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Human resource management : the polices and practices involved in carrying out the “people ” or human resource aspect of a management position , including recruiting , screening , training , rewarding and appraising.
Important's of management : Selecting job candidates , Orienting and training new employees , Planning labour needs and recruiting job candidates , Conducting job analyse ( determining the nature of each employee's job ) , Managing wages and salaries , Providing incentives and benefits , Appraising performance , Communicating (interviewing, counselling, disciplining) , Training and developing mangers , Building employee commitment .
And what a manager should know about : Employee health and safety , Handling grievances and labour relation .
Human resource management is important to all managers : Hire the wrong person for the job , Experience high turnover , Waste time with useless interviews , Have some employees think salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to other in the organization , Commit any unfair labour practices. Managers presidents , generals , governors , supervisors , Have been successful even with inadequate plans , organizations or controls. They were successful because they had the knack of hiring the right people for the right job and motivating , appraising and developing them.
Human Resources Manager's Duties
(1) A co-coordinative function : human resource management also co-ordinate personnel activities , a duty often referred to as functional authority(control). Here he or she acts as the “ right arms of the top executive” to ensure that line manager are implementing the firm's human resources policies and practice(for example, adhering to its sexual harassment policies ).
(2) A line function: The human resources management directs the activates of the people in his or her own department and related services areas. Other words, he or she exerts line authority within the HR department. While they generally can't wield line authority outside, they are likely to exert implied authority. This is because line manager knows the HR manager has top management's areas like testing and affirmative action.
(3) Staff functions: Assisting and advising line managers is the heart of the human resource manager's job. He or she advises the CEO to better understand the personal aspect of the company's strategic options
Recruiters: Search for qualified job applicant's.
Job analysts: Collect and examine information about jobs to prepare job descriptions.
Compensation managers: Develop compensation plans and handle the employee benefits program.
Training specialist: Plane organize and direct training activates.
Labour relations specialist: Advise management on all aspect of union-management relations.
Strategic human resource management: means formulating and executing human resource policies and practise that product the employee competencies and behaviours the company need to achieve its strategic aims.
Human Resource Management Definition : HRM refers to the policies and practises needed to carry out the people or personnel , aspects of a management position , including recruiting , training , rewarding and appraising.
To understand what human resource management is , we should first review what manager do. Most expert agree that there are five basic functions all managers perform: planning , organising , staffing , leading and controlling. In total , these function represent the management process. Some of the specific activities involved in each function include.
Planning: establishing goals standards , developing rules and procedures , developing plans and forecasting-predicting or projecting some future occurrence.
Organising: giving each subordinate a specific task , establishing department , delegating authority to subordinates , establishing channels of authority and communication , co-ordinating the work of subordinates.
Staffing: deciding what type people should be hired, recruiting prospective employees , setting performance standards , compensating employees, evaluating performance, counselling employees, training and developing employee.
Leading: getting others to get the job done , maintaining morale , motivating subordinates.
Controlling: setting standards such as sales quotas , quality,standerds or production levels , checking to see how actual performance compares with this standerdas , taking corrective action as needed.
(Dessler , Williams , Griffiths , Lioyd walker/1999)
The purpose of HR strategies is to guide HRM development and implementation programmes. They provide a means of communicating to all concerned the intentions of the organization about how its human resources will be manage. They provide the basic for strateg
ic plans and enable the organization to measure progress and evaluate outcomes against objectives. HR strategies provide visions for the future but they are also vehicles that define the actions required and how the vision should be realized.
TYPES OF HR STRATEGIES
(1) Overarching strategies and
(2) Specific strategies relating to the different aspect of Human Resource Management.
(1)Overarching HR strategies : Overarching strategies describe the general intentions of the organization about how people should be managed and developed , what steps should be taken to ensure that the organization can attract and retain the people it need and ensure so far as possible that employees are committed , motivated and engaged.
Ø Aegon : The Human Resources integrated approach aims to ensure that from whatever angle staff now look at the elements of pay management , performance , career development and reward , they are consistent and linked.
Ø B & Q : “ Enhance employee commitment and minimize the loss of B & Q's best people. Position B & Q as one of the best employers in the UK ”.
Ø GlaxoSmithKline : ‘ We want GSK to be a place where the best people do their best work ‘.
Ø A retail stores group : ‘ The biggest challenge will be to maintain(our) competitive advantage and to do that we need to maintain and continue to attract very high calibre people. The key differentiator on anything any company does is fundamentally the people and I think that people tend to forget that they are the most important asset. Money is easy to get hold of, good people are not, All we do in terms of training and manpower planning is directly linked to business improvement ‘.(managing director)
Ø Land's End : ‘ Based on the principle that staff who are enjoying themselves are being supported and developed and who feel fulfilled and respected at work , will provide the best service to customer '.
