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Human using their eye to analyze problem, differentiate people and product. Other than that, people also get their impression and personal feeling of other people or product by using the means of visual. Human vision usually distinguish matters base on its external appearance especially when determining the good or bad of someone or something. However, colour often is the main sources that affect the human eye vision to the human brain to create a reaction of the body towards the problem. There are about 62-90 percent of the people in the world who pass their judgment based on colours alone (Impact of color on marketing ). Moreover, colours not only help people to differentiate things but it also can influence a person's feelings, moods and emotions and it also may affect the positive or negative thinking towards a product or people. Colours are certain wavelengths of electro-magnetic energy seen through our eyes. The colour we see is the part of the visible spectrum that is reflected back by a certain object. Moreover,Â when all colours join the result is white light (Color Theraphy- Chromotherapy)
Apart from this, colour theory encompasses a multitude of definitions, concepts and design applications (Basic Color Theory). However, there are two main group and three basic categories. The two main group of colour is warm colour and cool colour, in colour theory, the colour that give the feeling that is warm are scattered under the group of warm colour. While, the colour that been categories under the colour of warm colour are red, orange and yellow. Beyond that, disapproval that cool colour are colour that give the feeling of cool, relax and also freshness, therefore the category of cool colour are blue, green and also purple. In the other hand, the three basic categories of colour theory those are logical and useful. The colour wheel, colour harmony, and the context of how colours are used are the three basic categories (Basic Color Theory). Colour wheel is the basic colour lay out of colour. Sir Isaac Newton is the first one who developed the first circular diagram of colour in 1666. Science then, scientists and artists have studied and designed numerous variations of this concept. Differences of opinion about the validity of one format over another continue to provoke debate. In reality, any colour circle or colour wheel which presents a logically arranged sequence of pure hues has merit. A colour circle, based on red, yellow and blue, is traditional in the field of art (Basic Color Theory). Moreover, there are also categories into three part of the colour wheel. The three parts of the colour wheel are primary colour, secondary colour and also tertiary colour. Primary colour are the pigment colour of all colour, while secondary colour are colour that form by primary colour and also as well as the forming of tertiary colour. Other than that, colour harmony is that the colour that can be merged together and give a feeling of harmony. While colour context is colour behaves in relation to other colours and shapes is a complex area of colour theory (Basic Color Theory).
Other than that, nowadays colour also had been use as a medication to health people from the internal of the person from stress and some other mental problem, as it is call colour therapy. Colour therapy is a non-intrusive form of vibrational healing which introduces the optimum balance of colour energies into the human organism in order to promote harmony between the body, mind and spirit (What is Colour Therapy).A Colour therapist helps people understand their needs for certain colours, and show them how to use these colours in their daily lives for healing, health, relaxation inspiration and protection. They will also able to use colour to balance energy, aid creativity and learning, release blocks and alleviate physical, emotional and mental conditions (What is Colour Therapy). In the other hand, colour also is an important soul for the interior spaces. Therefore, colour also been use as one of the important element for the Feng Shui of the interior spaces. By the use of colour in Feng Shui, the interior of the space would be wonders. In Feng Shui meaning, each colour will bring different Feng Shui energies to the space, while the energies will bring health, harmony and balance to the owner (Feng Shui Colors- How To Pick the Best Feng Shui Color).
Other than that, by the influence of colour on psychological functioning, the theoretical or experience work has been conduct to date and it has also been done and driven mostly by practical concerns, not scientific rigor. Most of the existing work of the colour and mental function is applied, but however not in theory based. (Color and Psychological Functioning). In fact, colours often have different meanings in various cultures. And even in Western societies, the meanings of various colours have changed over the years (Color Psychology). However, the use of colour in the industry for each of the product also has its own reason such as the use of green in hospital and medical centre, orange in school, purple in massage centre, and so onâ€¦ There are many reason that why people will chose certain colour in certain places, other than their like and Feng Shui, the most properly reason is because of colour psychology.
On the other hand, the most common use of colour because of colour psychology is in business industry. By the well utilized of the colour according to the meaning of the colour may help much in the business line. However, the most common fully use of the colour is the food industry especially fast food industry. About the entire fast food company use red colour as their corporate colour for their logo. (Fast Food Industry- Yellow and Red are dynamic duos) As no further as McDonalds, Wendy's, or Burger King as prime examples of this. Red seems to have color dominance with regards to actual food products, as well (Why food companies use res colors). Nevertheless, does any other colours other than red use in fast food industry? Why does red colour use in fast food? I would exhaustive analyze the question in my research later.
