History And Development Of Subtitles In Media English Language Essay

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Subtitle has two types of meaning. It can be either a heading after a title or textual versions of the dialog in films, usually displayed at the screen. Here, we're going to describe subtitle in media which goes to the second meaning of it what says a subtitle is a textual version of what is said onscreen; often used in foreign movies to translate languages or in science fiction films to translate a lost or imaginary language to real language. In a movie developed in one local language can be broadcast with sub-title in English so that audience of English speakers can understand and enjoy watching the movie while broadcast. Furthermore, people learning a foreign language may sometimes use same-language subtitles to better understand the dialog. This is how subtitles in different language are helping reaching people of different language.

Although same-language subtitles and captions are produced primarily with the deaf and hard-of-hearing in mind, many hearing film and television viewers choose to use them. This is often done because the presence of closed captioning and subtitles ensures that not one word of dialogue will be missed. Those who are the viewers, they are never ready to miss any part of the total interest of the movie just only for the language problem, this is the main reason which lead the movie makers to develop the subtitle quality day by day which was first seen in 1903 as epic, descriptive titles in Edwin S. Porter's Uncle Tom's Cabin (invented by cartoonist and filmmaker J. Stuart Blackton). The titles were from 1909 on called sub-titles, as they were used in the same way as subtitles in for instance a newspaper. Early, but rarely, the subtitles were placed in the moving image, for instance as in Porter's College Chums (1907) or the French films Judex (1916) or Mireille (1922). From the year 1927 on, with the invention of sound film, the audience could hear the actors. So the titles used in between the scenes were disappeared & they started to think about something new & finally they started with using subtitle what we call now. So from the era of silent film when the very first sub-title (in 1909 by M N Topp) in modern sense saw the light of day people started to dream of a new era in the media.

Later on, subtitle became much more developed with the help of science & technology. There can be found some steps of developing subtitling-

From inter-titles to subtitles

The optical method

The subtitling using thermal & mechanical process (introduced by Leif Eriksen since 1930)

The chemical process (introduced by R. Hruska since 1932)

The laser subtitling (latest developed introduced by Denis Auboyer since 1988)

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Functions of Subtitles

Connectivity: the function of subtitles

The basic unit of a film is a frame, a series of frames is a shot, several shots make a scene and scenes make up the sequences that together constitute the film. The dialogue joins these components up like beads on a single thread.

In cinema, dialogues steer the image story through the flow of shots, each delivering a push to keep it on track.

Obviously, though, they do not function in a vacuum, since they are backed up by other filmic components: soundtrack, musical score, effects, the characters' tone of voice, facial expressions and body language, camera movement, distance and angles, and montage (cuts, fade-in, dissolve, etc.).

On this, two points are worth stressing:

1) there are elements of speech other than words that carry cinematic meaning, and

2) in the transition from the original dialogue to subtitles, only the words themselves are at stake, not those other elements.

Subtitles track dialogues minus their extra-linguistic features (gender, age, social class, etc), paralinguistic features (facial expression of characters, head/eye movements, gesture, etc.), pitch patterns, emotional tone, etc. All these features are intact in the end product (i.e. the subtitled material), which means that subtitles stand for only a small, albeit indispensable, fragment of the original dialogue. In view of this, any combination of words that gives the same direction to the image-story as the original dialogue may be considered an acceptable equivalent of the SL version. To put it another way, any expression that establishes the same connection between shots as the original dialogue shall be deemed as fit. An example will help to show what is meant.

In The Mummy directed by Stephen Sommers, the Egyptian guide of the British archeology team rushes to pick blue insect-like objects off a wall in the pyramid, yelling "Let's get us some treasure!" This is immediately followed by a straight cut to another location, where the leader of the American team warns his teammate away from a mysterious door, shouting "Be careful!" Both the abrupt change of the location and the staccato speech are designed to startle viewers and create dramatic tension, causing them to hold their breath.

Viewers of the original language version hear the two utterances with almost no interval, something subtitling cannot replicate.

The notion of "equivalence" is fundamental for translation, because it is part of its own definition:

Translation may be defined as follows: the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL)5.

