A Review Of Recent Evidence

2768 words (11 pages) Essay

11th May 2017 English Language Reference this

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT EMERGED FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS OF APPLICATION INCLUDING CONSTRUCTION, ENGINEERING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, AND DEFENSE AS A DISCIPLINE. THE 1950S MARKED THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT ERA. BEFORE 1950S, PROJECTS WERE MANAGED ON AN AD-HOC BASIS USING GANTT CHARTS, OR INFORMAL TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS THE DISCIPLINE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZING, SECURING AND MANAGING RESOURCES (I.E. MANAGEMENT) TO BRING ABOUT THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF SPECIFIC PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.

B: DISCUSS PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ELEMENTS

ONCE PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS PUT IN PLACE ORGANIZATIONS GET THE NECESSARY TOOLS AND INFORMATION THAT ARE NEEDED TO COLLABORATE AND MANAGE THEIR WORKLOAD AS A TEAM.

FOLLOWING ARE THE KEY ELEMENTS FOR BETTER PROJECT MANAGEMENT:

1. CLASSIFY -DEFINE THE TYPE OF WORK: IT HELPS EVERYONE UNDERSTAND WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE E.G. NEW FEATURE, ACTION ITEM, DEFECT ETC.

2. TARGET -TARGET SETS YOUR PROJECT¿½S MILESTONES. MEASURING PROGRESS IS EASY WITH METRICS WHEN REMAINING TASKS AND ISSUES CAN BE RELATED BACK TO THE PLAN, KEEPING TEAM MEMBERS FOCUSED AND WORKING TOWARD A COMMON GOAL.

3. PRIORITIZE – EACH TEAM MEMBER SHOULD UNDERSTAND THE PRIORITY SYSTEM.

4. COLLABORATE -RIGHT TASKS BE ASSIGNED TO THE RIGHT PEOPLE. MAKE SURE THAT OWNERSHIP BE CLEAR AND REASONABLE. WORKLOAD HAS TO BE BALANCED AND FAIR AND IT SHOULD BE EASY FOR PEOPLE TO GET HELP IF NEEDED FROM OTHER TEAM MEMBERS.

5. CHECK STATUS -TASK STATUS SHOULD BE REGULARLY TRACKED. IT SHOULD BE EASY TO SEE WHAT IS COMPLETED, WHAT REMAINS TO BE COMPLETED, AND WHAT ISSUES EXIST.

6. TRACK COMPLIANCE – KEEP A COMPLETE HISTORY FOR EVERY TASK. IT HELPS YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT ISSUES REMAIN, HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR PLANS, UNDERSTAND AND CORRECT PROCESS ISSUES, AND COMPLY WITH APPROPRIATE INDUSTRY STANDARDS LIKE ISO9000 CERTIFICATION ETC.

C: DISCUSS EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS INFLUENCING PROJECT MANAGEMENT

PROJECT MANAGEMENT CAN BE AFFECTED BY THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS IN A BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. THE EXTERNAL FORCES THAT AFFECT PROJECT MANAGEMENT INCLUDE SOCIOLOGICAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL.

EXTERNAL FACTORS:

1. SOCIOLOGICAL: IT INCLUDES THE DEMOGRAPHIC STATUS, TRENDS, WORK ETHICS, PERSONAL VALUES, AND GENERAL CULTURES. THESE FACTORS INFLUENCE DIFFERENTLY ON HOW A PROJECT MANAGER ACCOMPLISHES ITS GOALS. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN EACH COUNTRY IS UNIQUE AND AS THE BUSINESS BECOMES INTERNATIONAL, MANAGEMENT HAS TO UNDERSTAND THESE UNIQUE ENVIRONMENTS IN ORDER TO PLAN FOR THE FUTURE AND DESIGN PRODUCTS FOR A PARTICULAR GROUP OF PEOPLE.

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2. ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL: IT INCLUDES THE ESSENTIAL FACTORS SUCH AS COMPETITORS, SUPPLIERS AND CUSTOMERS. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MUST STUDY THE ECONOMY AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT FOR A CONTINUAL AND DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP. BY STUDYING THE COMPANIES, SUPPLIERS, COMPETITORS, CUSTOMERS AND CURRENT POLITICAL FACTORS, THE MANAGEMENT IS CAPABLE OF MAKING EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL DECISIONS. THUS THE PRODUCTS DESIGNED UNDER THIS POSSES PLACE, FORM AND TIME UTILITY TO SUCCEED IN THE MARKET PLACE.

3. TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGY HAS THE MOST DRAMATIC EFFECT ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT AS ANY CHANGE IN THIS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS OFTEN QUICKLY FELT BY FIRM. AS THE MARKET CAN CHANGE OVERNIGHT THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SHOULD BE IN A POSITION TO MAKE DECISIONS THAT WILL PUT THE COMPANY IN A FLEXIBLE POSITION TO ADAPT WITH THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES.

INTERNAL FACTORS:

INTERNAL FACTORS OR ENVIRONMENT OF A BUSINESS CONSISTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO COMPLETE ITS GOALS. THESE ARE HUMAN, TECHNOLOGICAL, FINANCIAL AND PHYSICAL RESOURCES. THE TASK OF MANAGEMENT IS TO ACQUIRE THESE RESOURCES AND MAKE EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION. IN THIS TASK THE MANAGEMENT OF A PROJECT IS IN COMPETITION WITH ALL OTHER BUSINESSES IN THE LIFE. ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES ARE THEREFORE SCARCE AND MANAGEMENT SUCCESS DEPENDS ON HOW WELL THESE RESOURCES ARE BOTH ACQUIRED AND UTILIZED.

