Few students despite of having excellent knowledge, good vocabulary, students from other countries fail to cope up with education systems as compared to western countries education system.
As students are new to country ad have recently moved in to new country, they are not able to fit themselves in the education system of western countries immediately. This is one of the reason student tries to make use of easy and alternate methods such as use of powerful search engines like Google and try to use their Information Technology (IT) skills and try to find suitable assignments as per the syllabus of the college and then try to copy the same. Doing this involves themselves in unfair practices like plagiarism when lectures or professors access their assignment; it comes into their mind immediately that they have gone through the same kind of assignment earlier. It is very easy on their part to identify whether student has done self study or copied from someone else. They also have deep observance on knowledge of a particular student as they have been with the student for pretty long time and for many sessions. Also few students aren't aware that their work will be accessed online and checked for plagiarism.
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Plagiarism as defined in 'Random house compact unabridged dictionary' is "use or close imitation of language and thoughts of some other author and then representation of same as their own original ideas or work". Student, researcher or professor doing such kind of frauds for completing their assignment is termed Academic Plagiarism. Same is in the case of journalism, if any person goes beyond journalist ethics he may have to face punishments. Most of them never admit that they lead themselves towards Plagiarism and it was unintentional. Plagiarism has been easy due to entry of electronic media in market (Available at http://www.plagiarismadvice.org/documents/resources/academic_plagiarism.pdf by Marsh, R. accessed on 26/07/2010)
2: Classification of Plagiarism
Minimal Plagiarism can be termed as using someone else's thoughts, idea and concept in his own words but by applying lot of paraphrasing. It includes use of summary, converting simple sentence to compound or complex or vice versa.
Substantial Plagiarism can be termed as wide spread or considerable borrowing of material, passing off borrowed as original, failure to indicate quoted evidence or giving bibliographical sources or other appropriate credit. It also includes use of more than one source where they use synonyms and paraphrasing without use of proper reference, quotation marks, etc. (Available at http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~ehrlich/plagiarism598.html accessed on 27/07/2010)
Complete Plagiarism can be termed as kind of Plagiarism in which entire passage or assignment is picked up straight away in same way which is done by someone else. Use of someone's idea, words or concepts without paraphrasing or understanding and put it up without reference is termed as complete Plagiarism.
3: Different types of Plagiarism such as:
Copy and Paste Plagiarism: if we pick up a part or complete sentence from any original data, one should give proper reference and make use of quotation mark. This is simplest and commonly observed kind of Plagiarism. This is deliberate kind of Plagiarism because student can be lazy, sneaky and/or competitive. It is observed, reasons for same can be academic workload conditions or they might be running out of time.(Available at http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessinglearning/docs/PlagMain.pdf accessed on 27/07/2010)
Style Plagiarism: this is done when some student copy pattern or style of somebody's existing work. In this actually student is copying author's reasoning style. Most of student practice this as they feel that they are just using structure of assignment as a layout.
Word Switch Plagiarism: is termed as when someone switches the order of the words and/or substitutes some different words from phrase, sentence or paragraph of a source.
Metaphor Plagiarism: is a generic term which implies a use of such writing techniques in which opposite person can understand the concept by comparing ideas and view with something he already knows about, such as personification and similes
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Idea Plagiarism: is kind of plagiarism in which one copies ideas of author and present it as his own ideas. Actual owner of the idea is someone else, but writer tries to show that idea belongs to him. This is termed as Idea Plagiarism
4: Examples of different kind of Plagiarism:
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5: Reasons for Plagiarism:
According to Gill Chester, he has mentioned few of the reason why student get carried away towards unfair practices like Plagiarism.
Most of the students get distracted at the last moment. Reasons for such distraction can be poor time management, doing several activities at same time with multiple demands and task in hand. Also one of the reason can be students couldn't keep up with the work due to work overload and approaching deadlines for submissions of assignment which can also be due to lack of information about deadlines of submission
Some student may think lectures don't care about the assignment, so why they should be doing the same. Some students may not be able to cope with the subjects. Some may find subject boring and/or out of their interest. It may also be due to lack of proper guidance or motivation from lectures. May be lectures may be using outdated or same topic of assignment for long time.
