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Communication is the general term that sums up the sending and receiving of messages. The way employees communicate can make or break a company. Think of the different between courteous and surly employees and the massage they convey to guest. We want to do business with people who can communicate the company philosophy to guest and give outstanding service. This all takes communication, which the lifeblood of companies. It is critical that the front-line associates know the company is a formal communications and is given in via meeting, personal correspondence, e-mail, notice boards, and so on. In hospitality and tourism industry, communication are vitally important as they are the ones who explain the mission, goals, and company policy to their associate.
Types of Communication
A communication may be a word-of-mouth message such as a verbal instruction give on announcement at a meeting. On it be a written communication: a letter, a memo, a production sheet, housekeeper's report ,or a recipe.
A message may go from one person to another, as when the soup chef tells the soup cook what soups to prepare for lunch; when the housekeeper tells a ,maid what rooms she is to make up; or when the person says to another ,It's nice to have a lunch or dinner to you, nice to meet you. This is known a interpersonal communication.
A message may go down the corporate ladder from the president of the company to the general manager to the food and beverage director to the executive chef to the soup chef to the station cooks to cook helpers. Such as message is likely to be a policy directive or some other matter affecting the organization as a whole. This is an example of organizational communication.
When a message move freely back and forth from one person to another, or up the ladder as well as down, we say that we have good two-way communication or open communication, Such communication contributes to a positive work climate and high productivity.
In additional to interpersonal communication and organization communications, there are order forms of communication that a supervisor may be involved in.
Interviewing is often defined as a conversation with a purpose. Supervisor used interviewing skill not only to screen jobs applicants but also to get need information from workers and their own supervisor.
In small group communication, three or more group members communicate in order to influence one another. Meeting are example of small group communication.
Mass communication refers to message send out to many people through news-paper, magazines ,books, radio, television, and other media. Hospitality organization often use mass communication to advertise for customer as well as job application. A restaurant newsletter is another example.
The communication Process
Regardless of which form of communication or interpersonal interaction is employed, the process of communication generally involves three principle components: a transmitter; a message; and a receiver.
Transmitter > Message > Receiver
The role of the transmitter is to impart information, ideas, or feelings to another person or person. The transmitter may be is a person or a group of person or an organization. In order to convey information, ideas or feelings, a transmitter must be first encode the same into a message. Encoding in this process is about by which information is organized into symbols, such as picture, words or gestures which can be conveyed to a receiver. The transmitter usually use a selected form of communication example like writing, speaking, faxing, gesturing, painting, or advertising to impact the encoded message to a receiver.
The receiver usually is a person or group of person to whom the message is being send by the transmitter. In the communication process, the responsibility of receiver is to receive and decode the message. Decoding in this process is about the reverse of encoding. In other words, it is also is the process by which the symbols that the transmitter has covered to the receive are interpreted and translate into meaningful information.
Important of communication process
It is important to note that there are certain times during the communication process at which communication failures can readily occur. First , if the transmitter is not doing careful during the encoding process, he or she may incorrectly encode the information, ideas, or feelings he intends to transmit. This would result in his transmitting an inaccurate message. Beside that, if the receiver receive an encode message, he or she must decode it in order to actually receive the information, ideas or feelings contained in the message. If the message is decode using coding rules that differ from those who used in the encoding process, the receiver will perceived information, ideas or feeling that were not intended to be conveyed by the transmitter.
A communication failure can also occur if the message does not reach the intended receiver. It may reach no one or the actual receiver of the message may not be the person for whom the message was intended.
Another potential source of trouble in the communication process is noise. Noise refers to any sort of distraction or interference that prevents the accurate transmission and reception of the message. There are three distinct type of noise have been identified: external noise, physiological noise, and psychological noise. External noise is any distraction or interferences whose source is outside of the receiver. For example, anyone who has attempt to carry on a conversation above the roar of Niagara Falls has experienced external noise. Physiological noise is interference caused by a biological factor such as loss of sight or hearing. Psychological noise refers to forces that either cause a transmitter to improperly encode a message or a receiver to incorrectly decode a message. For instances, if a restaurant patron is angry about receiving slow service, he may encode his complaint to the manager such that the delay he experienced is exaggerated. Likewise, if the restaurant manager has already heard more complaint than he or she stand in one day, he or she may " tune out " the information that the irate customer is trying to convey.
Everyone communicate all the time. We can't help it. Even when we say nothing, we are communicating. When working towards effective communication, it is important to understand what effect that the various components of communication have on our success.
What is it that makes one ways to communicate better than another .There are times we get a reaction that we don't expect. What cause that?
When we break down the components, we can see that there are 3 major elements involved:
Verbal- The words we choose
Vocal- The way we say them, such as tone, pitch, or volume of voice.
Visual- Body language, facial expressions, eye movement, gesturing
Each of these components provides a part of the overall effectiveness of communication. If you are able to use all three part, you will have the greatest chance to be understood. When you are able to use only one or two, you will have the greatest chance to be misunderstood.