Some may query whether subtitling done in this way may properly be counted as translation, but there should be no doubt about the answer, since the goal is to help target language (TL) audience access the SL material, as it is with any translation. However, unlike other forms of interlingual transfer, effective subtitling requires recognition of the constraints of the media and an approach clearly centered on the audience. This means that the final product must be designed with two fundamental considerations in mind:

1) The demands and capacities of the viewers sitting down to enjoy the film in the theater or in front of their TVs. Subtitling serves these viewers as a tool to make the image-story comprehensible and thus help them read the image. That is, the subtitles must help the viewers come as near as possible to the experience the source-language viewers have of the image-story. The subtitles are not there for their own sake, and image is certainly not there to illustrate them.

2) The specificities of the audio-visual media and, most importantly, their transitory nature, which require subtitles to adapt translation strategies and reconstitute the original audiovisual situation.

Subtitlers need to be visually literate and fully familiar with the language of cinema as well as completely fluent in the target language. Beyond that, they need talent and creative flair to encapsulate the function of each segment of dialogue in the fewest possible words. And understanding that function in the particular situation concerned often calls for repeated, attentive viewing.

In conclusion, I insist that good subtitling means first and foremost brevity to give image, and the viewer, pride of place. Reid, as an experienced subtitler, defines this as "deciding what is padding and what is vital information." I would suggest that, more often than not, the image carries that vital information-and that is where we should look for it.

These findings also have educational implications. Since foreign subtitles seem to help with adaptation to foreign speech in adults, they should perhaps be used whenever available (e.g. on a DVD) to boost listening skills during second-language learning. Moreover, since native-language subtitles interfere with this kind of learning, such subtitles in television programmes should be made optional for the viewer.

The Positive Effects of Subtitles

Online Video Subtitles Increase Video Viewing By 40%

It is a fact that subtitles can assist with accessibility and discoverability, subtitles can also increase the amount of time that a user spends watching a video by almost 40 percent.  In fact, where subtitles appeared, 80 percent more people watched the entire video to its completion.  This is an important indicator for post-roll video advertising as well as for those videos that have a branding message or call to action at the end of the video.

This according to recent trials conducted by PLYmedia, a provider of closed-caption solutions; where they found that videos which contained subtitles and/or captions as overlays were watched 91 percent to completion compared with 66 percent to completion for videos without subtitles or captions. That is an increase in duration watched of 38%.

Subtitle Test Results

Videos W/O Subtitles

Videos With Subtitles

% of video watched

(100% = watched completely)

66%

91%

% of viewers who watched complete video

47%

84%

Foreign subtitles can help comprehension of a second language in a regional accent

Now, in a new study, published in the open-access journal PLoS ONE, HolgerMitterer (Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics) and James McQueen (MPI and Radboud University Nijmegen) show how you can improve your second-language listening ability by watching the movie with subtitles-as long as these subtitles are in the same language as the film. Subtitles in one's native language, the default in some European countries, may actually be counter-productive to learning to understand foreign speech.

One hundred and twenty Dutch participants, proficient in both their native Dutch and English, watched either a 25 minute clip of the British film Trainspotting (featuring characters with strong Scottish accents) or a 25 minute clip from the Australian English sit-com Kath and Kim (featuring Australian accents). Half the participants had the benefit of Dutch subtitles whilst the others had English subtitles. Afterwards the participants were played dozens of audio excerpts (without subtitles) from both earlier videos, plus novel excerpts not featured in the earlier videos, and their task was to repeat back the utterances as accurately as possible.

The key finding is that the participants who'd watched Trainspotting with English subtitles were subsequently much better at repeating back novel excerpts from that film than were participants who'd either watched the film with Dutch subtitles or watched Kath and Kim. In other words, just 25 minutes exposure to English spoken with a Scottish accent, plus English subtitles, allowed participants to retune their perception of the language's sounds in line with the Scottish speakers. By contrast, Dutch subtitles actually impaired performance, interfering with participants' ability to tune into the Scottish accent.It was a similar story for participants who watched Kath and Kim - English subtitles helped them to tune into the Australian accent, whereas Dutch subtitles were a hindrance.

The researchers said their finding has important practical implications for people wishing to improve their recognition of a second language spoken with a regional accent. "It is often possible to select foreign subtitles on commercial DVDs," they said. "So if, for example, an American speaker of Mexican Spanish wants to improve her understanding of European Spanish, we suggest that she should watch some DVDs of European Spanish films with Spanish subtitles."

