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The present paper is devoted to the developing of adult learner`s speaking skills. The theme of this research is important because nowadays the basic tool of the communication is speaking. It is significant that one could communicate freely, express thoughts, emotions and attitudes. However, to the best of our knowledge the topic has not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, the following research question has been raised:
What are the most effective strategies of the developing ones speaking skills?
The hypothesis of this paper can be formulated in the following way:
If one could develop clear and direct communication skills it will lead to positive results.
The goal of the present paper is to prove that particular strategies help develop communicating skills.
To achieve the goal, the following objectives have been set:
to study secondary sources on developing speaking skills;
to draw conclusions.
The method of research applied in the present paper is a qualitative discourse analysis.
General overview on developing of speaking skills
People often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning; however speaking is a crucial part of the language learning process(online 2). Throughout the life people will use many types of speeches. One will need to be able to organize his or her thoughts logically in order to persuade others to their way of thinking.
How does one talk so that another person listens and understands? How does one listen? How does one know if he has been heard and understood? These are all points of communication (online 5). Moreover, communication is the tool with which people share their ideas, information, opinions and feelings. Basically, it is activity between two or more people.
The study of speech communication help people to improve one`s knowledge, self-confidence, understanding of human nature, listening skills, critical-thinking skills, organization of thoughts, the use of posture and voice, and the ability to give and accept constructive criticism.
Basic point of speaking skills development
People should study how to develop speaking strategies using minimal responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about language that they can use to help themselves expand their knowledge of the language and their confidence in using it (source 1).
According to Paulette Dale and James C. Woolf (2000), there are a lot of materials that help people to develop their speaking skills, for example:
"Develop confidence when speaking before a group
Improve their use of eye contact, posture, gestures, and voice
Orally present information, ideas, and opinions in a coherent organized fashion
Learn the basic of informative and persuasive speaking
Listen critically and objectively
Lead and participate in group discussions
Improve their understanding of interpersonal and intercultural communication"
(Speech Communication, Paulette Dale and James C. Wolf, 2000)
1.3 What is speech? What speaking helps to achieve?
What is speech itself? Speech is act of speaking. However, speaking is capability to speak; it helps people to express peoples` thoughts, feelings and attitude.According to the online source 3 "speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information". The same source says that "its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving."
Concerning the speech - it is not always unpredictable. Language functions that tend to recur in some discourse situations (e.g., declining an invitation or requesting time off from work), can be identified and charted. Source 3 gives the following example"when a salesperson asks "May I help you?" the expected discourse sequence includes a statement of need, response to the need, offer of appreciation, acknowledgement of the appreciation, and a leave-taking exchange." Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary, but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce. Finally, speech has its own skills, structures, and conventions different from written language. A good speaker synthesizes this array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act" (online 3).
The strategies of developing good speaking skills
According to the internet source 4, there are several strategies of developing Speaking Skills. They are as follows:
"Practice where you can, when you can. Any practice is good - whether you speak to someone who is a native English speaker or not.
It's important to build your confidence. If possible, use simple English sentence structure that you know is correct, so that you can concentrate on getting your message across.
Try to experiment with the English you know. Use words and phrases you know in new situations. Native English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong grammar. Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback.
Try to respond to what people say to you. You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language. Respond to them in a natural way.
Try NOT to translate into and from your own language. This takes too much time and will make you more hesitant.
If you forget a word, do what native English speakers do all the time, and say things that 'fill' the conversation. This is better than keeping completely silent. Try using "um", or "er", if you forget the word.
Don't speak too fast! It's important to use a natural rhythm when speaking English, but if you speak too fast it will be difficult for people to understand you.
Try to relax when you speak - you'll find your mouth does most of the pronunciation work for you. When you speak English at normal speed, you'll discover that many of the pronunciation skills, such as linking between words, will happen automatically."
The method "learning - by- doing" is considered to speakers to be the best way of learning any skill. That is why, during the developing of one`s skills various exercises, activities and assignments should be provided. However, most of attentions must be devoted to the extensive assignments which help the learner to improve their communication skills in different contexts. In addition, it helps to improve pronunciation and intonation.
Developing clear and direct communication skills can lead to positive results when dealing with others, success at work, university, business and etc. and an enjoyable, rewarding life (source 1).
It is worth to remember, that when speaking language person should become less hesitant and more confident. Also, person should not be shy to speak, because more you have practice, the more confident one becomes. In addition, being polite is important point. Person should use "please" and "thank you" if one asks someone to do something for him or her(online 4).
The aim of this research paper was to prove that particular strategies help develop communicating skills.The following hypothesis was proposed - if one could develop clear and direct communication skills it will lead to positive results. In order to prove the hypothesis a lot of theoretical materials on development of speaking skills have been studied. As a result of the literature review, a number of conclusions related to the development of adults learning skills have been drawn.
Having alkalized the secondary sources, the author of present research paper has concluded that further research need to investigate particular theme deeper, because being very significant issue nowadays, developing of adults` language skills must be studied more precisely.
As a result the development of speaking skills is essential took for each language learner. Actually, learners have to be like sponges, they should soak up everything that has been said to practice as much as possible.
Speaking is the basic tool of communication nowadays
Particular speaking strategies help develop peoples` speaking skills.
Developing of adults` learners skills help people become self-confident, more precisely deliver their message, and properly organize thoughts.
Developing communication skills help in further life, for example, school, work etc.