There are several accepted methods of communicating information to those around you. Depending on the topic, one ways may be more preferable and effective to use. When you used appropriate methods, your chance for successful communication are significantly improved. There are 3 ways of communicating
To another person
To several people in group(team)
To many people in a large group(public speaking)
This method allows all 3 of components(verbal, vocal, visual)of communicating to be used. When there is sensitive information, or information that effect an individual personal or career life, it should be done in person. If questions arise in the interpretation of the message, you will be able to see those questions through body language, and the receiver of the message will be able to see your body language and better understand your message. Communicating in person can be to one or more people, but always includes the visual elements.
Voice only communication is very effectives when you have information that you need to receiver or deliver and it is not of a sensitive nature, for instance, information on a project or schedule changes. In this methods of communicating, you are able to tell from the tone of voice if there is doubt or question regarding your message. Similarly, the receiver can determine part of your message, such as happiness or frustration, through your tone of voice. While the visual elements communication is still quite effective for some message.
The last method, and the communication most likely to be misinterpreted, is written. Without the tone of voice(vocal)and body language(visual)elements. The receiver has only his own filters to use in interpretation. This methods is most effectively used when required and procedures are able to be followed. Additionally, many our business efforts needs to be captured in writing, often as a follow-up to be captured in writing, often as a follow-up to a conversation or documentation of agreements.
Among the most common forms of written communication is e-mail. Because we often use e-mail in lieu of talking with someone, we treat it as a casual communication channel, what we might say in person to someone is now said in writing, without the benefits of the vocal and visual clues that are so important to correct interpretation .
In my conclusion, the effective communication system are crucial to the success of organizations in the hospitality and tourism industry, for without feedback from customer and employee, it is impossible to assets the wants and the need of customer.
Motivation is the key to keeping performing continuously at the highest standards. How organization motivate their employees to excel at their jobs.
Motivation is refers to employee willingness to exert high level of effort towards organizational goals in the expectation that doing so will enable them to satisfy some individual need. Motivations is a necessary, but by itself not a sufficient, condition of effective performance. The " recipe" for effective performance also call for employee ability, managerial direction, and satisfactory work environment.
How organization motivate their employees to excel at their jobs
Motivation and the individual
This theory is based on the idea of human "needs". It also can categories human needs as follow:
A need for self-actualization ( personal growth )
A need for self- esteem
A need to belong and be love
A need for food, drink, health, sleep ( physiological need )
A Maslow theory also belongs to a humanistic school of through which is optimistic in its view of human life and which is concerned with human potential. This brand of psychology focuses on what individuals are capable of and how they can realize their potential. The fact that this theory has been so widely acknowledged in the world of could be because it represents a humanistic justification for the job satisfaction movement in the face of the realities of so much boring, mundane and menial work. If human being are growth seeking, potential realizing animals, then industry should not be stultify this process - so the arguments goes. The interest of management in Maslow's thinking is that the idea of "needs" which can be fulfilled offers a target and direction to the application of stimuli like money, interesting tasks or recognition. This unfortunately carries with it an unfortunately blight and that is that in trying to stimulate satisfaction managers tend to see motivation solely in term of satisfaction and dissatisfactions and to see them as one continuous dimension. It is a matter of degree the argument goes.
Two factor theory ( Herzberg Theory )
According to this theory, there are two factor theory can be found.
Factor whose associated with job satisfaction were labelled "motivators" to suggest their effectiveness in evoking individual behaviour towards superior performance. Interestingly, Herzberg hygiene factor correspond closely to Maslow two lower-level needs that is physiological and safety needs and Alderfer's existence need.
Factor who presence motivators. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Example like the motivator are identified by Herzberg are akin to Maslow's higher needs of esteem and self-actualization and Alderfer"s growth needs. This suggested that meeting-order needs can only prevent job satisfaction; to achieve job satisfaction requires the fulfilment of higher-order needs.
Manifest Needs Theory
This theory is based on the idea that needs are derived from personality. Example is needs for achievement, accomplish something difficult, as the staff in hospitality industry encourage to do things for themselves. Needs for power for control other, as the manager able to get what they want through controlling other. Needs for affiliation for close personal relationship with other, as the supervisor rewarded for making friends with manager.
The needs for Achievement
With this needs, people must have a high need for achievement tend to
Take persona responsibilities for solving problem
Be a goal oriented
Set a moderate, realistic, and attainable goals
Seek challenges, excellence, and individuality
Take a calculated, moderated risk
Desire concrete feedback on their performance
To motivate the employees with a high needs for achievement, a manager also needs to provide them with
No routine, challenging tasks in which there are clear attainable objectives
Prompt and frequent feedback on their performance
Increase responsibility for doing new thing
The need of power
People with a high need for power tend
To control the situation
To influence or control over others
Enjoy competition in which they can win
Be willing to confront others
To motivate employees with high need of power, manager should be
Let them plan and control their jobs as much as possible
Try to include them in decision making, especially when they are affected by the decision
Try to assign them to a whole task rather than as a part of the task
The needs for affiliation
People with a high needs for affiliation tend to
Seek close relationship with others
Want to be like by others
Enjoy lots of social activities
Seek to belong
Managers should be
Be sure to let them work as part of a them
Give them lots of praise and recognition
Delegate responsibility for orienting and training new employees to them
Thus theory is a process theory that, simply stated, asserts that employee are motivated to engage in behaviours for which they are rewarded. According to this theory, whether a person is motivated depends on two expectation and one valance, where an expectancy is a sort of probability that something will occur and a valence is an assigned value.
