English As Second Language To 7th Graders English Language Essay

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Post a map of Greece on the board asks the students what they know about ancient Greece. Post another map with Mt. Olympus highlighted and Athens highlighted. Explain that Mt. Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 metres or 9,570 feet high

Discussion: Did the ancient Greeks really believe the gods lived on top? Some probably did, others probably not. The mountain is quite easy to climb in the summer, and to explain why no gods in their palaces were to be seen some ancients changed the story to say that the gods lived in the sky above Mt Olympus.

Option 2

Show a clip from Clash of the Titans. Ask the students if they are familiar with the movie? Who do they think Zues is? What can they tell me about where he lived, who he was? Do they know any other Greek Gods or Greek Myths?

Methodology: Advanced Organizer- Ausubel Notes / Activating Prior Knowledge

Create a kind of disequilibrium by the use of Ausubel to hook up the children's' attention. Introduce the topic of a new God each day to be studied that most if not all students can relate it with their own experience on the prior subject. Advanced organizer creates more interest concerning the material to be used to impart knowledge to student. Additionally, it awakens the existing students' knowledge as regards the subjects to be taught, giving the teacher an opportunity to establish what student know as well as offering a bench mark from where both the teacher and students can start, link and expand the subject in the course of the unit.

The attributes that make advanced organizer to be effective are that it opts to be general, inclusive and abstract. This implies that it should be very broad when being introduced to ensure that each and every student can closely associate with what they knew earlier concerning the subject. Thus a link of previous knowledge held by students and new knowledge about to be learnt.

Generally speaking, this methodology holds that information deemed to be very general opt to be brought forth first. This is to be followed by refining as well as differentiating with details as well as specific information. The next principle of advanced organizer is that the materials used to give instructions to students must try to relate new and old information via cross-references as well as comparison. This will ensure that learning carries meaning and linked to students' cognitive structures.

(Source: "Subsumption Theory (D. Ausubel)" at http://tip.psychology.org/ausubel.html)

Word Bank : (CALPS) Content Obligatory Vocabulary (of)



symbol (symbolize, symbolic)


Evolve (evolution, evolved [as adj.])

Create (creation, created [as adj.])

















phrasal verbs: Upbringing, brought up, faced with, going on, hold on, take on

Prepositions of frequency

Ordering words/phrases

To introduce the language for expressing cause

To introduce the language for expressing possibility

To promote expression of geographical location

(CALPS) Content Obligatory language

New: Past perfect tense

For example:

By the year 100 B.C.E., Greeks had developed symbolic hieroglyphics.

At the same time, the Phoenicians had created a phoneme-based system of cuneiform.

Conditionals, specifically "If..., then..." phrases

For example:

If the Greeks had not made the leap from symbolic to "sound-based" script, then the Phoenicians would not have created a phoneme-based cuneiform alphabet.

Review: Present perfect tense

For example: (on a timeline) In 100 B.C.E., the Greeks have developed a system of symbolic hieroglyphs.

Use of past participle as adjective

For example: written symbols, created vowels, developed languages

Past simple

For example: The Greeks created a system of symbolic pictographs, called hieroglyphs, to form their language.

Adverb clauses/ subordinating conjunctions, modals

For classroom debate (see BICS).

Sentence Structures: Descriptive Sentences, complex sentences

(BICS) Interpersonal Language

For Class Debate

Validating language:

It may be true that _____.

I see what you mean.

That's one way to look at the situation.

I agree that _____.

Refuting language: (after validating language or adverb clauses)

_____ , but _____.

_____ , however, _____.

In my opinion _____.

I believe/think/see _____.

I am convinced _____.

Adverb clauses/ Subordinating Conjunctions:

Even though/ Even if/ If/ While _____ , _____.

Before/ Because/ After/ Now that _____ , _____.

Weak Modals: might, could, may, is possible, perhaps, etc.

Strong Modals: should, had better, must, have to, etc.

Interrupting language:

Excuse me, but _____.

I must interject that _____.

Forgive my interruption, but _____.

For Feedback, the Tuning Protocol

warm feedback

I appreciate _____.

I enjoyed _____.

I feel that _____ worked particularly well.

I like how you _____.

I felt that _____ was particularly strong.

cool feedback

Have you considered _____?

Would it be possible to _____?

Could you add more to _____?

Have you looked into _____?

hard feedback

I'm afraid I didn't really understand _____.

I feel that you could elaborate more on _____.

I found _____ section unclear.

Perhaps it would work better if you did _____ instead of _____.

I think that _____ needs more support.




Learners will be able to:

distinguish myth and historicity of Troy

draw conclusions about the historicity of the myth of Troy

classify historic sources as either primary or secondary sources

interpret archaeological sources related to Troy and the Mycenaean world

make deductions about the causes of a possible war of Troy from Troy's geographical location


Creating a time line of the evolution of English that will remain posted during the lesson and can be gradually filled in with historical events and their details.