Subtitles as learning sources

There are two types of viewer. One with excellent English and the another one is the new learner or lower-level learner. Study show that English subtitles helps new learner. Usually, the new learner get difficulties when they watch movies in English. Even for those who are excellent in English, they also cannot understand the native speakers, 100%.

Listeners have difficulty understanding unfamiliar regional accents of their native language. This is in part because the speech sounds of the accent mismatch those of the language standard (and/or with the listener's own accent). Listening difficulty is magnified when the unfamiliar regional accent is in a foreign language: The unusual foreign vowels and consonants may mismatch more with native sound categories, and may even fail to match any native category. This situation arises, for example, when we watch a film in a second language. Imagine a Malaysian listener, fluent in British English, watching El Laberinto del fauno. She may have considerable difficulty understanding the European Spanish if she is unfamiliar with that language variety. How might she be able to cope better? We argue here that subtitles can help. Critically, the subtitles should be in Spanish, not English. This is because subtitles in the language of the film indicate which words are being spoken, and so can boost speech learning about foreign speech sounds.

Therefore, English subtitles makes authentic material, accessible to lower-level learners.Watching an English movie or video with English subtitles can avoid the frustration which comes from not being able to understand what's being said. Sometimes when someone getting frustrated with the film that she watch, she might not watch any foreign films anymore. So, this is what they are trying to do now. They want to help all those new learner to improve their vocabulary and also to help them to understand the dialogues of the characters in films that they watch.

Subtitles can be a pain to read sometimes but it's the only way to understand foreign dudes with thick accents. Like this set of revolutionaries in the Middle East. Thankfully there are subtitles to let us know what they say.

The Negative Effects of Subtitle

Subtitle Distract The Audience

It seems obvious that if we are watching a film in a foreign language with subtitles in our own language, we are going to read the subtitles and pay less attention to what is being said. Besides, it can cause a viewer to miss some important scenes in the film. How can we focus for two things at one time right? So that film should not have subtitle or maybe they can make the subtitle optional for the viewer. They can choose whether they want to watch the film with subtitle or not. Therefore those who do not want the subtitle would not be distract the attention at the dialogue with those words at the low side of the screne.

Subtitle Do Not Help In Learning

People said that they are learning English using the subtitle provided when watching films. However, the fact is learners need to get used to hearing non-subtitled speech because they would not have subtitles when talking with native speakers. Do they espect to have the translator when they communicate with people outside? Therefore, they have to learn to watch film without subtitle in order to increase their hearing skill. Using this way only can help them. They should watch the same film for several times, then naturally they will understand the dialogues as they watch the film more than one time. It is proven as one Malaysian girl can speaks English with British accents by just learn English from the famous film, Harry Potter. She does not even go for a tuition to learn English.

Mother Tongue Language Retarded English Learning Process

In other aspect, subtitle also cause the viewers become lazy and their learning process not increasing. This is because the viewer watch film with their mother tongue subtitles and they would not listen to the dialogue.They just read the subtitles while watching the movie and 'close their ears'.As long as the subtitles are exist,they would not learning. So, there are no learning that people talk about when we watch film with attack language subtitle like this. If we want to learn, watch a movie without the subtitle, that is the most efficient way.

PREVIOUS STUDIES ON SUBTITLES:

Foreign Subtitles Help but Native-Language Subtitles Harm Foreign Speech Perception

BY: HM JMM with help from Marieke Pompe and Jet Sueters.

SAMPLINGS: Six groups of 20 participants, who are native speakers of Dutch studying at the Radboud University Nijmegen, with very good command of spoken and written English. They had not been to Scotland or Australia for longer than two weeks, so were not familiar with Scottish and Australian English.

Understanding foreign speech is difficult, in part because of unusual mappings between sounds and words. It is known that listeners in their native language can use lexical knowledge (about how words ought to sound) to learn how to interpret unusual speech-sounds. We therefore investigated whether subtitles, which provide lexical information, support perceptual learning about foreign speech. Dutch participants, unfamiliar with Scottish and Australian regional accents of English, watched Scottish or Australian English videos with Dutch, English or no subtitles, and then repeated audio fragments of both accents. Repetition of novel fragments was worse after Dutch-subtitle exposure but better after English-subtitle exposure. Native-language subtitles appear to create lexical interference, but foreign-language subtitles assist speech learning by indicating which words (and hence sounds) are being spoken.

