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The chosen topic is "English as global languages" and the question is" how English languages developed the world". An English language is the main languages spoken in the United Kingdom .furthermore, English languages is a dominant language and has great impact in the world. Not it is only the language is apply as second languages for example France, Germany and India but in the media for example magazine, internet, television and news paper (India newspaper).the author David crystal mention that " English is not about structure, punctuation or even from the spelling. It is about the power of culture, science, military and economic" (the quotations demonstrate is from youtube video of the show global. The source will be indicating in the bibliography). The language does have an influence in other area but an influence must have a "foundation".
The raison of the chosen topic
As the undergraduate project is based on English as languages studies and I particularly choose this unit because it is about English. English is not any languages but the most spoken languages. The project would be based about the past of English language and how it developed to become a global language. the aim of the dissertation is to find and studies the origin of the languages. When the readers see the title and the question the first question would be "English as global languages?" and mention "that very easy to understand. It is about people speaking the languages". In fact, it is about communicate the languages However, English as a global language does have a history, a past that nobody knew.by writing the development of English language and give a well descriptive information, new students or researcher would be acknowledge and they are able to use for further study.
English as global languages would be another challenge since this is a new unit that it will be studied in the first semester. The lesson will be teaching by the lecture Phil Vellender. I did the research method for business student in the previous years and it is similar to the project (expect the number of words). However the topic was based in the accounting field and it was a hard task to complete the coursework. Moreover, to complete the dissertation, all documents provide by the lecture Phil from the first semester in "English as global language" will help to achieve the objective, know the choice of books to be read and write relevant information.
The origin of English as global language
Definition of global languages
A global language is a language expanded across the world and today it is largely recognise in all continent. For example English and French languages (French is merely included for example only) are the most spoken languages in world. Furthermore, it is also the mother tongue of united kingdom, Canada, new Zealand, united state , France, Belgium and Canada(some part of the region) (the red represent English languages and the blue represent French languages. countries were highlight to allocated the mother tongue of each languages). But from the book on the fourth page, David Crystal reveal that mother tongue do not have to global languages. Global languages could be developed as "second languages". Second language could dominate the initial languages and can be in official languages of the country for the sack of education system, government and media. India is one the example, before the colonisation Indians only speaks Indi and more but not western languages. During the colonisation, Britain rules their land and oblige the population of India to follow their law such uniform must be wore at secondary school and force the students to communicate only in English languages. Since then India acknowledge and adopt English as their languages and today India open international branch and franchise like MacDonald, Subway, HSBC bank and jean Paul Gauthier perfumes. It demonstrates that English languages influence not only in communication but also in marketing and business.
English language has long histories but from the old age to modern languages. It reveals that the languages are filled with much knowledge and the people very attached to their origin. However, the history has two different stories about the origin the language. It is called the internal and external history (the internal history is based from the information taken in the document and text, the external information is based from past written history). The first parts will description the old English, the second part is the middle and the last part (not related to the topic title however it explain the results from the past) will be the modern and today English.
The language started 200 years ago, the "Celtic Briton" lived in a place which is know as the north of England in the present day and named "Caer Ebruac". Afterwards, the roman came and named "Eboracum". Then, the language was develop around 400 years ago when the "Anglo-Saxon" named " Eoforwic" and when the Vikings arrive, it became "Jorvik" also known as York in the modern time.
In the past, English begin with Celt language or Celtic. The etymology of Celtic was often consider from indo- European group (fusion of Europe and South Asia) languages in most of history books but several advocate it is form Hamito-Semitic group (Afro-asiatic language) .Prior to the romaine domination in the country, the language was spoken in Celtic known as welsh and Gaelic which at the moment communicate in Scotland and Ireland to preserve their language inheritance. The Celt people origination are unknown but David Graddol indicate they have relocated from " La Gaule"(Gaulish) which is now France. Celtic was spokes has two group of language which is spoken in brytonic (British) and goidolic (Gaelic) and constantly isolated first by Latin and then by Anglo-Saxon language. Although Latin expands by Europe, Celtic language manages to remain noticeable and continue to be integrating in several parts as bilingual (speak two language). Before the Anglo-Saxon invaded the country, goidolic was constrained to Ireland. Therefore they have to speak only brytonic. Celtic was an inferior language compare to other language due but they plagiarism word and most survived for exemple places(Avon, Devon, London, dover and Cornwall), latin( candelere for candle) and geographic(cumb for a comb or valley).The word "British "is from the Celtic which the origins word was "brytonic".
