our lives.
Since studies have revealed that the overheating effect of cell phone radiations on the human brain can occur in just some minutes, limit your calls to those that are absolutely necessary otherwise try not to use it. Use a landline telephone for longer telephone calls.Â
Do your complete research before buying a wireless electronic device. Most hand phones sold in the United States do list their Specific Absorption Rate in their manuals. This number refers to the actual amount ofÂ RF energy absorbed by the body, so a lower number indicates a lower radiation exposure risk.Â
Invest in an air tube headset. While a lot of people believe that using a headset offers some kind of safety, normal headsets actually intensify the radiation as it enters the ear canal. Try to avoid using your hand phone inside metallic enclosures such as elevators, where radiation has nowhere to get absorb but into your body.Â
Limit your hand phone use and choose phone radiation blockers as an extra measure of precaution. Until much more is known about Radio Frequency energy and the effects it has on the human body, it is up to us to protect ourselves as best as we can!