Top of Form

Materials and Methods

The participants enjoyed either a 25 min episode of Kath&Kim (Season 1, Episode 5) or a shortened 25 min version of Trainspotting. For Trainspotting, the English and Dutch subtitles available on the DVD were used. For Kath&Kim, we used only English subtitles.

After this exposure, all the participants were asked to repeat back 80 audio excerpts from each of the source, spoken by the main characters (Kath from Kath&Kim; Renton from Trainspotting). Every participant had to repeat back all 160 utterances, so that all participants exposed to Australian (i.e., collapsed across subtitle conditions) acted as a no-exposure control for the Scottish participants, and vice versa. Accent was blocked, such that participants heard either the Scottish and then the Australian excerpts, or the reverse.

On each trial, participants heard a warning tone 750 ms before stimulus onset. The excerpt was presented twice with a stimulus onset asynchrony of 3.5 times of its duration. Participants then had 7.5 times the excerpt's duration to react before the next trial started. They were instructed to give response to the first presentation of the excerpt as soon as possible, but only if they were certain about what they heard. After the second presentation, they were encouraged to repeat back any words they might have heard. It was stressed that there was no need for them to imitate the accent of the speaker. Participant's responses were recorded using a microphone and stored on DAT. These were scored for repetition accuracy offline by two judges who were naive as to the purpose of the experiment.

Results 

We present analyses of the proportion of words repeated correctly overall (see Materials and Methods). We scored how many words (content and function words) were repeated correctly per excerpt. Table 1 shows the proportion of correctly repeated words per excerpt, split by old and new items and by accent type. We predicted success on individual trials using a linear-mixed effect model with a legit as a linking function because of the limited range of the dependent variable ([0, 1]). Individual data points were predicted with crossed fixed and random effects. For categorical predictor variables, one level is mapped onto the intercept and binary dummy variables are created for the other levels. To best estimate the effect of subtitling, we mapped the no-subtitles condition onto the intercept.

Table 1

Mean proportions of correctly repeated words and percentage gain over the control condition.

journal.pone.0007785.t001.png

Although the Australian English proved overall more difficult to repeat than the Scottish English (in the control conditions, 71% of the Australian and 78% of the Scottish words were repeated correctly), accent type did not modulate any other effects. Neither the interaction of Exposure Materials with Subtitles Condition and Old/New (pmin>0.2) nor the interaction of Exposure Materials with Subtitles Condition (pmin>0.3) produced significant regression weights. The raw values in Table 1 may appear to suggest that performance was especially bad when participants who had been exposed to Dutch subtitles with the Australian material had to repeat new materials. The comparisons to the control conditions, however, show that the pattern of learning effects is similar for both material sets, if somewhat more pronounced for the Australian materials.

We therefore collapsed over exposure materials (see Figure 1) and analyzed the proportion of correctly repeated words with condition (English subtitles, Dutch subtitles, No subtitles, Control) and repetition (Old vs. New items) as factors. The effects of the subtitles were different for old and new items (p<0.01). On the old items, exposure to speech alone (in the No-subtitles condition) yielded better performance than in the Control condition (βcontrol = −0.44, p<0.01, βs indicate differences from the No-subtitles condition). Furthermore, more words were repeated correctly after English- and Dutch-subtitle exposure than after No-subtitle exposure (βEnglishSubtitles = 0.34, p<0.01, βDutchSubtitles = 0.24, p<0.01). For the new items, the pattern was different. More words were repeated correctly in the English-subtitles condition than in the No-subtitles condition (βEnglishSubtitles = 0.19, p<0.05). Furthermore, performance in the No-subtitles condition was better than in the Control condition (βcontrol = −0.33 p<0.01). But repetition performance in the Dutch-subtitles condition was worse than in the No-subtitles condition (βDutchSubtitles = −0.17, p<0.05). Nevertheless, Dutch-subtitle exposure led to more words being repeated correctly than in the Control condition (βDutchSubtitlesvs control = 0.16, p<0.05). The latter effect may seem surprising, given the overall difference of only 1.5% between the two groups. An analysis of the distributions of responses in those conditions revealed, however, that the difference between the two groups lies mainly in the proportion of completely correct repetitions, which were far more likely in the Dutch subtitle group. Given this distribution, the non-linear logistic transformation [validly, cf. 23] increases the difference between these two groups in logistic space, producing a significant difference.