In the first century before Christ, the Romans invade Britain later became the "Roman Empire" and introduced their language which would be the most spoken and the most recognise until the 17th century, Latin. Latin was not a language who dominated the people but proclaim as the language of "higher civilisation" which mean only higher position person for example politicians and military who require to communicate Latin until it expand from religious to education. Latin was merging as the first "old English". During that period Latin was the most spoken language and refer as "lingua franca" and Latin language was considering an important impact for English language even after the Anglo-Saxon conquered Britain, Latin is survive in the period of Anglo- Saxon toward the renaissance. Although Latin disappears and English is spoken in modern language, Latin remains the official language in the Catholic Church and serves as source in scientific and medical field.
Anglo-Saxon established in England after the end the Roman Empire (also named Roman Britain). the Anglo-Saxon were a people lived in the northern Germany or Denmark. Anglo-Saxon was named after the merge between the "Angles"(English), The "Saxon" and the "Jude" in the 5th century. They spoke in "old Germany" known as German today since they come from northern Germany. Before they conquered Great Britain, native of England spoke in Celtic and welsh. They invaded in 500 AD (after death).Anglo-Saxon was ruled by King Alfred the great until the Norman Conquest in 1066. According from David Graddol, author of English :history, diversity and language, Alfred decline the knowledge of Latin due of the Vikings fear but not for long as they triumph over the " house of Essex" and governed in the 9th century. In this paragraph, Celtic and German are mention despite they were unrelated. Germany should be attributing for the name of English (angles) and the first ancestor of the modern language of "Dutch, Flemish (Dutch dialect), Frisian(west Germany language)", including English. Currently, Celtic language became "Gaelic and welsh" language in Scotland and Ireland (indicate in Celtic language section).
The last influence of the English language from the old English is the Vikings. Albert C. Baugh (author of a history of the English language, page 90) say the Viking were a join of Germany and Denmark population and neighbours of the Anglo-Saxon (it is a possibility that Vikings were relates to the Anglo- Saxons from blood to language).they were a calm population but due of greet and desire of more power in politic and economic, they decided to invade their neighbours from the Norway to England. It is identified as the "Vikings age" Vikings or the Scandinavian in the ancient history, attack England in "three well staged" to mark their territory. The first is the monastery in the "southern cost and east Anglia" to steal jewellery, sacred vessel and other valuable entity. The second is London where king Alfred reign before the invasion. Although he tried to resist by their attacks, he was defeat. The third and last territory is "east Saxon". For 25 years England was ruled by the Scandinavian.
The information above demonstrates that the language was created in the form of migration from different people in one place and refers as the "five linguistic influence on English".
The Middle English
The Norman are in fact the Vikings who decided to convert themselves (religion, language) after they had settle in the north of France (also known the Normandy which is a French place) and was governed by William the conqueror. In 1066, the Norman decide to attack England by forcing his army to cross from "seine-valery sur somme" ( a French region ) to hasting. William decided to attacks as revenge. According to david howarts, the kings Edward the confessor promised his cousin William to be the next king of England. However, he chose Harold Godwinson as his successor instead of William. The war was named "the battle of hasting" because of the war location.
following their victory, English languages developed further with an additional languages which is the Norman language, French and will become the "Anglo-Norman" replacing the "old English". In this instance, English language was "transform" and expand into less traditional word for example the word" hope" would be adapted in "faith" which is a French word. David graddol says "French is regarded as having negative effect on English and it has been cast as in the role of villain" (page 123). In fact, English language was nearly replaced by French language and the English vocabularies were affecting by the French.
