Have you ever have someone dear to you gone because of smoking? Whether it is your parent, brother, sister, or your closest friend, I am sure anyone can relate to that problem even yourself. With this essay I am trying to convey some facts about smoking, the bad, the good, and maybe most of all the worst. Staying close to the facts is what I intend to do, but even when some things seems to be biased, I am sure the facts and the Prove will be there to show how it came to that.
There is a man wearing black jacket climb a mountain tiresomely, very exhausting. And after he reached at the top, he smile arrogantly, like a winner who won a big world competition. He sat near of bonfire with a girl who smiled at him proudly and he holds a hot coffee on his lap. He put a cigarette on his mouth and lit it out and he sucking the cigarette deeply than blow the smoke enjoyable feels like a man and haughty.
That is a figure of some cigarettes advertisement in Indonesia. A cigarette at that advertisement is identical with a gallant man, full of challenge activity. Combine with a cup of coffee than with a beautiful and sexy girl. That advertisement pictures is if you are smoker than you are a gallant, macho, love all challenges and loved by women. But unfortunately, the true situation is smokers are not as good as like at the advertisement. Instead, at his last life smoker realized destruction of his teeth, have got stroke disease, coronary heart, lung cancer, throat cancer, bronchitis, impotency to have a children, and involved bad situation which is not gallant at all. That is also happening to woman who is a smoker. Poorly, the bad effect is not only that but also plus some bad bonus like womb cancer, barren, early menopause, and bleeding brain. If she is having a pregnancy, the baby potentially in risk miscarriage, premature, physical defect, moreover demise. This is the true situation for you are smoker!
But the disease which caused by smoking is really indirectly infected. The biggest possibility smoker could get lung cancer disease. The illness could be infected in long term. Because, the toxic that sucked by people is in small scale actually, it lurking in lungs continually and daily when they smoking. After that the litters of smoke become heap day after day. Instead, the toxic and oxygen will be contained around body through alveolus and distributed by blood so toxic lurk in all part of body. Terrible one is the smoke burn cells of brain.
Cigarette is a cylindrical paper with a length about 70mm until 120mm (it depends on each country) and diameter 10mm where the tobacco is stored. It is lit on the edge and let it burn so that could be sucked on another side by mouth. Usually cigarette sold in a box paper that you can keep it easily in your pocket. Since the last few years, the package of cigarette included the message that tells you about the dangerous hazards of smoking like lung cancer or heart attack (even though in real life the small warning message is only decorative, no one cares about it). So many research proved smoking can make you addicted, beside that you have to know that the first smoker in this world is Indian tribe in America.
Almost all of cigarette ingredient is tobacco's leaf. But there is many people change the leaf with marijuana's leaf. People whom really addicted by cigarette usually unsatisfied if they only sucking common cigarette. That's why they change the leaf. Not only adult person suck marijuana but also the teenagers also suck that one. They are like to do that because they feel flying and worry about nothing when they suck that leaf. But there is many kind of cigarette. In Indonesia there is two type of officially cigarette. The first one is cigarette with filter sponge and the shape is like usual, it's blanked by common paper in Indonesia its called “Rokok”. And the second one is cigarette without filter inside that it is named by “keretek”.
C. History of Cigarette
The rice of tobacco is very drastic in short period of time. Tobacco growing started in the region of Central America around 6000 BC. It was not until 5000 year later, around 1000 BC Mayan civilization began to chew and smoke the leaf of tobacco plant. They mix tobacco leaf with herb and plants and make it in stick shape. Hundreds year later European explorers was discovered tobacco and brought it out into new world. Perhaps, Columbus is the first European to see tobacco even though he doesn't smoke it by himself. A fellow explorer Rodrigo de Jerez, shortly after, landed in Cuba and observed some of the inhabitants smoking the tobacco leaves. He then processed to partake in smoking act himself.
In the 1530's, a number of European saw the potential money making in tobacco and they decide to cash in and make their wealth from the cultivation of this popular plant. They began to colonize areas of the Caribbean and established a large tobacco growing area, from which they exported all the tobacco back to Europe.