Figure 1.

Mean proportions of correctly repeated words by Dutch listeners.

journal.pone.0007785.g001.png

The data are collapsed over exposure/test regional accent (Scottish or Australian English), for new and previously heard items and for each of the exposure conditions: no subtitles, English subtitles, or Dutch subtitles, or no prior exposure to the test accent (Control). Error bars are ±1 Standard Error of the mean. ** = p<.01; * = p<.05. There were three key findings: (1) Exposure to an unfamiliar foreign regional accent improves speech understanding; (2) Native-language subtitles help recognition of previously heard words but harm recognition of new words; (3) Foreign-language subtitles improve repetition of previously heard and new words, the latter demonstrating lexically-guided retuning of perception.

Finally, we tested the source of the effects on new items. Although these items had not been presented during the exposure phase, 69% of the words in these novel phrases had been spoken in the exposure material. Participants who had heard and seen these words before could thus have performed better than other participants because of word-specific learning. To test the possible role of word-specific learning, we calculated the item-specific benefit of the No-subtitles group over the control group as well as the benefit of the English-subtitles group over the No-subtitles group. These measures were then correlated with the proportion of words in each new item that also were in the exposure materials. The proportion of words present during exposure influenced the item-specific benefit of the no-subtitles group over the control group (r(78) = 0.26, p<0.05), but not the benefit of the English-subtitles group over the no-subtitles group (r(78) = 0.02, p>0.5). The correlational analysis thus indicated that word-specific learning may influence the overall adaptation effect-the difference between the Control and No-subtitle conditions-, but not the additional benefit for the English subtitles condition. The benefit due to the English subtitles thus appears to reflect generalization of learning across the lexicon.

Empirical Study of Subtitled Movies

BY : Maria Bernschütz, Ph.D.

SAMPLINGS : Qualitative Mode (17 people). Quantitative Mode (413 people)

How do young people perceive subtitled movies? How will or would they respond to subtitled films? Would there be a demand for such kind of programs? If the answer is yes, what films should be subtitled?

Research method and sample of viewers' attitude towards subtitled movies

Qualitative Mode

Sample

Focus Group

17 people took part in the online focus group. (4 groups)

Open Questions (online)

5 Finns took part (who have watched only subtitled TV in the last twenty years) reliable subjects-2 students, 3 HSE teachers

In-depth interview

Brazilian soap-opera translator

Quantitative Mode

Sample

Questionnaire on subtitled movies

413 people (CUB students)

The sample consisted of young people only because for them it is important to be proficient in a foreign language. On the other hand, because of technological improvement, more and more people get information via the Internet, and especially for them, using a foreign language has become common. Only those people who could speak English were chosen to participate in the research, as some selections of the movies in the analysis were also in English.

Results of the focus group conversation

Miles and Huberman (1994) distinguished three levels of analyzing the data of a qualitative research:

The phase of narrowing the data,

The phase of visualizing the data,

The phase of drawing conclusions.

The phase of narrowing the data

Visualization and the representation is the result of the subjective coding. The data, the answers, and the opinions were arranged into categories, and the relations were traced.

The phase of visualizing the data

The popularity of subtitled films depends on what you watch (what kind of internal and external variables arise) and how you watch TV.

The sizes of the circles were arbitrary; they carry no information. In addition, we did not deal with the strength of the alternate effect and did not define the relative roles represented by the circles.

Analysis of the online focus group conversation

The opinions mentioned in connection with subtitled films were divided into three sub-groups (see Figure 2):

http://accurapid.com/journal/Bern/Figure2.JPG

Internal cognitive ability

Needs based on inner motivation

External conditions

The comments from the members of the online focus groups and from the in-depth interviews are shown in small type.

Internal cognitive ability

In the category of cognitive ability, there are those factors that influence information processing. On the one hand, pictures are easy to comprehend; on the other hand, pictures carry more compact information, than text does.

As far as subtitling is concerned, a maximum of forty characters in a line can be comprehended. The shape of the subtitle is country-dependent; for instance the Hungarian subtitles are hard to read, according to the respondents.

1. Readability

Regarding readability, not only the speed of speech, but also the shape of the letters should be taken into consideration. Therefore we would like to demonstrate two examples, one for the easily readable subtitling and one for the hard readability.