Perhaps French language was considered as treated and an "enemy " for English language but since French was introduce in England, both the language and the country maintain a stable relation in many aspect.
Howarth, David (1993), 1066: The Year of the Conquest, New York: Barnes and Noble
The modern English
Modern English began in the year 1500-1900 and completes the "English language history". Modern English is mention after Middle English drastically translates the medieval duration to "modern society". It began in the sixteen century, as a result in the "Renaissance" term and until renaissance appears, French continue to dominate and consider as a "prestigious literary language" (important language) and Latin is still remained an important language for "scholarly work. Nonetheless, people began to be influence by the Europe culture and became aware of English language recognitions from William Shakespeare, john Skelton and Samuel Pepys by their contribution of poetry and play write for instance "Romeo and Juliette" and appreciated as "great works" in today presence. David graddol (1996),cited that modern English is the most important because not only it did progress the language but also the whole "society system" from the increase of the economy market, breaking the strict condition of the catholic church to the invention of printing. Also, populations living in modern English permit to realise than rather to believe in "enchanted or witchcrafts", they should imply on intellectual viewpoint and use their knowledge to form an argumentative opinion specifically in politic field. English language was transform from a vernacular(mother tongue of the dialect) to standardisation (normal English).
How it developed in other country?
Which language was the most influence?
According from the author, Joseph M. William, 15% Latin were consider as origin of English but it is French who had the highest percentage with 41%. Germany came with 25% and other by 10%. Latin was mainly applied for business for example professional context. Today Latin disappears but Latin is employ in church, in biology science and medicine.
The next page is about methodologies. This part will discuss about research strategies, research methods and data collection. Research strategies, research methods and data collection will be separate because each research has a different term. At the end a conclusion would be include about which research is going to adapted and define why it was consider.
A research strategy has several strategies to produce an accurate and coherent project. There are seven which: survey, action research, case study, ethnography, grounded theory and experimental design. Each strategies would cover the strengths and weaknesses
A survey is a strategy applies in form of questionnaire and statetistic to gahter information and compares it. According from Uma sekaran (research methods for business) they tend to be used for exploratory and descriptive research. Survey is usually based in form of application form, interview by phone and personnel questionnaires in the magazine. The survey is the easiest research strategy because data and information could be collect effortlessly and vastly from the population and it is more understanding
Easily administrate location in different form ( e-mail, telephone, leaflet)
Able to obtain information from number of people
Require time to study and analyse
Most survey are either return or reply
Limitation of the question
Action research is mainly focus to solve problem individually with the collaboration of other as it is easier to improve the problem and it is only concentrate between action and "critical reflection" that form a change. Action reasearch is mostely use by large organisation and institution with the aim to progress their strategies and gain more knowledge.
Working with colleagues and share their opinion and ideas
Less environment control
Find more evidence even unrelated and irrelevant
Express their findings by producing models
Argument between colleagues
Disagreement about findings
The third strategy is the case study. A case study is a research mainly applies to examine an incident, explore an organisation or investigate about a person .case study is rather more descriptive than analyse a situation. Case study is often utilising to find the cause in order to solve the problem. Case study are able to answer "most of the question" asked by collecting data, analysing information and make a conclusion so the researcher will understands the reason it happened and they resolve to look deeper in the future to develop their research. According from ischool website, case study does not have to be a single research as it could occur more than once.