1. GLOBALIZATION: THE FIRST FACTOR IS GLOBALIZATION WHICH TENDS TO BRING CLOSE PEOPLE FROM AROUND THE WORLD AND AS A RESULT INCREASING THE POSSIBILITIES OF PERSONAL EXCHANGE, MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND FRIENDSHIP. GLOBALIZATION IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR SUCCESS, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A BUSINESS IN THE WORLD MARKET. THE GLOBAL NETWORKING ALLOWS NEW IDEAS AND PLANNING MEANT TO CAPTURE THE GLOBAL MARKET.

2. TECHNOLOGY: IT IS THE SECOND ASPECT AND REFERS TO TECHNIQUES WHICH MAKE OPERATIONS EASIER. INNOVATION INVOLVES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS TO CREATE A NEW AND IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY.

3. ETHICS: THE FINAL FACTOR AFFECTING PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS ETHICS WHICH IS DESCRIBED AS A SET OF PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT CONDUCT.

P2: APPRAISE THE VIABILITY OF PROJECTS AND DEVELOP SUCCESS/FAILURE CRITERIA.

A: DEVELOP SUCCESS AND FAILURE CRITERIA FOR PROJECT IN TERMS OF TIME, COST AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS.

DR MARTIN BARNES (UK) FIRST DESCRIBED THE ¿½IRON TRIANGLE¿½ OF TIME, COST AND SCOPE (SOMETIMES QUALITY) IN A COURSE HE DEVELOPED IN 1969.

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE CAN BE USED BY MANAGERS TO HELP UNDERSTAND THE DIFFICULTIES OF IMPLEMENTING CHANGE AND THE COMPLEXITIES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT. ALL PROJECTS HAVE CERTAIN CONSTRAINTS, THOSE THINGS THAT RESTRICT THE DECISIONS THAT CAN BE MADE ¿½ FOR EXAMPLE, MOST PROJECTS HAVE A COST CONSTRAINT AS THERE WILL ONLY BE A CERTAIN BUDGET AVAILABLE TO THE PROJECT. A PROJECT MANAGER MUST WORK OUT HOW TO DELIVER A PROJECT WITH A GIVEN SET OF CONSTRAINTS. ONE APPROACH IS THAT OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE, WHICH IDENTIFIES THREE CONSTRAINTS THAT WILL APPLY TO ALL PROJECTS AND THAT AFFECT EACH OTHER; TIGHTENING ONE CONSTRAINT WILL ALLOW SOME FLEXIBILITY IN THE OTHERS AND FLEXIBILITY IN ONE AREA WILL AFFECT THE OTHERS.

THE THREE CONSTRAINTS IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE ARE TIME, COST AND SCOPE (SOMETIMES QUALITY). AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRAINTS IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE (COST, TIME AND SCOPE) CAN HELP ALL MANAGERS TO IMPLEMENT CHANGE IN BUSINESS.

TIME CONSTRAINT (SCHEDULE)

TIME IS THE MOST DIFFICULT CONSTRAINT TO CONTROL IN A PROJECT AS DEADLINES ARE USUALLY ENSURE EFFICIENT WORKING AND OFTEN THE REQUIRED RESOURCES ARE NOT AVAILABLE WHEN NEEDED .ALL THE ACTIVITIES IN A PROJECT TAKE TIME AND EACH ACTIVITY CAN TAKE A SHORTER OR LONGER AMOUNT OF TIME DEPENDING ON FACTORS SUCH AS THE EXPERIENCE OF THE PERSONNEL COMPLETING THE TASK, THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WORKING ON THE TASK AND THE AVAILABILITY OF WORKERS AT THE GIVEN TIME PERIOD.

COST CONSTRAINT

ALL PROJECTS HAVE FINITE RESOURCES AVAILABLE THAT ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF COST. THERE IS A LIMITED BUDGET AND THE PROJECT MANAGER MUST PLAN HOW TO SPEND THE BUDGET ON THE RESOURCES NEEDED TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT. REDUCING THE COST OF A PROJECT WILL HAVE AN EFFECT ON THE TIME THE PROJECT WILL TAKE AND CHANGING THE TIME AVAILABLE TO A PROJECT WILL IMPACT THE COST OF THE PROJECT.

PROJECT SCOPE CONSTRAINT

THE SCOPE DEFINES THE EXPECTED DELIVERABLES BY THE PROJECT. THE PROJECT MANAGER HAS TO MANAGE THE SCOPE OF A PROJECT AS ANY CHANGE IN SCOPE WILL IMPACT BOTH COST AND TIME. IF MORE ITEMS ARE ADDED TO THE SCOPE THEN BOTH TIME AND COST MAY INCREASE, AND EVEN A SUBTLE CHANGE TO THE SCOPE CAN HAVE NOTICEABLE IMPACTS, BECAUSE OF WHICH CHANGE CONTROL IS VITAL TO PROJECT SUCCESS.

PROJECT QUALITY

AT TIMES THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE IS DESCRIBED WITH THE THREE CONSTRAINTS TIME, COST AND QUALITY RATHER THAN SCOPE, AS HIGHER QUALITY IN A PROJECT CAN EASILY LEAD TO A HIGHER COST AND SOMETIMES MORE TIME. HOWEVER, QUALITY CAN ALSO BE PART OF THE SCOPE OF A PROJECT; AS WELL DEFINED DELIVERABLES WILL INCLUDE A STATEMENT REGARDING THE DESIRED QUALITY.

B: BRIEFLY EXPLAIN DIMENSIONS OF PROJECT SUCCESS

TO BE SUCCESSFUL A PROJECT MUST:

* DELIVER THE OUTCOMES AND BENEFITS REQUIRED BY ORGANIZATION, ITS DELIVERY PARTNERS AND OTHER STAKEHOLDER ORGANIZATIONS

* CREATE AND IMPLEMENT DELIVERABLES THAT MEET THE AGREED REQUIREMENTS

* MEET THE TIME TARGETS

* STAY WITHIN THE FINANCIAL BUDGETS

* INVOLVE ALL RIGHT PEOPLE

* MAKE BEST USE OF RESOURCES IN THE ORGANIZATION

* TAKE ACCOUNT OF CHANGES IN THE WAY THE ORGANIZATION OPERATES

* MANAGE ANY RISKS THAT COULD JEOPARDIZE THE SUCCESS

* TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE NEEDS OF STAFF AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS WHO WILL BE AFFECTED BY THE CHANGES BROUGHT IN BY THE PROJECT.