"it is well-timed, it tells all it should, but still, it can be read in the time provided"

"don't show too much at once, don't be miniature, be well separated"

http://accurapid.com/journal/Bern/Figure3.JPG

Figure 3: Example of a poorer quality subtitle

http://accurapid.com/journal/Bern/Figure4.JPG

Figure 4: Example of a more readable and better quality subtitle

2. Attention-distracting impact of subtitles

Reading and interpreting the stimuli seen at the same time easily becomes annoying, regardless of the type of program.

"Reading sometimes takes away the movie experience."

Translating English Idioms into Greek Subtitles: The Functional Variation Model Proposal

BY :

SAMPLINGS : 15 native speakers of Modern Greek, who study in UK universities, thus they speak (and understand) English fluently.

METHODOLOGY:

I have gathered 125 idioms from all 21 James Bond films. The idioms belong to various characters of the films and they are part of utterances used during the first sixty minutes of every film. The row in each the idioms are listed is also random, because it is based on the row I have watched the films and not according to their chronological order. In my paper I give a three-column list, which contains the original English idiom, its translation in the Greek subtitles and a back translation of the Greek subtitles into English. Based on my data, I have grouped the gathered idioms into two categories: the first contains those, whose translation is successful, because it creates the same impact on the Greek audience the English idiom has on the hearer and it respects the social and idiolectal variation of the utters. The second one contains those idioms, whose translation could be improved through

the application of the proposed model.

RESULTS:

The results are based on the answers given by the samplings. People were asked to watch the clips of the JB movies with the idioms (and their subtitled translation) and to say whether they think it is successful or not. It turns out that the idioms belonging to the first category are only 30%, while the rest 70% are idioms, whose translation could be more efficient, if the proposed model is applied. Therefore, FVM could be characterized as a viable translation solution at least for the case of rendering English idioms into Greek subtitles.

MOVIES AND SUBTITLES:

ENGLISH SUBTITLE : BLOOD DIAMOND TRANSCRIPT

Dia. Don't want to be late. English boys don't go to school everyday. Everyday. Just like you. So you can become a doctor, not mend the nets like your father… Now get out of bed before I tan you behind with my fishing rod. You listen to your father. And be careful on the road. Teacher say this country was founded as a utopia. Do you know what that word means, Papa? Well, she says someday when the war is over our word will be a paradise. And all this you learn in one day? And math and science. This is too much learning. Tomorrow, you will stay home and mend the nets, yes? No, Papa. What? So now you want to go to school everyday? Stay! Papa! Jassie! Solomon. Come, come, come. Pick it up. Quick. Papa! Papa! Jassie. Dia, run! Papa! Papa! Papa! Dia, run! Papa! Bring forward the next one. Bastard. Bring forward the next one. Long sleeve or short sleeve? No. Young man. You must understand. The government wants you to vote, okay? They gonna tell you say, " The future is in your hands. " We now the future. So we take your hands. No. No more hands, no more voting. Chop him. Spread the word. The Revolutionary United Front is coming. RUF! RUF! RUF! Bring forward the next one. Bring him forward. Bring him forward. Long sleeve or short sleeve? Short sleeve! Chop him. Hold on, hold on. Wait, wait, wait. Not this one. Look at him. Put him in the truck. Let's go. Bring him to the mines. He can work. He can work. Move, move, move. Next one, next one, next one. Throughout the history of Africa whenever a substance of value is found the locals die in great number and in misery. Now, this was true of ivory, rubber, gold and oil. It is now true of diamonds. Acording to a devastating report by Global Witness these stones are being used to purchase arms and finanace civil war. We must act to prohibit the direct or indirect import of all rough diamonds from conflict zones. May I remind you that the U.S. is responsible for two-thirds of all diomand purchases worldwide and I don't anticipate that demand diminishing. We must remember that these stones comprise only a small percentage of the legitimate diamond industry whose trade is crucial to the economies of many emerging nations. The Freetown government and their white masters have raped your land to feed their greed. RUF have freed you. No more slave and master here. It's true. Corrently estimates are that conflict stones account for only 15 percent of the market. But in a multi-billion-dollar-a-year industry that means hundreds of millions of dollars are available for weapons in these conflict zones. RUF is fighting for the people! RUF is fighting for Sierra Leone! Any bastard think he would joke with me diamond, I go cut he throat. Stop! And we are joined today by members of that diamond industry who wholeheartedly endorse your proposal. I hope you join me in applauding their presence here. Mr. Van De Kaap and Mr. Simmons. Give it to me. Don't worry. We'll be fine, huh? Listen. You take off as soon as I'm out the door. You don't land until I raise you on the sat phone. You be careful, Danny. Don't worry. They want these guns too much to do anything stupid. Where is Commander Zero? I am Captain Rambo. Right. Right. I've seen your films, huh? I'm looking for Commander Zero, huh? He's inside. You talk to me. You are here to help us in our struggle against the government. I'm here to do business with Commander Zero, all right? All right. You are the man, huh? You are the man. Here, huh? Hey. I'm talking to you! Stop! Commander Zero. Hey. I go kill you, eh? It's fine, huh? It's fine. Commander Zero. Commander Zero. Mr. Archer, come here. You get something for me? And yourself get something for me, huh? Forst you bring back the plane. Are you craze?