Colours do affect the feeling of a person, but not only that it also affect the image of a branding in business to people. I as a researcher, I had done some research about the topic of my research question of 'Why red colour use in fast food?' However, I had found 5 articles online as my literature for my literature review. The first article I found is 'branding- why red & yellow is used by the fast food industry', it was posted on March 30, 2011 by Karen Hallerr. However, my second article for my literature review is from Melanie Haehl, by April 14, 2009, name as 'The Psychology of Fast Food Logos'. Third, it is an article from a blog, name as 'Why food companies use red colors', and it was written by ColorSchemer Blog administrator by the date of July 17, 2007. Moreover, the fourth article I found was the article name as 'Subliminally Red- Fast Food Signs Hypnotize Kids' by a person name as '14AndOut' posted by date of October 13, 2012. However, the fifth and also the last article I found is written at December 7, 2009 by Nancy Tracy, while the name of the article is 'Color Psychology and Dieting: How Different Colors Affect Your Appetite'.
From the first article I found for my literature review 'branding- why red & yellow is used by the fast food industry', posted on March 30, 2011 by Karen Hallerr, it say that the feeling and mood of this combination of red and yellow colour emits is perfect for their target market of fast food brand. However, the psychology qualities of red and yellow in relation to the fast food industry, red triggers stimulation, appetite, hunger and it attracts attraction. While yellow triggers the feelings of happiness and friendliness. Therefore, the combination of red and yellow it's about speed and quickness. From the article also say that the language if colour is communicated quicker to the brain than words or shapes as they work directly on our feelings and emotions (branding- why red & yellow is used by the fast food industry ). Moreover, from the article of 'The Psychology of Fast Food Logos' written by Melanie Haehl, by April 14, 2009, say that most of the fast food logos contain red, yellow, orange and green colours. From colour theory, these colours are known to subconsciously trigger hunger, induce excitement and it these colours also encourage guests to spend more and leave quickly. As research has shown that people eat more in a room with warm colour surroundings. As a matter of fact, studies shown that these colours actually suppress appetite because they are associated with foods that may have become spoiled or foods that may be toxic as shown by the article (The Psychology of Fast Food Logos). Carry on, the third article 'Why food companies use red colors', written by ColorSchemer Blog administrator by the date of July 17, 2007 also said that colour psychologist tell that the colour red makes people hungry , instantly attracts attention and it also make people excited, energetic and increases the heart rate of a person. However, it took a prime example of McDonalds, Wendy's and Burger King as which subconsciously lets customers know that the chain is high- energy, bustling and most importantly fast. Moreover, it also give the example of other colour using in the food industry, the first example given is the Whole Foods. Whole Foods keeps its insignia green, while it helps to promote the fresh, organic selling point as green signifies nature. Secondly, MOM's using the combination of freshness of green and the energy and impulses associated with red which trying in elements of the traditional red with a more earthy green (Why food companies use red colors ).
However, from the fourth article of my literature 'Subliminally Red- Fast Food Signs Hypnotize Kids' by a person name as '14AndOut' posted by date of October 13, 2012, it said that red not only meant hunger, it also means danger, like red sirens, or fast red cars, and we know that fast food is dangerous to our health, but they don't want us to think that, so maybe it's reverse psychology. While some say the reason might be because red really catches your attention. Moreover, it also says that the yellow- red combination has a primal connection with "food." In the case of the butterflies, it's "Stay away!" The opposite is true with the companies with logos pictured above-"Come here and eat me!"(Subliminally Red- Fast Food Signs Hypnotize Kids) Meanwhile, from the fifth literature I found from the article of 'Color Psychology and Dieting: How Different Colors Affect Your Appetite' at December 7, 2009 by Nancy Tracy said warm colour like red and yellow stimulate appetite. The same stimulating quality of yellow that revs up the appetite also cause diners to feel rushed, ensuring tables are turned faster to make room for more hungry customers. In addition to the strategic use of colour in fast food restaurant deco and signage, most fast food restaurant employees are outfitted in yellow, red or orange uniforms because appetite stimulating colours influence customers to buy more food. However, green is an appetite suppressant, it subconsciously linked to mild and spoiled food. Other than green, blue also is an appetite suppressant as blue calms down appetite. For the therapy who helps clients achieve their ideal weight and fitness, blue and green was usually use as they supresses appetite so that they can eat less food and still feel satisfied (Color Psychology and Dieting: How Different Colors Affect Your Appetite).
As at the last of my literature review, I would like to conclude of all the five literature I found to my topic of 'Why red colour use in fast food?' As what I written above, all of the literature say that red is the best choice for the food industry as it as best to be used for the fast food industry because red does stimulate appetite and also attract the attraction of people from far. Therefore, red been choice for most of the food industry and become the best choice in the fast food industry. However, red with the combination of yellow give the meaning of spend more, eat fast and leave fast as it is what fast food industry want their customers to be. Moreover, it also written that other colour such as blue and green is not a suitable choice for food industry because they supresses appetite. Therefore, as what I had written above, these five literature do help me to know more about the use of colour to the food industry and also knowing others opinion about it. Moreover, by the help of these literatures I could move further apart on my research.