It is said that Sir Francis Drake was the first man to bring back the consignment of tobacco into UK in 1573, although Sir Walter Raleigh later went on to make tobacco smoking popular in the court of Queen Elizabeth 1. During the year 1586 sir Walter Raleigh embarked on a trip to Americas where he met Ralph Lane. Who at that time was governor of Virginia. Lane introduced Raleigh to the pleasures of smoking a clay pipe, which was popular there in that area. Pipe smoking became extremely popular, not only in Virginia, but also in several other European countries including Spain and France.
D. Factor to Smoke
Usually people smoking is not because they want to do that but because of their environment. Teenagers or children indirectly have smoking lesson from see their father, mother, or their family do smoking. Or some time perhaps they just try because their friend has tried. As a teenager they don't think about the effect which caused by smoking. They think after tried they can decide to leave or continue smoking without knowing whether it's good or bad for them. So many reason people do smoking.
Some people want to be a smoker only follows life style. They feel its cool but slowly they become a true smoker and addicted. Some people mainly middle age do smoking because they feel stress or broken home. They think smoking can make their problem easier than.
E. Ingredient of Cigarette
The ingredient of smoke as usual is tobacco. But there is not only leaf but also much stuff that we can use for ingredient to make a unique taste like ketchup, sauce, and another spice that include.
The kernel ingredient of a cigarette is tobacco. Tobacco is some kind of herbal plants. Tobacco contains the substance alkaloid nicotine. This plant is from North America and South America. The history of tobacco is full of mystical and mystery. First, tobacco used by original American as medicine for medical treatment. The History of original American at that time so many case that they were related to use tobacco. Their Faith also related to this plant, at that time they believe smoke of tobacco can give them protect from bad ghost and on the contrary it can make them easily get close to good ghost. At that time, Christopher Columbus was crossing Atlantic Sea for the first time in 1942. original American who had stay at New York had given tobacco leaf as a present and after a century smoking become a social trend, further it had given benefit to people by growing up their economic in America.
Tobacco plant is a product of agriculture which gone through good process and from a fresh big leaf of genus nicotinic. Tobacco can be commercially attained in farm form, whether it's wet, dry, or which had been kept and through preservation process. And usually it's sucked by mouth like smoking, its suck in cigar form, cigarette form, or pipe form. It could be chewing also.
Clove has a roman name that is “Eugenia Caryophyllus” (Eugenia Aromatic) as the main ingredient for cigarette same as tobacco, also need special process of sorting, processing, and complicated storage place. Since buying step, quality is the most important thing. Clove which has high quality will through cleaning process, baking process, and drying process first before stored in stainless to keep the hygiene level.
Sauce and the other Spices
Like delicious food, there are some spices, salt, sauce and another flavor making which necessary for that. As same as food, cigarette also need very perfect recipe to producing a high quality cigarette. The most component is really effect to the taste is tobacco, clove and sauce. Only a good “chef” can handle to make a high quality cigarette that has expert in his field.
Other ingredients which has main part for the cigarette taste is the paper and the filter. Until now Indonesia still import that stuff for save devise and for cover necessary paper.
F. Cigarette chemical reaction
From the chemical point of view to proof toxin is really contained by cigarette. The paragraph below will clearly show the hazardous chemical reaction from a single cigarette.
Cigarette, dangerous process chemical laboratory
It is truly ironic that people very care about nature balance which caused by fuel burning process which the result is pollution. But in the other side people are intentionally inhale dangerous toxin to their lungs.
Smoking habit has become a culture in every nation in the world. Now smoker majority in the world reach 47% for man and 12% for woman with kind of age category. There is much background to smoke, in teenager and man; they are feel prestige if they are not a smoker. Instead there is an aphorism said that if you are not smoking so you are not cool at all, you are loser. But for old age they feel stress because they have addicted by smoking.
The aphorism like that is only bad thing to support people to do smoke. It is truly defeated by many fact and research that we know smoking only pile toxin in our body to making long term disease. But the value of smoker is not decrease in mass even though the government has shared pamphlet which smoke is dangerous, campaign anti cigarette, instead there is a warn message at the package, and Some time smoker said smoking is not good as look.
This paper perhaps has a same fate like other warn advertisement to smoke and no one care about this. But this is a little bit different because this is chemical point of view. So this is the chemical process that explains about the toxin which contain in cigarette.