Scene : Colonel ask for the diamond.

Colonel Coetzee : Danny, there are other ways to do this, okay?

Danny Archer : Yeah, yeah. If he tells us, do we have a deal, sir?

Colonel Coetzee : Seventy-thirty.

Danny Archer : Sixty-forty. I've already lined up a buyer.

Colonel Coetzee : Agreed.

Danny Archer : Come here. This is his son. Vandy will do whatever you want for his sake, all right?

Colonel Coetzee : Danny, you're a pisser, man. Well done. Boys, we move out. What do you, Mr.Vandy? You easy to take a walk.

Soldier : Come on. Come on.

Colonel Coetzee : So who's the buyer? I'm guessing London.

Danny Archer : Well, they no longer accept conflict diamonds, huh?

Colonel Coetzee : Wouldn't hurt to interest some other parties. Start a bidding war.

Danny Archer : What, one war's not enough for you, huh?

Colonel Coetzee : I missed you, Danny.

Solomon Vandy : See? It is here. He has tried to find it.

Colonel Coetzee : All right, Mr Vandy. Time for you to start digging.

Danny Archer : Hey, boet, have you got a smoke?

Soldier : Smoking will kill you. Sorry.

Danny Archer : It's all right. Time I quit smoking anyway, huh, Solomon?

Solomon Vandy : It's gone.

Colonel Coetzee : What?

Solomon Vandy : Someone has taken it. This is where I buried it. It isn't here.

Colonel Coetzee : Well, then there's no reason for any of you to stay alive. Is there?

MALAY SUBTITLE : UP TRANSCRIPT

Scene : Russell go to safe Kevin,the bird alone.

Russell : Jangan bimbang, Kevin, saya akan selamatkan awak!

Charles Muntz : Dan mereka tak mahu percayakan aku.

Tunggulahsehingga mereka melihat kamu!

Alfa : Tuan, Lelaki kecil itu telah kembali.

Charles Muntz : Apa?

Russell : Lepaskan saya!

Charles Muntz : Mana kawankamu yang tua tu?

Russell : Dia bukan kawan saya lagi!

Charles Muntz : Kalau kamu di sini, Fredricksen tentu takjauh di belakang.

Russell : Dimana awak simpan Kevin? Lepaskan saya!

Dog2 : Jeritlah semahu kamu, lelakikecil. Tidak ada seorang pun kawan lelaki kamu yang akan dengar.

Russell : Saya akan gunakan semua latihan pengembara alam saya.

Charles Muntz : Alfa, Fredricksen dah kembali semua! Jaga burung tu! Kalau kamu nampak orang tua tu,kamu tahu apa yang patut kamu lakukan.

Russell : Hey, ke mana awak nak pergi? Saya belum selesai lagi dengan awak!

Charles Muntz : Seronok bersembang dengan kamu.

Film Review

Film : Blood Diamond

CASTING :

LeornardoDiCaprio - Danny Archer

DjimonHounsou -nSolomonVandy

Jennifer Connelly - Maddy Bowen

Michael Sheen - Rupert Simmons

Arnold Vosloo - Colonel Coetzee

The film takes place in the late 1990's during the height of the diamond trade conflict. Sierra Leone is a country torn by civil war and genocide all due to the world's need to have the luxuries of life at the slimmest price. DjimonHounsou plays Solomon Vandy, a simple fisherman whose village is ransacked by rebels who separate him from his family and force him to work in the mines. There he found a precious diamond, and just before the rebel diamond field is taken by the government, Vandy buries the diamond for later. While he is in prison as a result of the government's raid, he meets Danny Archer (Leonardo DiCaprio), a diamond smuggler who insists that he can help Vandy sell the diamond and find his family.