Research method usually been divided as two main types, they are quantitative research and qualitative research. Quantitative research is research which involve in collecting and analysis data based on the test of theory, figures measured and analyzed using statistical techniques (CHAPTER4 Quantitative and Qualitative Research ). Quantitative research using scientific methods and focuses on control variables, measurable, evidence collection and general conclusions in its purpose to quantify problem and understanding how prevalent it is by looking for projectable results to a larger population and provide a new explanation (Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research- When to Use Which) (Quantitative Research). Moreover, there are four type of quantitative research, they are descriptive, correlational, cause- comparative and experimental (Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research). However, qualitative research is to explore problem, understanding the phenomenon and to answer the question given. Focus groups, depth interviews, content analysis, ethnographic assessment and symbols of science are all among of the method that been used (What is Qualitative Research). Qualitative research is to aimed to get a better understanding by the first-hand experience of the researcher of how participants infer the meaning from the surrounding environment, and also how their behavior affects the meaning (What is Qualitative Research). Moreover, qualitative research is divided into four types; they are ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory and case study.
Ethnography is defined as the systematic depiction of the single lifetime civilization often through field surveys. Base on the immediate suggestion of and coverage on a people's method of life, the basic terminology of the ethnography is the fulfill of anthropological research (The Imperial Archive). On the other hand, phenomenology is the sport concept that had been adapted to the relationship between certain sociologists to stimulate an understanding and consciousness of personal and social life of the state (PHENOMENOLOGY). Moreover, phenomenology is also defined as the awareness qualified of the composition from the first-person proposition. The intentionality is the major composition of an experience that had being directed toward something as it is an experience of or about some object. Virtue of the origin of an incident or implication of the object together with advisable enabling prerequisite directs an experience toward an object (Phenomenology). However, the grounded theory is developed inductively from a collected of data according to refers of the theory. Grounded theory is the theory that at least fits one dataset perfectly without the help of any data but can turn out to fit no data at all (Introduction to Grounded Theory). Grounded theory is also known as a research method that enable to exploit theory that give the major disquiet of the population of the autonomous area and how it misgiving is flat-footed or processed (Grounded Theory Seminar).
Research method that uses to look at individuals, a small group of participants, or a group as a whole is known as case study. Method that been use by are researchers of case study for collecting data are participant, direct observations, interviews, protocols, tests examinations of records, and collections of writing samples (Case Studies). Moreover, case study is defined as an in-depth study of one person. A researcher use case study to further more in-depth to its research question and to investigate and observed other to gather more information for its own interest of the case (What Is a Case Study?).
However, the research method that I have chosen is the case study. I had chosen case study as my research question is because case study is use for a small group of participants while as precisely this research method suitable for my research question. As according to my research question of 'Why does red colour use in fast food', I would have to observe people feeling and reaction to the colour use for the fast food industry and I would also like interview the participants about the use of colour in fast food industry effect and why the colour been chosen. Therefore, case study is the best choice for my research method.
As my research method is case study, in the case of qualitative research, I would have to consider about the ethic research during the whole interview for the research. Ethic is the moral principle or rules which laid to the codes to carry out the output by professional bodies for an action or clique (Ethics). Public opinion to withstand the impingement of privacy of the real purpose of the study as much publicity seeking mass media reports, to inquire into the reaction proved regularly increase, but the fact of incognito, effectively guaranteed in the large-scale data collection (research ethics). However, there are four things that under the ethics group, they are harm, consent, deception and privacy.
Harm from the ethic research should be avoided. There are numbers of types of harm that participants can be subjected to; they are physical harm to participants, psychological distress and discomfort, and social disadvantage (Principles of research ethics). In the other hand, consent is also important for the ethic research. As a researcher, we must provide a consent form to the participants to make sure that the participants had given their permission and also given pertinent information to make an "informed" consent to participate. Moreover, consent form is also use to protect the rights and the information of the participants (Ethics and Informed Consent).
Other than that, deception in ethic research has been attack repeatedly been rated as morally unacceptable and immoral. The evidence shows that deception, although not considered to be immoral, from a moral point of view, the abomination, undesirable, or undesirable method, from the perspective of the research participants (Deception in Psychological Research). Privacy plays a very important row for the ethic research. As a researcher, the first ethic concern should be to protect the dignity and well-being of the participants. You have the responsibility to minimize any program; it is possible to make your participants regretted (Ethical Responsibilities to Participants).
In the other hand, by doing the interview and getting information by the research method from the case study, many thing that need to be consider, such as the ethic of the research. Moreover, the privacy and the harm of the participant is the first things that need to be consider about during the research interview. Consent form need to be provided for every participant to ensure that they know the aim and their right for the research; therefore I would provide the consent form for my participants. Other than that, I would also consider and protect the privacy of the participants. However, I would also ensure that there will no deceptions in my research.