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Effects of Global Warming in Urban Areas
Global warming is an alarming factor that is spreading like disease. Global warming is happening around the world. Not only United States of America but many other countries as well. It is infecting us slowly and people are the cause of global warming. Global warming is caused by various factors. Emissions of toxic fumes are coming from cars and trucks. Deforestation meaning cutting down trees in large amount can cause the rise is temperature. Pollution can also be the cause global warming. Above all areas urban areas are taking the effect the most. The question is why it is affecting urban areas. The city is the best place to be in. From Stars to Businessmen more people live in the big city than other places. We can get job easily; there are various kind of jobs people do. The city is getting more crowded by the year. Getting crowded is a good thing, but there is a price we are paying; pollution, urban sprawling, and other factors that we are causing are effecting the urban areas as global warming. If people do not take steps to prevent it; the whole continent may drown under water. Humanity will be gone by the hands of humans.
One way that Global warming is affecting urban areas is by urban sprawling. Urban sprawling means that people are increasing in the city. People may wonder why urban sprawling can cause global warming. The answer is simple; people are using various objects can causes air pollution and other pollutions which leads to global warming. As the city is getting bigger so are the people living in it. In many developing countries we see that the rate of people coming from rural to urban areas is getting higher. The reason is that there is something people can accomplish in a city than in rural areas. It can be good jobs, better education; can accomplish a dream and so on. “Sprawl critics explain that the infringement of housing and building on farmlands and rural areas is devouring the natural habitats, the ecosystem and threatening the survival of indigenous species (Miller 73).” People are growing so is the making of buildings and transportations. “Sprawl also brings increased water and air pollution, which further degrades natural environment (Miller 73).” It is true that our environment is changing. When it rains the streets gets flooded easily even though having a good sewage system. In Miller's book Urban Sprawl 2nd paragraph he quoted that in highly developed countries such as United States after the World War II price of oil was cheap and it created a coming economy as well as an addiction to automobile transportation (74). People now a day's rely on cars and other means of transportation for their daily use. As the price of gas dropped so is the demand for more automobiles. By booming economy and many people living there one rural area can become an urban area. The sprawling will continue in cities rather than in rural areas.
Global warming is the main cause of temperature change which is leading in the melting of ice in the North Pole. “Most scientists think that sea levels will rise by less than four feet (one meter) by 2100 (Woodward 43).” The most suffering countries are the developing countries like India, Bangladesh and other developing countries as well. “The people who are likely to suffer most are those who have done least to create it- those that live in the developing world (Woodward 44).” Major of the developing countries people are uneducated; they are unaware what is happening around them. The governments of these countries are taking steps to prevent it, but the people are not obeying it. In Bangladesh it is said that if this continues, half of Bangladesh will drown in sea. India among the developing countries is a big country, warning and educating people will be a tough job for the government alone. People need to step forward not only in some big city as well as all small towns and cities. The temperature on these countries atmosphere is higher in the cities than on the rural areas. The reason is less trees and more building. They are clearing the land to make high rise buildings, instead of keeping some lands for trees. The question is why deforestation can cause high in temperature. Forestation and having trees lowers the temperature, but by cutting down the trees we are increasing the temperature. The tree gives shades and the root protects the soils. The leaves takes most of the sunlight about seventy eight percent for making photosynthesis. As the leaves take all the sunlight during the day the surrounding temperature cools down. As in the city, there are no trees left. People are taking the advantage of open spaces for their own. As the sea level is rising due to high temperature and the melting of polar ice cities near the ocean gets affected the most. When rainy season comes the city areas gets flooded quickly. “Rising sea levels have already started destroying the coral island nation of Tuvalu in the pacific where most of the land lies just above 6-10 ft (2-3m) above sea level (Woodward 30).” So if we do not take steps to stop or prevent the temperature to rise further, there is a hope that our world can be the same as it was thousands of years ago.
Climate change is also one of the problems that causes of global warming. Is it happening in urban areas? Yes it is, especially by humans. One culprit out of many is making the climate to change is a gas called Carbon dioxide. Every day we are emitting carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide gas is a lethal and poisonous to our health. Human beings exhale Carbon dioxide gas as respiration, but people nowadays people use automobiles which exhales carbon dioxide in vigorous amount. “Unfortunately, when burned, gasoline, diesel and jet fuel emit carbon dioxide, the most abundant human-made greenhouse gas. Thus, oil-based fuels are a prime player in climate change (Shafer et al 476).” People are using automobiles at an alarming rate. The percentage of people using automobiles increased a lot after the World War II because of cheap oil. Schafer et al. explained in his article "The Other Climate Threat: Transportation" that as transportation of automobiles increased enormously about 23 percent of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, estimated at 31.5 billion metric tons worldwide in 2008 (476).