P3: UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES BEHIND PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEM PROCEDURES:

A: DISCUSS PROJECT INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM

THE PROJECT INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM IS USED IN COMPANIES FOR INFORMATIONAL SUPPORT OF PROJECTS AND IN PROJECT PREPARATION AND HANDLING. THE PURPOSE IS TO PROVIDE A HIGH QUALITY PRODUCT, INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF WORK AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE COMPANY.

THE SYSTEM ENSURES:

* REGISTRATION AND FULL DOCUMENTING OF COMPANY¿½S PROJECTS

* EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

* EXCHANGE OF PROJECT INFORMATION AMONGST ALL PROJECT PARTICIPANTS

* EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGIES BEING DEVELOPED IN THE COMPANY

* FOLLOW-UP OF PROJECT ORGANIZATION DOCUMENTATION AT ALL STAGES BOTH FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONTENTS, AND FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF WORK ORGANIZATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONNEL USE.

* POSSIBILITY OF CREATION AND STORAGE OF DOCUMENTATION FOR QUALITY SYSTEM.

* INTERACTION BETWEEN PROJECT MANAGER AND THE CUSTOMER, SUBCONTRACTORS, COMPANY MANAGEMENT AND CO-WORKERS WORKING ON THE PROJECT INSIDE THE COMPANY.

* NOTIFICATION OF CO-WORKERS AND PROJECT MANAGER ABOUT THE TASKS RECEIVED.

* CONTROL OF DOCUMENT IMPLEMENTATION, AGREEMENT AND APPROVAL CYCLES FOR PROJECT DOCUMENTS.

* STRUCTURING OF INFORMATION BY PROJECT DOCUMENTATION.

* DOCUMENT SYSTEMATIZATION TAKES PLACE ON THE FOLLOWING BASIS:

> ACCORDING TO MONTHS AND WEEKS

> SEPARATION OF NEW DOCUMENTATION DEVELOPED DURING LAST MONTH AND LAST WEEK

> STORAGE OF INFORMATION ON FROZEN AND ACCOMPLISHED PROJECTS IN DYNAMICAL ARCHIVE, POSSIBILITY TO LOOK THROUGH THIS DOCUMENTATION, CHANGE PROJECT STATUS AND TRANSFER ALL INFORMATION ON PROJECT FROM DYNAMICAL ARCHIVE TO THE BASE OF PERSPECTIVE AND ACTIVE PROJECTS.

* DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF ACCESS RESTRICTION TO PROJECT DOCUMENTATION FOR COMPANY CO-WORKERS.

* THE SYSTEM IS IMPLEMENTED ON THE BASIS OF CLIENT-SERVER PLATFORM. THIS PLATFORM ALLOWS ORGANIZING JOINT USE OF INFORMATION BY ALL EMPLOYEES, TO ENSURE THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF INFORMATION SAFETY AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR STANDARD PROCESSES OF DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT.

B: DISCUSS AND GIVE EXAMPLES HOW HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES CAN BE INTEGRATED TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS.

FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT COMPLETION, PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ARE ADOPTED WHICH ARE MOSTLY LEARNED FROM EXPERIENCE, AND THEY ARE UNIVERSALLY VALID FOR¿½ALL¿½PROJECTS.¿½¿½

PRINCIPLE BASED PROJECT MANAGEMENT BEGINS WITH THESE PRINCIPLES:

* RULE 1- FIND OUT WHAT BUSINESS YOU ARE IN, AND THEN MIND YOUR OWN BUSINESS.¿½¿½¿½BE SURE YOUR BUSINESS IS VIABLE.¿½SELECT PROJECTS THAT ARE GOOD FOR YOUR BUSINESS.¿½¿½UNDERSTAND THE BUSINESS VALUE IN YOUR PROJECT AND LOOK FOR CHANGES.¿½¿½LEARN AND APPLY BEST PRACTICES IN YOUR CHOSEN BUSINESS.¿½¿½DEFINE WHAT IS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE YOUR AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY.¿½¿½

* RULE2 – UNDERSTAND THE CUSTOMER¿½S REQUIREMENTS.¿½¿½THOROUGHLY UNDERSTAND AND DOCUMENT CUSTOMER¿½S REQUIREMENTS, OBTAIN CUSTOMER AGREEMENT, AND PUT REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTS UNDER VERSION IDENTIFICATION AND CHANGE CONTROL.¿½

* RULE 3 – PREPARE A¿½REASONABLE¿½PLAN.¿½¿½PREPARE A¿½PLAN¿½THAT DEFINES THE SCOPE, SCHEDULE, COST, AND APPROACH FOR A REASONABLE PROJECT.¿½¿½INVOLVE TASK OWNERS IN DEVELOPING PLANS AND ESTIMATES, TO ENSURE FEASIBILITY.¿½USE A WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE TO PROVIDE COHERENCE AND COMPLETENESS TO MINIMIZE UNPLANNED WORK.

* RULE 4 – BUILD A TEAM WITH CLEAR OWNERSHIP.¿½¿½GET GOOD AND TRUSTWORTHY PEOPLE.¿½¿½ESTABLISH CLEAR OWNERSHIP¿½OF WELL-DEFINED TASKS; ENSURE THEY HAVE TOOLS AND TRAINING NEEDED; AND PROVIDE TIMELY FEEDBACK.

