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Equivalence can be seen as a link of resemblance or likeness, which, however, leads to the difficulty of establishing important units of contrast. In additional words once two texts are described as equivalent. It can be seen, at what point equivalence is found? How resemblance or correspondence degree it holds, in the term of an exact qualities or character, which mean the significance, perspective or purpose.
Accepting the nonequivalence at the word level in translation between languages is realizable to happen to linguistic phenomena as a result of the lack of complete equivalence among two lexical items in a given language. We still often find that there is no an exact equivalence between words of one language and the words of another.
The lack of equivalence between languages at the word level is universal and a problem which always faced the translators. It is practically impossible to offer absolute guidelines for dealing with various types of nonequivalence, which exist between languages. Languages vary from each other syntactically, semantically and pragmatically.
2.3 Different views to equivalence
The idea of equivalence is definitely one of the most difficult and problematic areas in the ground of translation theory. The term has made a lot of problems, and it seems quite possible that it will go on to creating platforms for scholars to discuss and investigate within the field of translation studies.
This term has been classified, evaluated and widely discussed from various points of view and has been approached from many different perspectives. The trouble in defining equivalence may lead to the impracticality of having a common approach to idea of equivalence between source language and target language. The definitions can be a review in the term of their approaches.
(J.Roman, 1959) (J.Roman, 1959)in his (J.Roman, 1959) Study works of equivalence has given new ideas in the theory of translation since he point out his contribution based on meaning. Furthermore he points that equivalence involves the translation of two equivalent messages in two different ways;
1. In linguistics, language's variation is acceptable between the languages from one to another for a larger or smaller amount of grammar. Though the translation is on positive move there is still a greater amount of problems faced by the translator
2. Loan-translations, Loanwords, semantic shifts or neologism (recently created a word, for example, mouse who took a new meaning in computer) and circumlocution used to modify and magnify terms on every occasion, which still prove to be inefficient.
He also states that the problem of both meaning and equivalence is linked to the differences between structures, terminology, and lexical forms of languages. He also States that equivalence indifference is the serious problem of language and the fundamental concern of linguistic meaning. He identifies three areas of translation:
1. Intralingual translation, which means translation within the same language which can involve rewording or paraphrasing.
2. Interlingual translation, which means translation from one language to another.
3. Intersemiotic translation, which means translation of verbal signs of non verbal signs, for example, music.
He holds that in the interlingual translation; the translator used synonyms in order to get the source and the target language message. It looks similar to (Vinay and Darbelnet, 1995) theory of translation procedures. They equally believe the fact that each time a linguistic approach is no longer suitable in carrying out a translation, the translator can only rely on other measures such as loan translation and neologisms. Both theories approved the restrictions of a linguistic theory and quarrel that equivalence can never be unattainable since there are numerous alternative ways that the translator can select.
Both (Vinay and Darbelnet, 1995) similar to Jacobson they consider the translation job which can all the time be transferred out from one SL to TL, despite the cultural or grammatical differences between source languages and target languages.
Whereas (Nida, 1964) developed the idea of equivalence by points out that, there are no two languages having the same messages, in the sense of symbols or in the conduct in which they are put in phrases and sentences, so that there can be no total sameness between languages. That means, there are no such things known as total equivalent, therefore, the translator must try to find the closest probable equivalent. He introduced two different types of equivalence, which are formal and dynamic.
e defines formal equivalence as follows; Formal equivalence which refers to contains of message, in the form and content. In this cause a translation is something connected with such massage as an idea to idea, poetry to poetry, and sentence to sentence. In view from this formal point of study, one able to understand that the message in the target language is similar and closely as possible to the various fundamentals in the source language. This means, for instance, that the message in the target culture is always compared with the meaning in the source culture to find out the standards of exactness and suitability. Moreover, he stresses that this variety of equivalence is intended to allow a person who reads to adjust himself as entirely as possible with an individual in the source language environment, and to comprehend as much as he can about the traditions, behavior of idea, and means of expression.