Air pollution is also causing an effect in urban areas. Air pollution does not consist of Carbon gases; it also contains other lethal ingredients which causes global warming as well as health problem. From air pollution people in the urban areas are getting affected. In many places we use some kind of source for our electricity which is non-renewable such as coal. Burning coal gives lot of heat energy and from that energy we are producing electricity. From burning coal we are also polluting the air. We are adding small carbons in the air which by burning coals it is released in the air. Same goes also burning woods, plastics, and so on which has carbon components in them. Same as carbon dioxide excess carbon in the air can cause health problems. Health problems can be fatal and it can also lead to death. China for example uses ninety percent biomess fuel which is a carbon free and ten percent coal to generate electricity for the people. But a recent study showed that by burning solid fuel as coal in houses for household has brought many fatalities. Still in many place such as in developing countries rural areas where electricity is not established they use solid fuels such as coal and wood for cooking. An article “Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions “ by Zang and Smith explains an analysis by World Health Organization (WHO) that around 420,000 premature death occurred which was 40 percent greater than 300,000 premature death in 2003 (849). It explained that the death occurred due to the use of solid fuels for their household. It also explains household who use solid fuels is thus estimated to be the largest single environmental risk factor and ranks sixth among all risk factors examined for ill health (849). If a time comes that we need to choose Biomess or Solid fuel for our household, people need to choose biomess. The reason is it is clean and there is no harm done to the environment and also to our health. There is saying that health is wealth, so one needs to choose a better health.
Another substance which is not only changing the climate, but it is also creating a hole in the Ozone layer which leads to global warming. That substance is called Chlorofluorocarbon or CFC in short. What is CFC? It is subset of larger compounds known as halocarbons. Halocarbons are one or more halogen atoms of chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and also iodine. Bromine is considered to be most poisonous and deadly gas, so they use chlorine and fluorine to produce chlorofluorocarbons. It is used vastly in every country. Our earth's Ozone layer protects us from harmful radiation such as gamma rays and ultra violet rays. The use of CFC is increasing drastically that it is out of control. People nowadays use it every day like in deodorant sprays, insect aerosols, hair sprays, and others sprays which has gas in it. Perfume does not have CFC as it has alcohol in it not any gas. The gas is a carbon dioxide gas mixed with CFC. Richard explains in his book “Earth under siege :from air pollution to global change” that the CFC gas is not hazardous to our health but they are not biodegradable. As they are not biodegradable biological components cannot absorb them thus it stays in the atmosphere. When CFC reaches the stratosphere the sunlight breakdown CFC gas to chlorine and fluorine. The chlorine attacks and destroys the Ozone layer, thus creating a hole (379). If this continuous more serious danger will be there. One of them is Skin cancer. In urban areas where people walk and stays, they are getting affected. People living in the urban areas are more likely to suffer than others. Steps need to be taken to protect us and the atmosphere.
Rapport says in his book “Degrees that matter :climate change and the university” that research reveals that climate change exists but many of us do not understand that it is Human-made and there are solutions for solving the problems. There are many ways we can save the environment from global warming. Many countries have taken steps to reduce the excess carbon dioxide gas and other harmful carbon components in the air. Instead of using petrol or diesel in cars and trucks they are using natural gas. Bangladesh is also one of the countries, they are encouraging people to use natural gas instead of petrol in their cars. It proved to be fuel efficient as petrol. They named the gas as CNG Countries Natural Gas. It is pure and carbon free. Many other countries such as United States is also trying to use natural gas to produce electricity. There are other ways also to produce electricity such as wind, dam, and even solar. Instead of using aerosol or sprays, we can use perfumes, deodorant that is not spray and other natural and chemical free products for our body. If we stop cutting down trees in large amount and plant more trees our earth will be as green as it used to be. By taking these steps we can prevent urban areas and its people from any disaster that is yet to come.
Miller, Debra A. Urban sprawl. Detroit :Greenhaven ,2008. Print
Rappaport, Ann. Degrees that matter :climate change and the university. Cambridge, MassMIT ,2007. Print
Schäfer, Andreas, et al. "The Other Climate Threat: Transportation." American Scientist 97.6 (2009): 476-483. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.
Turco, Richard P. Earth under siege :from air pollution to global change. 2nd ed. New York :Oxford UP,2002. Print
Woodward, John. Climate change. New York, 2008. Print Zang and Smith “Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China:
Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions” Environmental Health Perspectives, 115.6 (June 2007): 848-855. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4139302. 30 Nov. 2009