* RULE 5 – TRACK PROJECT STATUS- TRACK¿½PROGRESS¿½AND CARRYOUT FREQUENT REVIEWS.¿½CONDUCT METHODICAL REVIEWS TO HELP MANAGE CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS, IMPROVE QUALITY, AND IDENTIFY PROBLEMS BEFORE THEY GET OUT OF HAND.¿½¿½¿½

* RULE 6 – USE BASELINE CONTROLS.¿½¿½ESTABLISH BASELINES FOR THE¿½PRODUCT¿½USING¿½CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT¿½AND FOR THE¿½PROJECT¿½USING COST AND SCHEDULE BASELINE TRACKING.¿½¿½MANAGE CHANGES DELIBERATELY.¿½¿½USE MEASUREMENTS TO BASELINE PROBLEM AREAS AND THEN TRACK PROGRESS QUANTITATIVELY TOWARDS SOLUTIONS.¿½

* RULE 7 – WRITE IMPORTANT STUFF DOWN, SHARE IT, AND SAVE IT.¿½¿½WRITE DOWN REQUIREMENTS, PLANS, PROCEDURES, AND EVOLVING DESIGNS.¿½¿½DOCUMENTING ALLOWS THEM TO EVOLVE AND IMPROVE.¿½¿½IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO HAVE BASELINE CONTROLS, RELIABLE COMMUNICATIONS, OR A REPEATABLE PROCESS WITHOUT DOCUMENTATION.¿½¿½

* RULE 8 – IF IT HASN’T BEEN TESTED, IT DOESN’T WORK.¿½ DEVELOP TEST CASES EARLY TO HELP UNDERSTAND AND VERIFY REQUIREMENTS.¿½¿½USE EARLY TESTING TO VERIFY CRITICAL ITEMS AND REDUCE TECHNICAL RISKS.¿½

* RULE 9 – ENSURE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION.¿½¿½KEEP THE CUSTOMER’S REAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS IN VIEW.¿½

* RULE 10 – BE RELENTLESSLY PROACTIVE.¿½¿½TAKE INITIATIVE AND BE RELENTLESSLY PROACTIVE IN APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES AND IDENTIFY AND SOLVE PROBLEMS AS THEY ARISE.¿½¿½PERIODICALLY ADDRESS AND CONFRONT PROJECT RISKS.¿½¿½ATTACK PROBLEMS, AND LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED.¿½¿½¿½

P4: IDENTIFY THE KEY ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN TERMINATING PROJECTS AND CONDUCTING POST-PROJECT APPRAISALS.

CLOSURE MAY OCCUR AS PLANNED AT THE END OF THE PROJECT OR EARLY IF THE NEED OR JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT NO LONGER EXISTS. THE STEPS BELOW APPLY PRIMARILY TO NORMAL TERMINATION. THE BUSINESS CASE SHOULD BE HANDED OVER TO WHOEVER IS GOING TO TAKE LONG TERM RESPONSIBILITY FOR DELIVERING THE DESIRED BENEFITS. TOWARDS THE END OF THE PROJECT THE PROJECT MANAGER PERFORM AN EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT AGAINST THE PROJECT INITIATION DOCUMENT AND REPORT TO THE PROJECT BOARD SO THAT IT MAY FORMALLY CLOSE THE PROJECT, PERHAPS AT A CLOSURE MEETING.

THE CHECKLIST BELOW WILL HELP THE SRO/PROJECT BOARD ASSURE ITSELF THAT THE PROJECT CAN BE CLOSED DOWN:

PROJECT CLOSURE CHECKLIST

* IS THE WORK OF THE PROJECT COMPLETE AS MEASURED AGAINST ANY SUBSEQUENT AGREED CHANGES?

* HAVE ALL PROJECT DELIVERABLES BEEN CREATED, QUALITY CONTROLLED, ACCEPTED AND HANDED OVER TO THOSE WHO WILL OPERATE AND MAINTAIN THEM?

* HAS INFORMATION ABOUT KNOWN ERRORS CONVEYED TO THOSE WHO WILL USE/OPERATE/MAINTAIN THE DELIVERABLES?

* HAS RESPONSIBILITY FOR ONGOING OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF THE DELIVERABLES BEEN ACCEPTED BY APPROPRIATE PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION?

* HAVE THOSE WHO PROVIDED RESOURCES BEEN INFORMED OF ENDING PROJECT CLOSURE?

* HAVE ALL OUTSTANDING REQUESTS FOR CHANGE BEEN PASSED TO APPROPRIATE OWNERS?

* HAVE ALL RISKS BEEN COMMUNICATED TO AN APPROPRIATE OWNER IN THE ORGANIZATION?

* HAS INFORMATION ABOUT ANY ERRORS IN THE DELIVERABLES BEEN COMMUNICATED TO THOSE WHO WILL OPERATE AND MAINTAIN RESPONSIBILITIES?

* IS A PLAN IN PLACE FOR A POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW TO MEASURE THE ACTUAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BENEFITS AFTER THE PROJECT (TERMS OF REFERENCE, TIMING AND RESPONSIBILITIES)?

* HAVE LESSONS LEARNED BEEN RECORDED AND DISSEMINATED TO INTERESTED PARTIES?

* HAS PROJECT MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTATION BEEN FILED FOR FUTURE REFERENCE?

YOU MAY RUN LESSONS LEARNT WORKSHOP SO THAT YOU AND OTHERS CAN BENEFIT FROM YOUR EXPERIENCE OF WHAT WENT WELL AND WHAT COULD HAVE BEEN DONE IN A BETTER WAY. ONCE THE PROJECT BOARD HAS CONFIRMED CLOSURE, THE PROJECT TEAM IS DISBANDED AND THE PROJECT ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES NO LONGER EXIST. NO COSTS OR OTHER RESOURCES SHOULD GET CHARGED AGAINST A CLOSED PROJECT.