The chemical Burning process of cigarette
Burning process for cigarette is not very different as burning another solid object. Cigarette which built of dry tobacco leaf, paper, and flavor substance, can shape by Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) also another substance in small value. The chemical formula for cigarette could write by (CvHwOtNySzSi).
Two possibilities could happen when smoking
The first one is reaction between cigarettes with oxygen can create compound like CO2, H2O, NOX, SOX, and CO. this burning reaction happen in temperature more than 800o C and its occur on the tip of cigarette which burning and directly contact with air.
CvHwOtNySzSi + O2 -> CO2+ NOx+ H2O + SOx + SiO2 (in temp. 800o C)
The second is separation chemical structures of cigarette become another substance. This reaction caused by burning process without oxygen. Usually people call it with Pirolisa reaction. Pirolisa occur at temperature less than 800o C. so the interval to occur Pirolisa inside area of cigarette in temperature range about 400o C – 800o C. the traits of this reaction is producing thousand of chemical compound which every part has a complex structure.
CvHwOtNySzSi -> about 3000 kind of chemical compound + hot product (in temperature range about 400o C – 800o C). This is the reaction of Pirolisa.
Even though Pirolisa reaction is not to dominance in smoking process, but so many compounds that produced is classified in poison substance which can diffusing in the blood. Diffusing process will continue while there is still have different concentration. We unnecessary denying the most dangerous point of smoking is consist at Pirolisa reaction. The truth is this reaction can be burning if the product of this reaction trough high temperature and had oxygen enough. So we the product of that process will burn. But it is impossible because suck process and gas product in that temperature range will spontaneous into mouth in temperature 37o C.
Smoke Steaming Process and Nicotine
Be side chemical reaction, there is also steaming process and nicotine in temperature about 100o C – 400o C. nicotine that steaming at this range has not chance to trough high temp and trough burning process. Condensation of nicotine in gas is depends of the temperature, steam of nicotine concentration in gas and geometry route which gas trough it.
At temperature less than 100o C nicotine has been condensation. So the truth is, before the gas go inside mouth, condensation of nicotine has done. According to the balance, not all of nicotine gas has condensation before it go inside mouth, so when gas come inside lungs containing nicotine. When nicotine gas in lungs, nicotine will have a new balance and it will be condensation process again. So, we can see from burning process, burning process for smoking there is no different with wood burning process in the kitchen, oil burning process in stove, coal burning process in the cement company, Gas burning process in steel heater company, and all of burning process which contain fuel and oxygen. It is truly ironic that people very care about nature balance which caused by fuel burning process which the result is pollution. But in the other side people are intentionally inhale dangerous toxin to their lungs.
Number of death and claim smoker according research World Health Organization (WHO) said that there are 560 people in the world killed because of smoke. If we count, there are 4, 5 million people killed caused of cigarette. That case is still include 3800 dangerous chemical toxin which almost of the toxin is carcinogen (substance causing cancer), be side that the smoke containing substance benzopyrene that is small smooth carbon particle which produce because of imperfect charcoal, oil, or another fuel burning process where that process is the true cause of gen mutation.
G. Cigarette and Economic in Indonesia
In Indonesia people assume that the one of the biggest income for country is from cigarette's company. Because as we can see the companies have a big modal and huge market area to sell the cigarette. Even the companies give big contribution to country but the damage truly destructs moral and mental. This is calculation and some myths about cigarette and economic in Indonesia.
First we talk about the simple calculation about people who spend his money for cigarette, if price a package of cigarette is about Rp.6000 and smoker buy only a package than spend it entirely done in a day. So in a month they can spend his money about Rp.180.000. and if a quarter of citizen in Indonesia are smoker (assume that citizen in Indonesia is about two hundred million). It means that they can spend money about nine million a month it same like they burn their money wasteful. It just figure of smokers who smoking a package per day, how about smoker spending two or more package of cigarette per day. In a year, how much smoker in Indonesia could spend their money wasteful?
Maybe, if we collect it for several years the value is suppose could to cover debt of Indonesia or we can donate it for charity like share the money to many poor man, to children who can't school caused of low economic, or we can donate it to hospital so if someone can't pay the administration because of they are from low economic, they still can get serve for their healthy because everyone is deserve care for health.