The more it is investigate, the more research made by student gain more knowledge from on the evidence they had colleted
Do not need to do experiment study
Student must be well prepared
Require lots of investment
Consider if it need to be study
Ethnography is a "sociological approach" and it mainly use by the anthropologists. The role ethnography is to study the people and their behaviour t by assembling multiple data collection including interview, questionnaires and observation. Ethnography is often compare to qualitative methods but ethnography cannot be (it will be explain in the following paragraph) however, without the theories, ethnography could not be identify. Ethnography is more interest about nature, culture and human behaviour. In fact ethno means "to describe people" and is about include the "social world and see trough them"
Apply other form of research for example observation and engage with people
Understand their "natural habitat"
Establish a baseline for follow up research
Reveal certain sources not been identify before
Researcher could affect the data collected
Consistency of sources as sometime is not reliable to the research
Require tome to study because ethnography need long-term studies
Often compare to qualitative
Grounded theory was founded by Strauss in 1967.Grounded theory is a research which is seen more as data method than theory method and mostly compare as qualitative methods which apply numbers. The aim of the grounded theory is collect date and extracts a series of code rather than search evidence and form a hypothesis. The authors of "Basic of qualitative research: the grounded theory procedure and techniques" Strauss and Corbin mention "the grounded theory approach is a qualitative research method that uses a systematic set of procedure to develop an inductively derived grounded theory about phenomenon". Grounded theory has three elements which are concept, category and propositions.
Researcher is able to confirm, refine and develop his idea from the finding
Require specific procedure for example writing meme or use the coding
Lead to research practise (data sampling, data analyse and theory development)
Complex research strategy since it is difficult to detect researcher using bias
Inadequate information because theory is less use
An experimental design is a process to planning study to meet specific objective. Experimental design is the most meticulous of all the research strategy as it give explanation the cause and effect surrounded by variable (changeable numbers) and distinguish "correlational study" which only analyse the relationship among variable but not interest to establish the origin. Experimental has two different experiments. They are lab experiments (experiment made in non-natural environment) and field experiments (experiment take in natural environment).it is also about collect data as it will decide if it will support or unsupported the hypotheses.
(Source: http://www.ejshs.eu.dodea.edu/03_experimental%20design.html accede 28/01/2011)Â
Could demonstrate the results from research and form an argument from the result
Easier to reproduce the experiment and valid the findings simultaneously
If the research is based on numeric data, experimental design could give a precise answer by manipulating the variable
Improve previous experimental design if needed
Expensive research strategy and require to a great extent of time to study
Difficulty to reach a evidence to confirm the theory
Information could be excessively accurate
Affect the variable from manipulation
A research method is dissimilar to research strategies for the reason that research methods focus more on data information (charts, percentages, numbers, and formulary) than theory. Research methods have three techniques which are quantitative, qualitative and mixed method. The three methods will be describe and will be explain the motive each technique is utilise.
A quantitative method is a method surrounded with numerical information as known as data. The purpose of quantitative method is about analysing and describing evidence related with figure for examples charts, statistic, graph, hypothesis, survey, frequency and
*Correlation. It is also apply to make a comparison. Quantitative method is originally intended to be expand in environmental science among sociology, anthropology and biology and study the experience of the nature. Fortunately, it proves to be a successful in other subject as he is able to examine the data already collect for example survey. Saunders .M quoted that "range from creating simple table or diagram that show frequency of occurrence and using statistic such as indices to enable comparison, trough establishing statistical relationship between variable to complex statistical modelling." (Research Method 2009).However, there is another suggestion that quantitative is a controversy method because researcher often neglect or underestimate the "non-measurable factor" which is very essential and tend to be difficult to understand.
*A correlation is a statistic that illustrates the "direction and strengths" of the relationship between one or two variable for example price and sale (see in appendix). Then they are measured to be compared. ( http://www.answers.com/topic/correlation)
Qualitative is repeatedly compared to quantitative methods although there are not any similarities. Qualitative is assembling data in form of word. Qualitative is use in the internet for product, news or video. The aim of qualitative is to find answer to a question, understand the research problem and interfere for overwhelming amount of collected data after analyse the data. sekaran and Bougie(2010)suggest that qualitative is continually repetitive because it involve sampling, collection of data and data analysis. The only weakness is qualitative is not a simple method due of comparison with quantitative method, need to follow the "rule and guideline" for data collected by the qualitative method .In qualitative, three step need to be applied: data reduction, data display and draw the conclusion.