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MUAZZAM ALI BADSHA PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2ND SEMESTER

CONFED SCHOOL FOR PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Page | 1

PROJECT MANAGEMENT EMERGED FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS OF APPLICATION INCLUDING CONSTRUCTION, ENGINEERING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, AND DEFENSE AS A DISCIPLINE. THE 1950S MARKED THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT ERA. BEFORE 1950S, PROJECTS WERE MANAGED ON AN AD-HOC BASIS USING GANTT CHARTS, OR INFORMAL TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS THE DISCIPLINE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZING, SECURING AND MANAGING RESOURCES (I.E. MANAGEMENT) TO BRING ABOUT THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF SPECIFIC PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.

B: DISCUSS PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ELEMENTS

ONCE PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS PUT IN PLACE ORGANIZATIONS GET THE NECESSARY TOOLS AND INFORMATION THAT ARE NEEDED TO COLLABORATE AND MANAGE THEIR WORKLOAD AS A TEAM.

FOLLOWING ARE THE KEY ELEMENTS FOR BETTER PROJECT MANAGEMENT:

1. CLASSIFY -DEFINE THE TYPE OF WORK: IT HELPS EVERYONE UNDERSTAND WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE E.G. NEW FEATURE, ACTION ITEM, DEFECT ETC.

2. TARGET -TARGET SETS YOUR PROJECT¿½S MILESTONES. MEASURING PROGRESS IS EASY WITH METRICS WHEN REMAINING TASKS AND ISSUES CAN BE RELATED BACK TO THE PLAN, KEEPING TEAM MEMBERS FOCUSED AND WORKING TOWARD A COMMON GOAL.

3. PRIORITIZE – EACH TEAM MEMBER SHOULD UNDERSTAND THE PRIORITY SYSTEM.

4. COLLABORATE -RIGHT TASKS BE ASSIGNED TO THE RIGHT PEOPLE. MAKE SURE THAT OWNERSHIP BE CLEAR AND REASONABLE. WORKLOAD HAS TO BE BALANCED AND FAIR AND IT SHOULD BE EASY FOR PEOPLE TO GET HELP IF NEEDED FROM OTHER TEAM MEMBERS.

5. CHECK STATUS -TASK STATUS SHOULD BE REGULARLY TRACKED. IT SHOULD BE EASY TO SEE WHAT IS COMPLETED, WHAT REMAINS TO BE COMPLETED, AND WHAT ISSUES EXIST.

6. TRACK COMPLIANCE – KEEP A COMPLETE HISTORY FOR EVERY TASK. IT HELPS YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT ISSUES REMAIN, HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR PLANS, UNDERSTAND AND CORRECT PROCESS ISSUES, AND COMPLY WITH APPROPRIATE INDUSTRY STANDARDS LIKE ISO9000 CERTIFICATION ETC.

C: DISCUSS EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS INFLUENCING PROJECT MANAGEMENT

PROJECT MANAGEMENT CAN BE AFFECTED BY THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS IN A BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. THE EXTERNAL FORCES THAT AFFECT PROJECT MANAGEMENT INCLUDE SOCIOLOGICAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL.

EXTERNAL FACTORS:

1. SOCIOLOGICAL: IT INCLUDES THE DEMOGRAPHIC STATUS, TRENDS, WORK ETHICS, PERSONAL VALUES, AND GENERAL CULTURES. THESE FACTORS INFLUENCE DIFFERENTLY ON HOW A PROJECT MANAGER ACCOMPLISHES ITS GOALS. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN EACH COUNTRY IS UNIQUE AND AS THE BUSINESS BECOMES INTERNATIONAL, MANAGEMENT HAS TO UNDERSTAND THESE UNIQUE ENVIRONMENTS IN ORDER TO PLAN FOR THE FUTURE AND DESIGN PRODUCTS FOR A PARTICULAR GROUP OF PEOPLE.

2. ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL: IT INCLUDES THE ESSENTIAL FACTORS SUCH AS COMPETITORS, SUPPLIERS AND CUSTOMERS. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MUST STUDY THE ECONOMY AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT FOR A CONTINUAL AND DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP. BY STUDYING THE COMPANIES, SUPPLIERS, COMPETITORS, CUSTOMERS AND CURRENT POLITICAL FACTORS, THE MANAGEMENT IS CAPABLE OF MAKING EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL DECISIONS. THUS THE PRODUCTS DESIGNED UNDER THIS POSSES PLACE, FORM AND TIME UTILITY TO SUCCEED IN THE MARKET PLACE.

3. TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGY HAS THE MOST DRAMATIC EFFECT ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT AS ANY CHANGE IN THIS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS OFTEN QUICKLY FELT BY FIRM. AS THE MARKET CAN CHANGE OVERNIGHT THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SHOULD BE IN A POSITION TO MAKE DECISIONS THAT WILL PUT THE COMPANY IN A FLEXIBLE POSITION TO ADAPT WITH THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES.

INTERNAL FACTORS:

INTERNAL FACTORS OR ENVIRONMENT OF A BUSINESS CONSISTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO COMPLETE ITS GOALS. THESE ARE HUMAN, TECHNOLOGICAL, FINANCIAL AND PHYSICAL RESOURCES. THE TASK OF MANAGEMENT IS TO ACQUIRE THESE RESOURCES AND MAKE EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION. IN THIS TASK THE MANAGEMENT OF A PROJECT IS IN COMPETITION WITH ALL OTHER BUSINESSES IN THE LIFE. ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES ARE THEREFORE SCARCE AND MANAGEMENT SUCCESS DEPENDS ON HOW WELL THESE RESOURCES ARE BOTH ACQUIRED AND UTILIZED.

