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There is little value in preparing a cookbook of recipes for conflict success. The effects of conflict interaction depend directly on what the participants do mentally with conflict behaviors-that is, how they process and interpret those behaviors. - William Cupach & Daniel Canary
Lectures about conflicts :
Conflict present two aspects : emotional and issue. It means, when a person is involved in a conflict, some people will focus on the emotional side whereas others people on the issue side. In another way, if I am to focus on the first side, I will be concentrated on my emotion, on how much I hate this person who I am arguing with instead of trying to understand what is going on, why are we arguing?
Article : working with conflicts :
'Conflicts are disagreements that lead to tension within, and between, people' according toâ€¦, 'disagreements concerns the issue, whereas the tension effects the relation'
Conflict escalation :
The five dimension of conflict : in order to understand the conflict's context
Escalate conflict PPT + Article
I ntercultural conflicts :
How to manage a conflict ?
Five dimensions of conflict management : Thomas and Kilman, 1974 => cg web article
PPT p12 : Sharing, negociation, dialogue, exploring
Different values, needs, important to solve the conflict ? why ? cf. PPT conflict resolution p13
Example : exercise with Priscilla during the first course. We have a list of 30 values in front of us and we have to delete 20 at the beginning, after choose 5 between 10 values left. My most important values were : â€¦. But it wasn't the same for everyone, my neighbor, for instance, had â€¦.
NVC handling a conflict ? ( website : https://sites.google.com/site/integralconflictresolution/conflic-resolution/nonviolent-communication)
+: dialogue : p.16 PPT : find a quote on dialogue and explain with lectures of Mette
Dialogue : article p.17 online
Point of view as a future leader ?
Most learning points :
What did I understand from the conflict with the Swedish girl ?
What do I Want to have more of ?
E.P : p.79
Intercultural communication in contexts p.448 => resolution of conflict : exploration
Intercultural conflict resolution => intercultural competence ?
A conflict can happen everywhere to everyone. It can be on the playground : two children's are arguing to have the same toy, it can be in company : two employees â€¦ or it can be a national conflict : the actual civil war in Syria for instance. Conflicts present two aspects : emotional and issue. It means, when a person is involved in a conflict, some people will focus on the emotional side whereas others people on the issue side. In another way, if I am to focus on the first side, I will be concentrated on my emotion, on how much I hate this person who I am arguing with, instead of trying to understand what is going on, why are we arguing? 'Conflicts are disagreements that lead to tension within, and between, people' according toâ€¦, 'disagreements concerns the issue, whereas the tension effects the relation'
À garder ou effacer car pas intercultural conflict ?
An intercultural conflict is :
Notion of ethnocentrism : people are evaluating other culture using preconceptions compare to their own culture.
Why is it happening ? => people come from different culture, "have different habits, different values, different ideas about what is right or wrong" (trouver d'ou ca vient, cours?)
ABC Model PPT p.9 ?
In order to solve the conflict, it's important to understand what is it about ? What is the context of this conflict? To realize this, I will describe and use the five dimensions of conflict in my conflict context ( phrase a réécrire). Example with Swedish girl and the kitchenwith p.6 PPT + escalation of conflict
As a future leader, it's important to be aware that I should be able to see this 5 dimensions. Usually people are focused in one dimension. (try to find article which is summarizing intercultural conflict in leadership context)
(look at every PPT because Mette is doing some advice as a future leader)
Second concept : Categorizing Stereotypes
Explain the concept :
Elysabeth Plum : p.73-75 : humans have the tendency to categorize everything in order to to facilitate their life.
Consequence : stereotypes
E.P, p.78 : we basically communicate with other people as if they were like ourselves
High and Low context :
Article Executive coaching in a cross cultural context :
P.263 : high context : "implicit communication; the meaning of gestures, posture, voice, and context.
Low context : "explicit communication; clear and detailed instructions"
Web site : http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue1/wuertz.html
In order to distinguish among cultures, Hall (1976) proposed a set of parameters to help situate cultures along a dimension spanning from the High-Context/low-content category to the Low-Context/high-content category (Figure 1).
Book Intercultural communication in contexts :
According to N.Martin and K.Nakayama, it exists few 'communication style' which they define 'how listeners are expected to accept and interpret verbal message' (2010, p.228). One of this 'communication style' concept is the high and low context. This theory was introduced by E. T. Hall (1976) in order to try to make the difference among cultures. Indeed,
(Judith N.Martin and Thomas K.Nakayama)
The high context communication is when "more of the information in the physical context or internalized in the person" (Hall, 1976, p. 79). In other words, it means that the non verbal communication and the context is more important that what people say. For instance, I was talking with Charlotte, Laura and AnaÃ¯s about having children. Charlotte and Laura shared the same point of view : to have children before the age of twenty eight years old. AnaÃ¯s and me had already discussed about that before and we agreed that we don't want children before thirty. So when Charlotte and Laura expressed their opinions, AnaÃ¯s and me had an eyes contact and made a funny face. So this example can illustrate high context communication. The eyes contact we made with Anais is because we are friends, we already talk about this subject, we shared an understanding so we didn't need to speak to express ourselves. On the other hand, the concept of low context in communication includes "explicit verbal" (2010, p.228, N.Martin and K.Nakayama) communication. So the context or the place of the communication doesn't really matter, the most important is what people are saying, the entire "metamessage" (2010, p.228, N.Martin and K.Nakayama ) is contained in the speech. For example, when I speak about my MBA in leadership and management with my friends in France, it doesn't make sense for them. For instance, a French friends asked me : what will be your topic of your thesis ? I answered : toxic leadership. She wasn't able to understand because in French university we used to have subjects as finance, economics, mathematics, etc. So leadership, as a subject is very different and I have to explain in details what is it about. In the opposite, when I speak with my MBA's classmates on my thesis topic, they understand clearly what I'll talk about and I don't need to be explicit. Why ? Because we have "codes", expressions in our class, ?
So as I can see, (link with intercultural communication => table p .71 book )
Make link in international leadership context + point of view as future leader
Try to find an example ; during meeting if I am the leader and I will make a certain sign which can mean something for a high context person we can have a misunderstanding.
Third concept : Cultural identity
Cf. these on cross cultural management : ikea Canada versus ikea Sweden
E.P : p.63
p.99 : 'The professional cultures has two functions which one is to create an identity for membership and employees'
p.198 : 'values belong to the sphere of identity : â€¦'
"Culture is the water in which we swim and just like fish we don't know what water is, we take it for granted" E.P
As every women thought in the survey, 'their own identity hand an impact on theior leadership style"
Explain what is this concept
Relevance in intercultural communication context
Task 3 : The research area of intercultural communication
Summary of the articles
Cf. article defining the content domain of intercultural competence : talk about varying conceptualizations, ?
Notes Rethinking cross cultural management in a globalizing business world :
-main idea articles :
-arguments for this idea :
-which theories/ideas are presented
2nd article :
"to raise awareness about the fact that culture can no longer be equated with nation" (p.382)
(phrase introduction) Through this two articles, we can understand that to find a good definition of culture is not that easy. If we look at research made, we can discover a lot of different definitions. Why ?
We learn in this articles culture has been studied from different field : anthropology, psychology, sociology, management, and so on. Therefore, it exists different definition, interpretation about culture's concept because when you are anthropologist you are looking for some information related to your subject. But this information won't be searched by a manager or a psychologist. So there are different definition because people who had made studies had different view, different expectation, focus, searched..
Part 4 : Individual : Personal reflection report
Definition of cultural intelligence :