Difference between quantitative and qualitative
As it mention from the first sentence, there is differences between quantitative and qualitative methods. Although quantitative is acquire data, it also scan the hypothesis when qualitative concentrate only on fact. Furthermore, qualitative is more flexible than quantitative as qualitative form a group to question-answer. Qualitative can asked "open ended" question (all the participants could answer openly than say "yes or "no").in addition, qualitative is more collecting data information in text format than number.
Mixed methodology is most interesting of all the three method present. Mixed is method based on the combination of quantitative methods and qualitative method. Therefore both quantitative and qualitative methods are either consider more or less important. The purpose of mixed method is to target the research collect sources, analysed and integrated both quantitative and qualitative in an individual or multiple studies. Mixed method was founded 30 year ago by the qualitative method. Mixed method is generally required because it gives the opportunity to understand the given study and answers from question rarely respond due of that lack of evidence gather. The strength of mixed method is allocate numbers could precise with word or picture, use additional advantage of another method to overcome the disadvantage, able to conclude the research and acquire more knowledge from the research. However, it is a complex method as it demands more time to study and difficulty between analyse and get the data. According to Vanessa traynor (research capacity),there tow type of mixed method which are mixed model and mixed method. Mixed should be proceed each step in order to write the research. (see appendix).
The last paragraph of the methodology is about data collection. Data collection is preparing and collecting data (not related with quantitative).data collection record information, share to other researcher and able to reach a decision for important topic.
Primary source and secondary source are the two method of data collection though they are different. The first paragraph will dedicate to the primary source and second paragraph, secondary source.
Primary source means provide "original" documents by the researcher for example oral evidence (interview), data (original bank statement, company records), video (conference, meeting) and image (photo). Primary source has "first-hand" and archive. A first -hand is documents made by the researcher such as question/survey and an archive is a document producer long time ago for example photo of the 20th century or antique object. Primary source is an essential method because it correlated to the past and will remain from generation to generation. It also helps to understand the history has an importance in life, require student and researcher to be more critical if they need to do more research after examining the source. Primary source could help to reach a viewpoint. Before analyse primary source, student need to know if it is "bias" or not and is it not a replicate of the document origin otherwise it could be a plagiarism.
Secondary source is similar to primary source which is bringing information for the research. But, secondary source is collect information already exist mostly literature books or article. Secondary source is accumulated by another person. However, researcher use secondary source because they need information as they not present in the event especially in the past such as middle age. Second resource is capable to interpret and analyse and analyse source for example books (mention above), government statistic, survey and internet. The other advantages of secondary source are easier to access to information than searching or produce evidence, help to primary to complete to research for example the researcher has got Leonard de Vinci information but need further so he allocate in the book, less expensive and help to clarify the question. Unfortunately, information could be inefficient and need more time to study. Secondary could be demonstrate as data model such as "past sale figure", "annual report", "economic indicator", " census data", " data base" and "media". Case study and archival (mention in research strategies) are beside considered as second resource.
Discussion and conclusion
This paragraph will conclude the choice of which method will be applying for this particular project and emphasis the selected method .many methodologies contained (research strategies, research method and data collection) but after much consideration, secondary source will be a suitable method because the dissertation is about how the language of English expands from the past to the present and it will demand an amount of source . The choice of the research method was already discuss with the lecture Gail Langlai previously. The project does not need qualitative or quantitative method since the select project is more about describing, contribution of the derivation (origin) and does not require any specific data information, specifically number. In addition, it was mention in previous paragraph (see second source information) secondary is about information already interpreted by different person as he lived during that period. Secondary source will help the researcher or student to create a coherent and complete project and able to make a clarify research by using unique literature books as it has range of English language knowledge and it will be able to access information because the university of south bank London library, has got well-known author books for instance David Cristal and David Braggs. Although it is unnecessary, primary may be considered for the dissertation because in the project a supplementary document will be place which a survey. A survey will be included at the end of the project (see appendix).it will be very difficult since the written project consist more the development of English language in the past period than in the modern period but there will be an attempt to form an accurate survey and reach to people as much as possible. Furthermore, the survey will be study and be explaining in the following paragraph.