1. GLOBALIZATION: THE FIRST FACTOR IS GLOBALIZATION WHICH TENDS TO BRING CLOSE PEOPLE FROM AROUND THE WORLD AND AS A RESULT INCREASING THE POSSIBILITIES OF PERSONAL EXCHANGE, MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND FRIENDSHIP. GLOBALIZATION IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR SUCCESS, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A BUSINESS IN THE WORLD MARKET. THE GLOBAL NETWORKING ALLOWS NEW IDEAS AND PLANNING MEANT TO CAPTURE THE GLOBAL MARKET.

2. TECHNOLOGY: IT IS THE SECOND ASPECT AND REFERS TO TECHNIQUES WHICH MAKE OPERATIONS EASIER. INNOVATION INVOLVES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS TO CREATE A NEW AND IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY.

3. ETHICS: THE FINAL FACTOR AFFECTING PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS ETHICS WHICH IS DESCRIBED AS A SET OF PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT CONDUCT.

P2: APPRAISE THE VIABILITY OF PROJECTS AND DEVELOP SUCCESS/FAILURE CRITERIA.

A: DEVELOP SUCCESS AND FAILURE CRITERIA FOR PROJECT IN TERMS OF TIME, COST AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS.

DR MARTIN BARNES (UK) FIRST DESCRIBED THE ¿½IRON TRIANGLE¿½ OF TIME, COST AND SCOPE (SOMETIMES QUALITY) IN A COURSE HE DEVELOPED IN 1969.

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE CAN BE USED BY MANAGERS TO HELP UNDERSTAND THE DIFFICULTIES OF IMPLEMENTING CHANGE AND THE COMPLEXITIES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT. ALL PROJECTS HAVE CERTAIN CONSTRAINTS, THOSE THINGS THAT RESTRICT THE DECISIONS THAT CAN BE MADE ¿½ FOR EXAMPLE, MOST PROJECTS HAVE A COST CONSTRAINT AS THERE WILL ONLY BE A CERTAIN BUDGET AVAILABLE TO THE PROJECT. A PROJECT MANAGER MUST WORK OUT HOW TO DELIVER A PROJECT WITH A GIVEN SET OF CONSTRAINTS. ONE APPROACH IS THAT OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE, WHICH IDENTIFIES THREE CONSTRAINTS THAT WILL APPLY TO ALL PROJECTS AND THAT AFFECT EACH OTHER; TIGHTENING ONE CONSTRAINT WILL ALLOW SOME FLEXIBILITY IN THE OTHERS AND FLEXIBILITY IN ONE AREA WILL AFFECT THE OTHERS.

THE THREE CONSTRAINTS IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE ARE TIME, COST AND SCOPE (SOMETIMES QUALITY). AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRAINTS IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE (COST, TIME AND SCOPE) CAN HELP ALL MANAGERS TO IMPLEMENT CHANGE IN BUSINESS.

TIME CONSTRAINT (SCHEDULE)

TIME IS THE MOST DIFFICULT CONSTRAINT TO CONTROL IN A PROJECT AS DEADLINES ARE USUALLY ENSURE EFFICIENT WORKING AND OFTEN THE REQUIRED RESOURCES ARE NOT AVAILABLE WHEN NEEDED .ALL THE ACTIVITIES IN A PROJECT TAKE TIME AND EACH ACTIVITY CAN TAKE A SHORTER OR LONGER AMOUNT OF TIME DEPENDING ON FACTORS SUCH AS THE EXPERIENCE OF THE PERSONNEL COMPLETING THE TASK, THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WORKING ON THE TASK AND THE AVAILABILITY OF WORKERS AT THE GIVEN TIME PERIOD.

COST CONSTRAINT

ALL PROJECTS HAVE FINITE RESOURCES AVAILABLE THAT ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF COST. THERE IS A LIMITED BUDGET AND THE PROJECT MANAGER MUST PLAN HOW TO SPEND THE BUDGET ON THE RESOURCES NEEDED TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT. REDUCING THE COST OF A PROJECT WILL HAVE AN EFFECT ON THE TIME THE PROJECT WILL TAKE AND CHANGING THE TIME AVAILABLE TO A PROJECT WILL IMPACT THE COST OF THE PROJECT.

PROJECT SCOPE CONSTRAINT

THE SCOPE DEFINES THE EXPECTED DELIVERABLES BY THE PROJECT. THE PROJECT MANAGER HAS TO MANAGE THE SCOPE OF A PROJECT AS ANY CHANGE IN SCOPE WILL IMPACT BOTH COST AND TIME. IF MORE ITEMS ARE ADDED TO THE SCOPE THEN BOTH TIME AND COST MAY INCREASE, AND EVEN A SUBTLE CHANGE TO THE SCOPE CAN HAVE NOTICEABLE IMPACTS, BECAUSE OF WHICH CHANGE CONTROL IS VITAL TO PROJECT SUCCESS.

PROJECT QUALITY

AT TIMES THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE IS DESCRIBED WITH THE THREE CONSTRAINTS TIME, COST AND QUALITY RATHER THAN SCOPE, AS HIGHER QUALITY IN A PROJECT CAN EASILY LEAD TO A HIGHER COST AND SOMETIMES MORE TIME. HOWEVER, QUALITY CAN ALSO BE PART OF THE SCOPE OF A PROJECT; AS WELL DEFINED DELIVERABLES WILL INCLUDE A STATEMENT REGARDING THE DESIRED QUALITY.

B: BRIEFLY EXPLAIN DIMENSIONS OF PROJECT SUCCESS

TO BE SUCCESSFUL A PROJECT MUST:

* DELIVER THE OUTCOMES AND BENEFITS REQUIRED BY ORGANIZATION, ITS DELIVERY PARTNERS AND OTHER STAKEHOLDER ORGANIZATIONS

* CREATE AND IMPLEMENT DELIVERABLES THAT MEET THE AGREED REQUIREMENTS

* MEET THE TIME TARGETS

* STAY WITHIN THE FINANCIAL BUDGETS

* INVOLVE ALL RIGHT PEOPLE

* MAKE BEST USE OF RESOURCES IN THE ORGANIZATION

* TAKE ACCOUNT OF CHANGES IN THE WAY THE ORGANIZATION OPERATES

* MANAGE ANY RISKS THAT COULD JEOPARDIZE THE SUCCESS

* TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE NEEDS OF STAFF AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS WHO WILL BE AFFECTED BY THE CHANGES BROUGHT IN BY THE PROJECT.