Some student may think they have to succeed as they must be pressurized by their parents and due to parental control, student may lack interest in studies. One of the other factor can be cost of course is too high, cost of living and daily expenses like rent, travelling etc. may be going up due to unemployment and due to these reasons, student may lead themselves to Plagiarism.
Some student may not be guided properly how they can avoid Plagiarism and basic knowledge about the same. Lectures must ensure that students know exact definition and concept of Plagiarism and proper guidelines should be provided on referencing. Lack of experience to do such assignments may also lead to Plagiarism
Some student may have made up their mind that they cannot do the assignment and only option left with them is to copy from some powerful search engines or try to make use of already existing essays or assignment. Some of the assignment given to student may be too tough for them or maybe it is out of their interest. Assignment specification may not be clear or again they might be lagging in supervision or guidance
Some student think may have a tendency of just passing. For them good score or presenting good work is not the aim. Students may have a mindset that all they have to do is just pass with minium marks. Their aim to study is not having in-depth knowledge about the subject. This may also reason why student can lead himself to Plagiarism
(Available at http://www.tla.ed.ac.uk/services/LTforums/archive/reasons.pdf by Gill Chester 2001 accessed on 28/07/2010)
6: why is Plagiarism common in international student:
Plagiarism is most common observance in international students. Plagiarism is commonly found in Asian students from India, China, Bangladesh, Nepal etc. Basic reason for plagiarism is, in their home country they have been involved in having readymade notes and memorizing and then putting it up in examinations. Hence concept of plagiarism is not so common in minds of international students. Few of the common reasons are mentioned below for cause of plagiarism in international students:
Firstly students are new to country. They have to adapt themselves to way of living as per international standards and it takes time. So they couldn't manage time or lack time management
Students won't have proper knowledge how to apply for bank A/C, student's oysters, NHS, NI number and so on. Hence by the time students settle down, it's already too late and submission dates are near. This can be one more reason which may lead them to plagiarism
Education system may differ from that of their home country, this can also be one of the reasons, as students may take time to adapt themselves with new education system.
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Every student has different grasping power and adapting themselves to new environment. Sometimes it may be difficult for international students to cope up with new techniques.
Most of the cases are like self study approach which most of international students might not have come across
Communication or language barrier may be also one of the major reason for plagiarism
Some students might have financial crisis, so they might have to work for more number of hours. During the same, students may not have time to complete their assignment on time and may lead themselves to plagiarism
However one can conclude with keeping in mind time factor, proper guidance, and positive efforts, Student can avoid plagiarism and make have a good academic career
7: Recommendations to avoid plagiarism
According to the book 'Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era' written by Ann Lathrop and Kathleen Foss, there are few recommendations written on how to avoid Plagiarism. Few of them are mentioned below:
Lectures must teach students how to paraphrase and various ways to refer sources.
Lectures should give a list of topics to chose students assignment and these topics must be changed on timely bases to prevent Plagiarism and collusion of ideas
Lectures must ask all students to submit draft copies of assignments, outlines and bibliographies for their assignment and provide guidelines on the same
Lectures should also ask students to submit copies of their research notes
Students must also be warned not to store their assignments on multiple computer, share their flash drives with others
Students should be very careful choosing their topic of assignments as if they select recent topics, chances of plagiarism reduces as less papers on the same are available on internet
Series of steps and check points must be structured before writing any assignments
Bibliography must be checked at early stage during the course of writing assignments
Try to make use of current resources less than 2-3 years, so that assignments covers latest updates and chances of plagiarism and collusion reduces
Topics in the assignments must be narrow and must be focused carefully rather than having broad or more general topics
Coming to conclusion, we can generalize that Plagiarism is very serious academic crime whether it's done intentionally or purposely. If a student is caught doing such unfair practice like Plagiarism, no consideration would be given and student may have to face many legal actions against him. Laws enforcing Plagiarism is actually a kind of positive advantage for international students as they can grow up their skills and widen their knowledge in comparison with other international students. Major factors leading to Plagiarism is parental pressure on the students. According to views of Piety (2002), international students have more fear of failing exams than in comparison with American or British students. Basically there can't be any system which can prevent Plagiarism, it's only a student can adapt themselves easily to international studies and take initiative themselves to keep them away from such kind of unfair practices (Self study)