There are issues which spread in public like government will lose income if they increasing tax for cigarette's industry because there is no body will buy cigarette and many more. This is the fact to denying that problem:
1. Myths about cigarette's company give very big income to countries
Country pays more for cigarette than its income which given by cigarette's company. Research from World Bank has proven that cigarette is the most factors cause damage for almost country in the world. Country's income probably has big value from cigarette's company's tax. But the loss out directly and indirectly which cause by cigarette is more big than. Much money must use to pay for disease which cause by cigarette, abstain from work, income and productive disappear, premature death, and make more poor people because they ought to pay for the cigarette. And also another big payment which can not explained one per one include productive work from smoker and passive smoker will decrease, be side that suffer what people feel because they lost some body cause of cigarette. That is matter what we have to pay the responsibility of that.
2. Myth about decreasing consuming cigarette only rich country can do
Now about 80% smokers live in a growing country and this value is creasing only n few decades. Approximately in 2020, 70% of all demise case which caused by cigarette will happen in growing countries. Up from this level is about 50%. It means in a few decades later growing countries will be faced with big payment for smoker for health care and lost productive work.
3. Myth about strict rule in cigarette's company will cause losing job for tobacco's farmer and employer in cigarette's company.
Independent economies that have learn about claim for cigarette industry make conclusion cigarette's industry very over receive rules tobacco in the world with reason that rules will potentially decreasing job for employer. In many countries, cigarette industries only have little part from their economic. World Bank research have demonstrating that commonly a country will not get a new unemployment if the country decreasing consuming cigarette. Instead in a few countries get a new advantage because smoker allocated their money for buy another things and service. This is actually will create new job field.
4. Myth about government will lose income if they increasing tax for cigarette's industry because there is no body will buy cigarette
The proof is really clear: calculation showed high tax truly decreasing consuming cigarette but not government income. Instead on the contrary, sum of decrease consumer cigarette is not equal with increase tax. Consumer who has addicted usually not cares about the increasing price, they still buy. But who is not smoker anymore still spend their money to buy another stuff that's mean government still get the income. Experience has proof that however high the tax it will not make government income decreasing.
5. Myth about high tax of cigarette will cause smuggling
Cigarette's industry often argument ting the high cigarette's tax will make smuggling from country in less tax. Instead, it will make increasing smoker and increasing government income. Even though smuggling is a serious thing, Bank World report in 1999, curbing the epidemic have conclusion that high tax for cigarette will press consuming cigarette and also increasing government income. The good step for government is deciding fight the crime not sacrificing high tax to cigarette. Be side that there is claim for smuggling of cigarette which have to fix seriously.
6. Myth about addicted cigarette is already in huge number, so if increasing cigarette's tax it will not make effect to demand. From that government don't need to increase the tax.
Increasing cigarette's tax will decrease sum of smoker and decrease sum of demise caused of cigarette. Increasing cigarette price also make some people stop smoking and prevent some people to be a permanent smoker. Children and teenager very sensitive with increasing cigarette price, so they will decrease buy cigarette if the price is expensive. Be side that people who have medium income also sensitive about it, it means increasing cigarette's tax has a big influence at buy cigarette in growing countries. Model which increasing by World Bank in curbing the epidemic report show increasing cigarette' tax about 10% in 1995 make 40 million people who life in that time stop smoking and decrease sum of demise cause of smoking.
7. Myth about government don't need to increase the tax because it will damage consumer who have low income
Cigarette's company said that price of cigarette is unnecessary increasing because it will damage consumer who have low income. But, survey proofed public who have low income is the most victim which damaged. Because cigarette will make their life so hard, causing death, spend their salary wasteful. Public who have low income could get advantage if the price of cigarette is expansive. Because it will make them easily stop smoking because their have not ability to buy that. Another advantage of high cigarette tax is we can use donation for prosperity poor people.
8. Myth about smoker be responsible for his self
Smoker like a parasite for people who not smoker. Commentaries in rich countries express that sum of smoker is more often bug health insurance than people who not smoker (even though age of smoker usually less than people who not smoker).because mostly health insurance take care for smoker which the donation is from public. Like in Indonesia, health insurance is pay by public (in Indonesia named Jamsostek), so smoker is not really having responsible just for his self.