P3: UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES BEHIND PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEM PROCEDURES:

A: DISCUSS PROJECT INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM

THE PROJECT INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM IS USED IN COMPANIES FOR INFORMATIONAL SUPPORT OF PROJECTS AND IN PROJECT PREPARATION AND HANDLING. THE PURPOSE IS TO PROVIDE A HIGH QUALITY PRODUCT, INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF WORK AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE COMPANY.

THE SYSTEM ENSURES:

* REGISTRATION AND FULL DOCUMENTING OF COMPANY¿½S PROJECTS

* EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

* EXCHANGE OF PROJECT INFORMATION AMONGST ALL PROJECT PARTICIPANTS

* EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGIES BEING DEVELOPED IN THE COMPANY

* FOLLOW-UP OF PROJECT ORGANIZATION DOCUMENTATION AT ALL STAGES BOTH FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONTENTS, AND FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF WORK ORGANIZATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONNEL USE.

* POSSIBILITY OF CREATION AND STORAGE OF DOCUMENTATION FOR QUALITY SYSTEM.

* INTERACTION BETWEEN PROJECT MANAGER AND THE CUSTOMER, SUBCONTRACTORS, COMPANY MANAGEMENT AND CO-WORKERS WORKING ON THE PROJECT INSIDE THE COMPANY.

* NOTIFICATION OF CO-WORKERS AND PROJECT MANAGER ABOUT THE TASKS RECEIVED.

* CONTROL OF DOCUMENT IMPLEMENTATION, AGREEMENT AND APPROVAL CYCLES FOR PROJECT DOCUMENTS.

* STRUCTURING OF INFORMATION BY PROJECT DOCUMENTATION.

* DOCUMENT SYSTEMATIZATION TAKES PLACE ON THE FOLLOWING BASIS:

> ACCORDING TO MONTHS AND WEEKS

> SEPARATION OF NEW DOCUMENTATION DEVELOPED DURING LAST MONTH AND LAST WEEK

> STORAGE OF INFORMATION ON FROZEN AND ACCOMPLISHED PROJECTS IN DYNAMICAL ARCHIVE, POSSIBILITY TO LOOK THROUGH THIS DOCUMENTATION, CHANGE PROJECT STATUS AND TRANSFER ALL INFORMATION ON PROJECT FROM DYNAMICAL ARCHIVE TO THE BASE OF PERSPECTIVE AND ACTIVE PROJECTS.

* DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF ACCESS RESTRICTION TO PROJECT DOCUMENTATION FOR COMPANY CO-WORKERS.

* THE SYSTEM IS IMPLEMENTED ON THE BASIS OF CLIENT-SERVER PLATFORM. THIS PLATFORM ALLOWS ORGANIZING JOINT USE OF INFORMATION BY ALL EMPLOYEES, TO ENSURE THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF INFORMATION SAFETY AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR STANDARD PROCESSES OF DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT.

B: DISCUSS AND GIVE EXAMPLES HOW HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES CAN BE INTEGRATED TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS.

FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT COMPLETION, PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ARE ADOPTED WHICH ARE MOSTLY LEARNED FROM EXPERIENCE, AND THEY ARE UNIVERSALLY VALID FOR¿½ALL¿½PROJECTS.¿½¿½

PRINCIPLE BASED PROJECT MANAGEMENT BEGINS WITH THESE PRINCIPLES:

* RULE 1- FIND OUT WHAT BUSINESS YOU ARE IN, AND THEN MIND YOUR OWN BUSINESS.¿½¿½¿½BE SURE YOUR BUSINESS IS VIABLE.¿½SELECT PROJECTS THAT ARE GOOD FOR YOUR BUSINESS.¿½¿½UNDERSTAND THE BUSINESS VALUE IN YOUR PROJECT AND LOOK FOR CHANGES.¿½¿½LEARN AND APPLY BEST PRACTICES IN YOUR CHOSEN BUSINESS.¿½¿½DEFINE WHAT IS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE YOUR AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY.¿½¿½

* RULE2 – UNDERSTAND THE CUSTOMER¿½S REQUIREMENTS.¿½¿½THOROUGHLY UNDERSTAND AND DOCUMENT CUSTOMER¿½S REQUIREMENTS, OBTAIN CUSTOMER AGREEMENT, AND PUT REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTS UNDER VERSION IDENTIFICATION AND CHANGE CONTROL.¿½

* RULE 3 – PREPARE A¿½REASONABLE¿½PLAN.¿½¿½PREPARE A¿½PLAN¿½THAT DEFINES THE SCOPE, SCHEDULE, COST, AND APPROACH FOR A REASONABLE PROJECT.¿½¿½INVOLVE TASK OWNERS IN DEVELOPING PLANS AND ESTIMATES, TO ENSURE FEASIBILITY.¿½USE A WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE TO PROVIDE COHERENCE AND COMPLETENESS TO MINIMIZE UNPLANNED WORK.

* RULE 4 – BUILD A TEAM WITH CLEAR OWNERSHIP.¿½¿½GET GOOD AND TRUSTWORTHY PEOPLE.¿½¿½ESTABLISH CLEAR OWNERSHIP¿½OF WELL-DEFINED TASKS; ENSURE THEY HAVE TOOLS AND TRAINING NEEDED; AND PROVIDE TIMELY FEEDBACK.

