How People Learn And Affects Lesson Plans English Language Essay

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Since the idea of teaching suggests helping someone to learn, I will say that humankind's first-hand teachers that help them learn are their parents or immediate family members. This suggests that the teachers' input into learners have tremendous effect on their lives in relation to how each individual learner learns. From the biblical narrative of the fall of humanity which I believe was the foundation of learning from the beginning in relation to how Eve's disobedient influence learned from the devil effectively caused Adam to disobey, and the how Christ's influential obedience teachings learned of humankinds effectively transforms the outward nature of what people do and the inward nature of who people are, demonstrates that humankinds and ideas definitely have positive or negative impact on one another depending on how each person learns and the subject, and the teacher. Christ's disciples wanted to learn how to pray (Luke 11:1-13). Jesus taught them how to pray in faith with the assurance that God answered prayer of faith; but Christ's comment; "… you of little faith" (Luke 12:28) made against his disciples suggested that they had not yet learnt the lesson taught. And in this teaching and learning setting, I will explain how people learn and how this affects the way teachers should plan their lessons from the perspective of Kinds of learning, Levels of learning, Channels of learning and the Influence on learning .

Kinds of Learning

Education Scholars suggest three groups of individual learning varying according to the teacher's target and the subject being taught. These are cognitive learning, affective learning and psychomotor learning. [1] 

Cognitive

In cognitive learning, the student acquires the primary factual information in knowledge and progressively applies them challengingly to find a solution to a problem. A theological teacher teaching a student to prove the ontology of God by the design of creation for example, may emphasise the acquisition of primary knowledge of the order in creation. Since the student has already acquired the basic facts; the teacher's lesson plan is designed to help the student apply the information acquired to analyse and evaluate advanced task. [2] 

Affective

In affective learning, the students adopt an important principle in addition to actual knowledge to enable them value suitable things in life and also crucially judge and refuse harmful objects and occurrences. In this type of learning, the student's feelings, attitude, and importance in relation to the subject being taught or discussed is very essential. The teacher's projected feeling and suggestions to make the students feel deferent about the object in discussion is independent of the student's will and therefore may not necessary trigger deferent feeling in the student. A teacher trying to convince a student for example that Expository Preaching is the best way to communicate in our present day community may not necessarily be learned of the students until they understand the value of expository preaching. Therefore the teacher's lesson plan should be planned to guide the students into forming his feeling of gratitude and values for the lesson taught.

Psychomotor

In psychomotor learning, the student uses combinations of physical and mental activities. The student relies much on his ease and skill in physical movement such as the use of hands in operating objects in coordination with other parts of the body in relation to speed, accuracy and muscle power such as learning to drive a car. Here since the dexterity and coordination are the bases of learning, teaching plan may be emphatic on physical working effectiveness of skills. [3] 

Levels of Learning

Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation levels are levels of learning. [4] At the Knowledge level, learners draw information already learned to their minds in repetitive memorization of information without actually understanding their meanings. Thus, memorising for example part of Psalm 23, without understanding it suggests no meaning to learning it. However, memorising information is basically primary to the information bank of the memory, applicable to future use. Memorisation therefore as learning process in the long or short term period becomes cognitively useful when meaning is attached to the pronouncements the student makes. Planning a lesson for this level of learning requires the choice of materials useful to the student and the supportive ideas suggesting the manner of future application of that knowledge.

At the Comprehension level, learners show understanding the meaning of the material by converting the material into new manifestation, explains, and predict the outcome suggested by the information. In the lesson plan for this level of learning, the teacher may stress on making the students rephrase and simplify opinions in their own words instead of repetitive memorised definitions, interpret information or explain and summarize or translate information to another form. Or predict the consequential or inevitability of information.

The next level is the Application level where the learner utilizes the learned information such as laws, theories or ideas into purposeful effort in a particular situation. At this point the student applies comprehended information to make sensible choices in both academic and life situations. This is seen in Christ's teaching concerning the Good Samaritan where He suggested to His students to go and apply the information learned to help others. In the lesson plan for this level of learning the teacher's emphasis should be on leading the learner to apply learned information to effect behaviour change.

At the Analysis level, the learner is able to simplify information into its elementary components in which the learner recognises the basic principles and is able to state the componential relationship link between the basic principles and information structure. This enables the student to answer complex problems systematically. The teacher's lesson plans for this learning level, should lead the leaner to break down presentations of higher intellectual information such as book outlining, speeches, sermons, or to point out logical errors in judicial arguments.

At the Synthesis Level, the learner is able to creatively compose elementary principles into whole specially unified information. Here the learner studies the assorted components of information and finds out their compatibility and creates his special material based on the information's componential organisation. A lesson plan for this level of learning should guide the learner to creatively use combination of previous learning levels to present new information structure.

At the Evaluation level, the learner is competent to give informed opinion about the importance, sufficiency, and meaning of information depending on its criteria. In this environment, the leaner is able to examine similarities and juxtapose information, conclude and make informed decisions. The teacher's lesson plan for highest level of learning should guide the student's listening skills, judgement of materials based on how conclusions provide support for the information presented, and the sequential logic in presented information.

Channels of Learning

People also learn through the communication of their bodily senses such as touch, smell, sight, hearing, and taste. Even though the senses of taste, touch, and smell play a major role in learning about tangible objects, they have not much effect in classroom studies but majorly on the classroom environment. Rather, the senses of sight, hearing in combination of the act of interpolation and performance, in the similitude of an opening, form assemblage channels for learning. In the lesson plan for this level of physical learning, should stress on increasing the learners' data remembrance channels by the effective use of his sight, hearing, saying and performing.

Influence on Learning

Internal and External

Peoples' ability to learn is often dependent on their individual internal influences such as feeling, knowledge and the things they can do. The individual physical way of being, Intellectual, social, and spiritual development variation in relation to parental genetic inheritance and geographical area of development provides each student with talents and skills. External influence on student's learning ability is often very obvious. Student's past experiences often influence their explanation of new exposure to knowledge. The teacher is another influence since he provides an accurate or inaccurate involvement in teach-learn environment, and is seen by the students as an example expected to be positive. Attitudinal pressure of the people around including the teacher and students also influences learning. Teaching methods, rewords and punishment are respectively effective, unpopular, and motivational [5] in learning. [6] Thus in lesson planning the teacher must take into consideration the students' individual differences to teach at their levels taking into consideration his positive attitude to teaching and learning.

Conclusion

From this discussion I say that the teacher's influential input into learners subjectively varies on how each individual student learns. That people learn through various kinds, levels, channels and influences. Therefore, teacher's lesson plans should be prepared based on these learning factors, while taking into consideration the teacher's teaching method and positive attitudes and influences on the learners.

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