Step-by-step visual representations of the evolution from pictograph to symbolic letter (such as in the reading: http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/vangogh/555/Spell/alfabet-abbr.html)

Charts containing pictographs, cuneiform, and the modern English language.


Who invented the English? A good introductory video.


The evolution of the Latin English from ancient Hebrew. Very detailed.



The evolution of the alphabet... not the best video, but would translate well into a visual chart.


The evolution of the Armenian English, all the way from petroglyphs. Again, possibly better as a chart, but interesting to point out that not only our alphabet exists and has evolved.


"The Rosetta Stone" podcast by Glenn Dixon, author of Pilgrim in the Palace of Words. A short video introducing the history of the Rosetta Stone.



After completing the activating prior knowledge activity and watching the introductory video, the class will complete a KWL on butcher paper. It will be posted on the wall as a visual aid and scaffolding reference. As new things are learned, they can be added to the L column and/or ticked off in the W column; this will allow the students to recognize how much they have learned and feel successful. It will also cause them to reflect upon the material learned, thus cementing their knowledge and improving retention.

Graphic Organizers:

The Summary Plane and the Transformation Plane, found at


Venn Diagram: ancient/pictographic and modern/symbolic alphabets

Cornell Note Taking Method: while reading the text

Methodology: Scaffolding Notes

Scaffolding is a way of supporting students when introducing new material or concepts in order to create the most successful learning. Scaffolding allows the students to build upon what they already know through the use of cognates, visual aids, graphic organizers, and the like. Ideally, in a well-scaffolded lesson, the students develop independent learning strategies while the teacher offers support.

An important aspect of scaffolding is that it is appropriate for the age and level of the student in question. Younger and lower level students require more scaffolding, which is gradually taken away as their knowledge grows stronger, much in the way that wooden scaffolding is slowly taken off a house as it is built. Scaffolding also does not change the difficulty of a task; rather than giving struggling students a simpler task, it is better to provide them with the tools (vocabulary, resources, structures, etc.) needed to complete the task. Thus, the educator enables the student to complete an activity that is beyond his or her independent capabilities.

Cognitive Skills: Higher Order Thinking Skills

Knowledge of reading exercises

Bloom's Taxonomy-based activities as Final Project for the unit. Students may choose which they would like to complete. All projects must be presented to the class.

Knowledge/Comprehension: Make a timeline, chart, or flowchart of the history of alphabets.

Analysis: Create a commercial to sell a new language. Why is the new one better?

Can be set in ancient times to sell a current language or in modern times to sell a language of the student's own creation.

Synthesis: Make a new language code and write material using it.

Evaluative: Write a letter to the European Union (such as in the Activating Prior Knowledge activity) explaining how English should be fixed to make it easier to learn and understand.

Methodology: Bloom's Taxonomy Notes

This is a way of categorizing the objectives in education, in a pecking order from the lower or simpler forms of learning to the higher and more complex ones. The levels proceed from a simple knowledge of the subject (that, knows information about the topic at hand) to creation (or using one's information, analysis, and personal critique of the information learned to create one's own information or product along similar lines).

For example, when children first learn about Greek art and culture, they first simply remember that such culture is in existence. Then they gain enough knowledge to describe Greek culture and art. The next step is application, perhaps through a simple experiment; this is followed by analysis, for example, why did the experiment have the results it did? Further, the students learn to evaluate and even critique the information they already know, questioning if the information given to them makes sense in what they know about the world (hence building on prior knowledge and encouraging the spiral effect of learning). Finally, the students are able to create their own information or product related to water molecules. Obviously, not every step is reached by every student in each occasion.

Educational Psychology: Humanistic, Behavioristic, Cognitive, and Metacognitive

Theories described and which you are using


Employing consistent, practiced behavioral expectations and practices supports a behaviorist classroom: the answering of a "bell work" question during every lesson, for example. Students will also be offered incentives in exchange for good behavior (a choice of homework assignments, the option to select between different readings, etc.), which contributes to the conditioning on students to behave in a desired way in class. Some direct instruction will take place, such as when the students read the articles on the evolution of language.


Students are provided with a choice on how they would like do and finish their assignments especially regarding to presentation. Using of formative, in spite of examination-based evaluation, offers them an opportunity to receive steady feedback and self-evaluate themselves. Employing discovery-based learning, for instance through the activity used to activate prior knowledge, offer them a chance to lead the learning, making the teacher to be more of a facilitator.


Puzzle: Have students break a cipher. Use this to lead into a discussion of ancient languages, especially including the breaking of ancient English language using the Rosetta stone.

Dilemma: (Relating to the reading Dear Future People, dealing with the life of Hypatia. Hypatia was a scientist who was eventually persecuted and brutally murdered for holding scientific beliefs, which were seen at the time as heretic.)

What would you do if one of your friends was ostracized and teased for holding unpopular opinions? Would you stop being her friend to remain popular, or would you continue to be her friend, even at the risk of being teased yourself? What if it was a member of your own family?