* RULE 5 – TRACK PROJECT STATUS- TRACK¿½PROGRESS¿½AND CARRYOUT FREQUENT REVIEWS.¿½CONDUCT METHODICAL REVIEWS TO HELP MANAGE CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS, IMPROVE QUALITY, AND IDENTIFY PROBLEMS BEFORE THEY GET OUT OF HAND.¿½¿½¿½

* RULE 6 – USE BASELINE CONTROLS.¿½¿½ESTABLISH BASELINES FOR THE¿½PRODUCT¿½USING¿½CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT¿½AND FOR THE¿½PROJECT¿½USING COST AND SCHEDULE BASELINE TRACKING.¿½¿½MANAGE CHANGES DELIBERATELY.¿½¿½USE MEASUREMENTS TO BASELINE PROBLEM AREAS AND THEN TRACK PROGRESS QUANTITATIVELY TOWARDS SOLUTIONS.¿½

* RULE 7 – WRITE IMPORTANT STUFF DOWN, SHARE IT, AND SAVE IT.¿½¿½WRITE DOWN REQUIREMENTS, PLANS, PROCEDURES, AND EVOLVING DESIGNS.¿½¿½DOCUMENTING ALLOWS THEM TO EVOLVE AND IMPROVE.¿½¿½IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO HAVE BASELINE CONTROLS, RELIABLE COMMUNICATIONS, OR A REPEATABLE PROCESS WITHOUT DOCUMENTATION.¿½¿½

* RULE 8 – IF IT HASN’T BEEN TESTED, IT DOESN’T WORK.¿½ DEVELOP TEST CASES EARLY TO HELP UNDERSTAND AND VERIFY REQUIREMENTS.¿½¿½USE EARLY TESTING TO VERIFY CRITICAL ITEMS AND REDUCE TECHNICAL RISKS.¿½

* RULE 9 – ENSURE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION.¿½¿½KEEP THE CUSTOMER’S REAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS IN VIEW.¿½

* RULE 10 – BE RELENTLESSLY PROACTIVE.¿½¿½TAKE INITIATIVE AND BE RELENTLESSLY PROACTIVE IN APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES AND IDENTIFY AND SOLVE PROBLEMS AS THEY ARISE.¿½¿½PERIODICALLY ADDRESS AND CONFRONT PROJECT RISKS.¿½¿½ATTACK PROBLEMS, AND LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED.¿½¿½¿½

P4: IDENTIFY THE KEY ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN TERMINATING PROJECTS AND CONDUCTING POST-PROJECT APPRAISALS.

CLOSURE MAY OCCUR AS PLANNED AT THE END OF THE PROJECT OR EARLY IF THE NEED OR JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT NO LONGER EXISTS. THE STEPS BELOW APPLY PRIMARILY TO NORMAL TERMINATION. THE BUSINESS CASE SHOULD BE HANDED OVER TO WHOEVER IS GOING TO TAKE LONG TERM RESPONSIBILITY FOR DELIVERING THE DESIRED BENEFITS. TOWARDS THE END OF THE PROJECT THE PROJECT MANAGER PERFORM AN EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT AGAINST THE PROJECT INITIATION DOCUMENT AND REPORT TO THE PROJECT BOARD SO THAT IT MAY FORMALLY CLOSE THE PROJECT, PERHAPS AT A CLOSURE MEETING.

THE CHECKLIST BELOW WILL HELP THE SRO/PROJECT BOARD ASSURE ITSELF THAT THE PROJECT CAN BE CLOSED DOWN:

PROJECT CLOSURE CHECKLIST

* IS THE WORK OF THE PROJECT COMPLETE AS MEASURED AGAINST ANY SUBSEQUENT AGREED CHANGES?

* HAVE ALL PROJECT DELIVERABLES BEEN CREATED, QUALITY CONTROLLED, ACCEPTED AND HANDED OVER TO THOSE WHO WILL OPERATE AND MAINTAIN THEM?

* HAS INFORMATION ABOUT KNOWN ERRORS CONVEYED TO THOSE WHO WILL USE/OPERATE/MAINTAIN THE DELIVERABLES?

* HAS RESPONSIBILITY FOR ONGOING OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF THE DELIVERABLES BEEN ACCEPTED BY APPROPRIATE PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION?

* HAVE THOSE WHO PROVIDED RESOURCES BEEN INFORMED OF ENDING PROJECT CLOSURE?

* HAVE ALL OUTSTANDING REQUESTS FOR CHANGE BEEN PASSED TO APPROPRIATE OWNERS?

* HAVE ALL RISKS BEEN COMMUNICATED TO AN APPROPRIATE OWNER IN THE ORGANIZATION?

* HAS INFORMATION ABOUT ANY ERRORS IN THE DELIVERABLES BEEN COMMUNICATED TO THOSE WHO WILL OPERATE AND MAINTAIN RESPONSIBILITIES?

* IS A PLAN IN PLACE FOR A POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW TO MEASURE THE ACTUAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BENEFITS AFTER THE PROJECT (TERMS OF REFERENCE, TIMING AND RESPONSIBILITIES)?

* HAVE LESSONS LEARNED BEEN RECORDED AND DISSEMINATED TO INTERESTED PARTIES?

* HAS PROJECT MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTATION BEEN FILED FOR FUTURE REFERENCE?

YOU MAY RUN LESSONS LEARNT WORKSHOP SO THAT YOU AND OTHERS CAN BENEFIT FROM YOUR EXPERIENCE OF WHAT WENT WELL AND WHAT COULD HAVE BEEN DONE IN A BETTER WAY. ONCE THE PROJECT BOARD HAS CONFIRMED CLOSURE, THE PROJECT TEAM IS DISBANDED AND THE PROJECT ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES NO LONGER EXIST. NO COSTS OR OTHER RESOURCES SHOULD GET CHARGED AGAINST A CLOSED PROJECT.

MUAZZAM ALI BADSHA PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2ND SEMESTER

CONFED SCHOOL FOR PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Page | 1

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