The first expectancy involves the probability that an employee will be able to make a connection between her level of effort and the performance that is derived from this effort. For motivation to occur, the employee must believe that if she puts forth a reasonable effort, there is a high probability that she will be able to meet expected performance standards. We will refer to his expectancy as the effort - performance or E - P expectancy.
The second expectancy involves the probability that the employee will be able to link her level of performance to the reward she receive for the performance. In other words, a high level of motivation will occur only if the employees believe there is a high probability of being rewarded for satisfaction performance. We will refer to his expectancy as the performance - reward or P - R expectancy.
Motivation and the work group
The Hawthorne Effect
Hawthorne effect studies found that:
Employee have need that go beyond simple remuneration
Informal work groups have a powerful influence on the organization. This is evidenced by the fact that peer pressure from workmates can dramatically influence the rate and pace of production both positively and negatively
Employee meet some of their social need through interaction with their colleagues.
The results of the Hawthorne studies have implication for manager who want to understand the influence of group norms and standards on individual and group productivity. Two very important implications are:
Intrinsic reward are meaningful to employees, thus managers should not overlook their value as a motivational tool
When designing a work environment or a job, it is important to consider the probable effect of the design on employee motivation and productivity
Equity theory is the process theory that is based on idea that people are motivated by fairness, an important social value in North America. In very simple term, the theory state that people seek social equity in the rewards they receive for their performance.
According to this theory, people compare how much they are being rewarded ( e.g. through praise, recognition, pay, bonuses) for their performance ( e.g. effort, experience, seniority, intelligence) to how much others in their peer group are being rewarded for their performance. If employee perceive an inequity, they will be motivated to change their behaviour to create an equitable situation. If employee feel equitable rewarded, their combination of performance and rewarded is perceived as being equal to that of their peers and they will be motivated to continue their current behaviour.
Motivation And The Organization
Reinforcement theory cannot be neatly categorized as either a process theory or a content theory of motivation because it attempts to explain both why an individual is motivated to behave in a certain why and how an individual become motivated. The fundamental premise underlying reinforcement theory or operant conditioning theory, as it is sometimes called, is that behaviour can be controlled through the effective use of rewards.
The essence of applying reinforcement theory for motivational purposes in the workplace is to promote desirable employee behaviour by following up any good behaviour by following up any good behaviour with positive consequences (e.g. reinforcement) and to deter undesirable employee behaviours by following up any unwanted behaviours with unpleasant consequences. The types of reinforcement that can be employed to influence behaviour include the following:
Positive reinforcement. An attractive rewarded for desired behaviour ( e.g. praise or a monetary bonus for exceptional sales)
Avoidance reinforcement. Removal of an unpleasant consequences following a desired behaviour ( e.g. employee come to work on time because of the negative consequences of being late)
Extinction. Withholding of response ( consequences) for undesirable behaviour ( e.g. supervisor ignore employee complaint about a co-worker)
Punishment. An undesirable consequence for undesirable behaviour ( e.g. putting employee on probation or taking away privileges)
Job enrichment, which refer to the vertical expansion of jobs, raise motivation by making work more interesting and challenging for employee. It dies this by increasing the degree to which the worker control the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her job. An enriched job organizes task so as allow worker to do a complete activity, increase the employee freedom and independence, increase responsibility, and provides feedback so individuals will be able to assess and correct their own performance.
In situation where job enrichment is appropriate, there are some relatively simple ways in which it can be applied
From a work group and allow employee to work together. Sometime just belonging to a group can increase productivity and make the job more rewarding for the employee
Make employee responsible for their " piece of the pie." If possible, let the employee complete the job from beginning to end. In hospitality and tourism organization, this could means something as simple as allowing an employee to serve the need of the customer from the beginning to end of the transaction.
Give the employee the rights to organise they work day. Employee who know what the job is and how much time and it should be done
Delegate job with more variety and responsibility. A variety of jobs relieves the monotony of a non challenging task.
Job redesign is essentially the idea of " doing it better by doing it differently." Any of the following three combinations of individual and techniques can be used to improved the design of job:
Experts can use time and motion studies to determine the way the job should be done
Manager who supervise the job, can suggest improvement based on observed shortcoming in the current job procedures
Employee, who are the most knowledgeable about their jobs, can devise new and betters ways to carry out their work.
In my conclusion, while the motivation theories and strategies that have been describe in this question differ somewhat in their implication and application, they all based on the common principle that people do that for which they are rewarded. This suggest that manager should be ensure they are aware of what employees are aware of what employee value as rewards and also be very careful to reward only those behaviours that are desirable.