(3) Specific HR Strategies :
Ø Talent Management : How the organization intend to ‘win the war for talent'.
Ø Continuous improvement : providing for focused and continuous incremental innovation sustained over a period of time.
Ø Employee Relations : defining the intentions of the organization about what need to be done and what needs to be changed in the ways in which the organization manages its relationship with employees and their trade unions.
Ø Learning and developing : providing an environment in which employees are encouraged to learn and develop.
Ø Knowledge management : creating , acquiring , capturing , sharing and using knowledge to enhance learning and performance.
CRITERIA FOE AN EFFECTIVE HR STRATE
-Will satisfy business needs.
-Is coherent and integrated, being composed of components that fit with and support each other.
-Is founded on detailed analysis and study , not just wishful thinking.
-Can be turned into actionable programmes that anticipate implementation requirements and problems.
( Michael A / 2006 )
HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT KEY FACTORS
(1) Human Resources Planning
Human resource planning is the systematic and continuous process of analysing an organizations human resources needs under changing conditions to ensure that the right types and number of people are available at the right time.
Internally plans for recruitment , selection , placement , training and appraisal should be integrated.
Externally HR plans should be part of the organizations overall planning process , since plans to enter new businesses to build new plants have significant implications for HR planning.
Benefits of human resource planning:
-Improved employee relations and higher productivity.
-Improved framework for communication clearly defined goals and strategies with a sounder focus on performance.
-Improved succession planning , ensuring that people are prepared with the appropriate skills to take on tasks or roles that may arise.
-Improved moral with greater focus on internal career promotion.
(2) Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal defined as a process that identifies evaluate and develops employee performance to meet employee and organisational goals. It is not a process that happens once a year or every six months but one that happen every day.
- Performance Appraisals provide information upon which promotion and salary decisions can be made.
- The provide an opportunity for you and your subordinate and salary decisions can be made.
- The appraisal should be central to your firm's career planning process because it provides a good opportunity to review employee's career plans in light of their exhibited strengths and weaknesses.
- Three steps performance appraisals :
(1)Define and understand the job : the job means making sure that you and your subordinate agree on his or her duties and job standards.
(2)Appraise performance : means comparing your subordinate's actual performance to the standards that have been set this usually involves some type of rating from.
(3)Provide feedback : here the subordinate's performance and progress are discussed and plans are made for any development that is required.
( Williams , Dessler , Griffiths , Lioyd walker/1999)
(2) Job Analysis
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it . Job Analysis produces information used for writing job description ( a list of what the job entails ) and job specifications ( what kind of people to hire for the job).
Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform there activities. This information in the form of job descriptions and specifications, helps managers decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.
Training: The job description list the job's specific duties and requisite skills and therefore the training that the job requires.
Performance Appraisal: Compares each employees actual performance with his or her performance standards. Doing so requires knowledge of the job's duties and standards. Managers use job analysis to find out what these duties and performance standards are.
Compensation: Compensation ( Such as salary and bonus ) usually depends on the job's required skill and education level , safety hazards , degree of responsibility and so on all factors you can assess through job analysis. Furthermore , many employers group jobs into classes. Job Analysis provides the information to determine the relative worth of each job and thus its appropriate class.
( Dessler G / eleventh edition / 2008 )
(3) Training and development
Training is the process of providing employees with the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to help them perform their current job satisfactorily. It aims to help employee meet the goals of the company as well as their own goals. Training focuses on skills needed to perform employee's current jobs, employee development is learning of a long term nature.
Training and development programs as consisting of five steps:
(1) Need Analysis: Analysis the audience to ensure that program will be suited to their specific levels of education, experience and skills as well as their attitudes and personal motivation.
(2) Validation: Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base final revisions on pilot result to ensure program effectiveness.
(3) Instructional design: Handle all program elements carefully and professionally wheter reproduced on paper, film or tape to guarantee quality and effectiveness.
(4) Implementation: When applicable boost success with a train the trainer workshop that focuses on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content.
(5) Evaluation and follow up: Program success according to Reaction, Learning, Behaviour, Results.
( Dessler , Griffiths W , Williams / 1999 / page:349 )
Organization development is a system wide application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development, improvement and reinforcement of the strategies, structures and processes that lead to organization effectiveness.
This definition emphasizes several features that differentiate organization development from other approaches to organizational change and improvement, such as management consulting, technological innovation, operations management and training and development. The definition also helps to distinguish. Organization Development from two related subjects, change management and organization change.
( Thomas G Cummings , Christopher G Worley / 2001 )