The two set off through the war-ravaged countryside, dodging both government and rebel forces as well as a nosy New York reporter (Jennifer Connelly) who takes a bit of a liking to Archer. The action is fast paced and often difficult to watch. Director Edward Zwick (The Last Samurai), does nothing to hide the audience from the true face of the violence in Africa, not shying away for a moment from showing kids with AK-47s shooting up towns of women and children. At first the scenes involving young boys thrown into the militia life may seem like overkill or even a bit of exploitation, but Zwick only shows how the violence really happens.

But aside from being difficult to watch, Blood Diamond truly shines in the performances of its leading men. LeonardoDiCaprio gives Archer enough charisma and edge to make him interesting, yet still keeps him human enough for audiences to care about him, even when we think he is going to end up being the bad guy. He also very impressively carries a South African accent throughout the entire film.DjimonHounsou seems to take over the film at some point and delivers one of the most emotional and powerful performances of the year.

 

In the end, Blood Diamond is bound to make you think. It is a hard to watch, well acted and politically charged Hollywood drama, yes. But above all things, it is a story about Africa and how the world continues to placate the violence by turning and looking away. Blood Diamond is as unyielding and unnerving as anything I have seen this year. You should absolutely see it. And once you have seen it, we assure you that you will think twice before purchasing diamonds in the future.

Film: Up

CASTING:

Edward Asner - CarlFredricksen 

Christopher Plummer - Charles Muntz

Jordan Nagai - Russell

Bob Peterson - Doug

Up, the latest Pixar-Disney animation from director Pete Docter is a lovely, creative, exciting, charming and visually stunning family comedy which can leave no heart unwarmed, although very young children might be a bit scared at some of the chancier moments. It is also Pixar's first 3D movie and we think that the 3D effects enhances the experience. It really brings us into the movie. We can feel the thousands of soaring balloons, the heights, canyons and those aerobatic stunts.

The story was about a lonely, curmudgeonly old widower called Carl Fredricksen, voiced by EdwardAsner, lives all by himself in a house on land that unscrupulous property developers want to buy. The 78-year-old man, sets out to fulfil his lifelong dream to see the wilds of South America by tying thousands of multi-coloured helium balloons to his house and uses it to take off. Right after lifting off, however, he learns he is not alone on his journey, since Russell, a wilderness explorer, 70 years his junior, has inadvertently become a stowaway on the trip. The old man is fulfilling a childhood promise to his deceased wife,Ellie, of visiting the adventure and landing his house at a place called Paradise Falls -- where she had always wanted to visit and he, himself has dreamed of since he was a little boy and wanted to be an explorer, inspired by the adventurer Charles Muntz - a flawed Lindberghian hero voiced by Christopher Plummer.

Last time, as a young boy, Carl is shocked to find a girl who shares his same sense of wild adventure -- a wish to go to the black areas of the map and see what is there. The two marry, move in together, get jobs (working in a South American themed park as a surrogate to their adventure travel plans) and grow old together. Finally, Ellie dies, leaving Fredricksen alone in the world. He is grumpy, and a bit sad; but not morose nor defeated. The movie really begins when events conspire to give him a push in a direction he had always wanted to go anyway.

Tagging along for the ride is wilderness-scout Russell (Jordan Nagai, Pixar's first Japanese-American character), and eventually Doug, a dog with an electronic talking collar, voiced by Bob Peterson. The story relies heavily on the interplay between the characters since the backdrop action (which at some point involves, hauling a weightless house through a jungle by means of a rubber garden hose that is tied around Carl's mid-section). It is so surreal as to be disorienting without strong leads to, well, keep it grounded.It is short at 96 minutes while still making us feel it takes its time.

THE FINDINGS

We found that English movie with English subtitles makes us understand the story better rather than English movie with attacked language subtitles. This is because by using the English subtitles, we can understand what the plays are about. It will not mix up with different translations. Furthermore, sometimes the attacked language subtitles are quite different from the script. They do not exactly same with the script and it causes us to hardly understand what the characters talk about. It also cause misunderstanding between us and the real script by the characters. Next, toimprove

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