What would you do if you were ostracized and teased for holding unpopular opinions? Would you remain faithful to your own thoughts, or change them (or at least claim to) to escape teasing? What if it was for your religion?


Student being encouraged to update class as well as personal KWL makes them know how they are progressing. As they gain new knowledge, items can be ticked off the "want to know" column and/or added to the "what we learned" column. The bell work journal is used for students to reflect upon their own learning with unit topic topics.

Participating in think quest activities help improve the self-esteem of the students, as they will be able to see their contributions to a group project quickly published and added to. Hence creating a sense of belonging and agency in their learning process. I will also request the students to self-evaluate their participation and production (using a rubric), which will cause further reflection upon their learning process.

Assessment (Formative / Summative)


To be completed AFTER the listening activities!

A debate: The preservation of minority languages

Divide the class into two groups for a split class. Double the number for a full class. While one group will be proposing the preservation of minority languages, the other group will be opposing the preservation of minority languages. Before the debate, students will be taught effective debating language. To prevent the debate from being dominated by only confident speakers, all students will be able to speak as apart from being given time to prepare for the debate, each of them will be given three red cards with which they must use them to speak.

Students to complete three evaluations as this will allow further reflection on learning


Step 1:

Orally. Look carefully at the sources in the handout and classify them into primary and secondary sources.

Step 2:

In pairs. Check the boxes of the chart according to the kind of evidence that each source may provide.


Creating a time line of the evolution of English that will remain posted during the lesson and can be gradually filled in with historical events and their details.

Step-by-step visual representations of the evolution from pictograph to symbolic letter (such as in the reading: http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/vangogh/555/Spell/alfabet-abbr.html)

Charts containing pictographs, cuneiform, and the modern Latin English.


1. Step 1: in pairs, write down a list including three parts of the story explained by the myth of Troy which must be just fantasy. One of them should be related to the cause of the war, another one to the development of the war, and another one to the end of the war.

Step 2: in pairs as well. Write down some aspects of the myth that you think might be true.


Different learning styles will be supported by offering students the choice of which final activity they would like to complete.

Make a timeline, chart, or flowchart of the history of alphabets.

This would support spatial learners, linguistic, and logical-mathematical learners.

Create a commercial to sell a new language. Why is the new one better?

This would support bodily-kinesthetic, linguisitic, interpersonal, and even possibly musical learners.

Make a new language code and write material using it.

This would support linguistic, existential, and intrapersonal learners.

Write a letter to the European Union explaining how English should be fixed to make it easier to learn and understand.

This would support linguistic, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical learners.

Graphic organizers will be offered for the students to use as they want and need.

Transcripts will be provided to students who need them during the listening activities.


Students will interact with those of different cultural background by actively taking part in think quest activities. Through this, they will realize that students from much dissimilar cultural background are similar to them, in that they have almost similar knowledge on art and culture of Greek. Additionally, this interaction will expose students to the different societal prospects towards learning of varied cultures.

Students will also learn in debts about ancient world art and cultures of Greek as well as historical background of Trojan War. Students will also be encouraged to become more aware of the evolutions in their own writing systems. Generally speaking, culture students will;

Be encouraged to become more aware of the evolutions in their own writing systems.

To increase students' awareness of the importance of archaeological and literary heritage

To make students aware that the importance of archaeological sources lies in the data they can provide

Teacher Resources

Notes on the activities

1. Possible answers for 1.1.

a) The Judgement of Paris; the beginning of the war because of the kidnap

of a woman, etc.

b) Apollo sending a plague to the Greeks; Aphrodite saving Paris;

Hephaestus forging new amour for Achilles, etc.

c) Gods sending giant serpents to kill Laocoön and his sons; Trojans

feasting while Greek warriors go out of the wooden horse, etc.

Possible answers for 1.2: a war between Greeks and Trojans; The Greeks

winning the war; etc. Students have to guess them.

2. The texts accompanying the sources are read in plenary. The teachers explains

the meaning of difficult parts of them by using the images (especially maps),

which should be projected in order to observe them in color.

Sources of the images:

Sources A, D, E: Wilfred E. Major, The historical World behind the Trojan War


Source B: Pulak, C & Bass, G.F., Bronze Age Shipwreck Excavation at

Uluburun http://ina.tamu.edu/ub_main.htm  

Source C: Troia. Traum und wirklichkeit


Source F: Latacz, J., Wilusa (Wilios / Troia). Centre of a Hittite Confederate in

North-West Asia Minor http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/troia/eng/wilusaeng.pdf

Source G: Wikipedia, s.v. Ilion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilion

Source H: Homer Odyssey and the Trojan War


Source I: Transcription of a fragment of 'The Truth of Troy, in Horizon, BBC

Two, Thursday 25 March 2004


Source J: Introduction to the Ancient World: Greece. Lecture 4. Troy and Homer


Solution to exercice 2:

Primary sources: B, C, D, E, F, G, J.

Student Resources

Primary sources: B, C, D, E, F, G, , J.

Power-point with the images of the sources