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CommunicationÂ is the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Communication requires a sender, aÂ message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.
Good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness. Understanding your personal style of communicating will go a long way toward helping you to create good and lasting impressions on others. By becoming more aware of how others perceive you, you can adapt more readily to their styles of communicating. This does not mean you have to be a chameleon, changing with every personality you meet. Instead, you can make another person more comfortable with you by selecting and emphasizing certain behaviors that fit within your personality and resonate with another.
There are three basic communication styles Aggressive, Passive and Assertive. The assertive style is the one to strive for. Keep in mind that very few people are all one or another style. In fact the aggressive style is essential at certain times such as when a decision has to be made quickly, during emergencies, when you know you're right and that fact is crucial, stimulating creativity by designing competitions destined for use in training or to increase productivity. Passiveness also has its critical applications when an issue is minor, when the problems caused by the conflict are greater than the conflict itself, when emotions are running high and it makes sense to take a break in order to calm down and regain perspective, when your power is much lower than the other party's, when the other's position is impossible to change for all practical purposes.
Furthermore in communication, Individuals in an interpersonal relationship must share common goals and objectives. They should have more or less similar interests and think on the same lines. It is always better if individuals come from similar backgrounds. Individuals in an interpersonal relationship must respect each other's views and opinions. A sense of trust is important .Individuals must be attached to each other for a healthy interpersonal relationship. Transparency plays a pivotal role in interpersonal relationship. It is important for an individual to be honest and transparent. An interpersonal relationship can develop between any of the following; Individuals working together in the same organization, People working in the same team, Relationship between a man and a woman (Love, Marriage), Relationship with immediate family members and relatives, Relationship of a child with his parents, Relationship between friends, Relationship can also develop in a group. (Relationship of students with their teacher, relationship of a religious guru with his disciples and so on)
There are many types of communication. Numerous new instruments have emerged over the Oral Communication is one of the type of communication. Oral communication could be said to be the most used form of communication. Whether it is to present some important data to your colleagues or lead a boardroom meeting, these skills are vital. We are constantly using words verbally to inform our subordinates of a decision, provide information, and so on. This is done either by phone or face-to-face. The person on the receiving end would also need to exercise much caution to ensure that he/she clearly understands what is being said. This shows therefore, that you would need to cultivate both your listening and speaking skills, as you would have to carry out both roles in the workplace, with different people. Written Communication is also a type of communication. Writing is used when you have to provide detailed information such as figures and facts, even while giving a presentation. It is also generally used to send documents and other important material to stakeholders, which could then be stored for later use as it can be referred to easily as it is recorded. Other important documents such as contracts, memos, and minutes of meetings are also in written form for this purpose. It can be seen in recent years however, that verbal communication has been replaced to a great extent by a faster form of written communication, and that is email. You could also use videoconferencing and multiple way phone calls with several individuals simultaneously. Apart from a few glitches that could occur, these methods of communication have helped organizations come a long way. Body Language is also one type of communication. Although the most common methods of communication are carried out orally or in writing, when it comes to management techniques, the power of non-verbal communication must never be underestimated. Your smile, your gestures and several other body movements send out a message to the people around you. You need to be mindful of this while dealing with your employees and customers. Always remember to maintain eye contact. This would show that you are serious and confident about what is being said.
Why Do We Need Different Communication Methods?
You may ask why it is important that we use different methods of communication in one organization. The answer is very simple. The reason for this is the pivotal role that communication plays in the effective functioning of a business. Imagine an organization today without email facilities. How would a customer then be able to send an important proposal quickly and directly to the employer in-charge? Similarly, an organization may have to stall their work if certain managers are not in the country and are thereby unable to give a presentation to the board. But of course this can be done today with the help of video conferencing. Therefore, it is crucial that different methods of communication are employed.
Choosing the Right Method:
It is important that the most cost-effective methods of communication are chosen for any organization. Simply choosing a method of communication due to it being a famous instrument is not going to help. You would need to understand the needs of your organization in particular. There are certain questions that you would need to ask: What is our target audience?, How much are we willing to spend on such an instrument?, Will it increase employee productivity in the long run?, What kind of information do we send out most often?. You may have more questions to ask based on the type of work you carry out and the message that you need to send across. Remember that there is no 'right' method of communication. You would need different methods for different purposes and tasks.
We define conflict asÂ a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. Within this simple definition there are several important understandings that emerge: DisagreementÂ - Generally, we are aware there is some level of difference in the positions of the two (or more) parties involved in the conflict. But the true disagreement versus the perceived disagreement may be quite different from one another. In fact, conflict tends to be accompanied by significant levels of misunderstanding that exaggerate the perceived disagreement considerably. If we can understand the true areas of disagreement, this will help us solve the right problems and manage the true needs of the parties. Parties involvedÂ - There are often disparities in our sense of who is involved in the conflict. Sometimes, people are surprised to learn they are a party to the conflict, while other times we are shocked to learn we are not included in the disagreement. On many occasions, people who are seen as part of the social system (e.g., work team, family, company) are influenced to participate in the dispute, whether they would personally define the situation in that way or not. In the above example, people very readily "take sides" based upon current perceptions of the issues, past issues and relationships, roles within the organization, and other factors. The parties involved can become an elusive concept to define. Perceived threatÂ - People respond to the perceived threat, rather than the true threat, facing them. Thus, while perception doesn't become reality per se, people's behaviors, feelings and ongoing responses become modified by that evolving sense of the threat they confront. If we can work to understand the true threat (issues) and develop strategies (solutions) that manage it (agreement), we are acting constructively to manage the conflict. Needs, interests or concernsÂ - There is a tendency to narrowly define "the problem" as one of substance, task, and near-term viability. However, workplace conflicts tend to be far more complex than that, for they involve ongoing relationships with complex, emotional components. Simply stated, there are always procedural needs and psychological needs to be addressed within the conflict, in addition to the substantive needs that are generally presented. And the durability of the interests and concerns of the parties transcends the immediate presenting situation. Any efforts to resolve conflicts effectively must take these points into account. So, is it still a simple definition of conflict? We think so, but we must respect that within its elegant simplicity lies a complex set of issues to address. Therefore, it is not surprising that satisfactory resolution of most conflicts can prove so challenging and time consuming to address. Conflicts occur when people (or other parties) perceive that, as a consequence of a disagreement, there isÂ a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. Although conflict is a normal part of organization life, providing numerous opportunities for growth through improved understanding and insight, there is a tendency to view conflict as a negative experience caused by abnormally difficult circumstances. Disputants tend to perceive limited options and finite resources available in seeking solutions, rather than multiple possibilities that may exist 'outside the box' in which we are problem-solving. A few points are worth reiterating before proceeding: A conflict is more than a mere disagreement - it is a situation in which peopleÂ perceive a threat(physical, emotional, power, status, etc.) to their well-being. As such, it is a meaningful experience in people's lives, not to be shrugged off by a mere, "it will passâ€¦"Â Participants in conflicts tend toÂ respond on the basis of their perceptions of the situation, rather than an objective review of it. As such, people filter their perceptions (and reactions) through their values, culture, beliefs, information, experience, gender, and other variables. Conflict responses are both filled with ideas and feelings that can be very strong and powerful guides to our sense of possible solutions.
As in any problem,Â conflicts contain substantive, procedural, and psychological dimensionsÂ to be negotiated. In order to best understand the threat perceived by those engaged in a conflict, we need to consider all of these dimensions. Conflicts are normal experiences within the work environment. They are also, to a large degree, predictable and expectable situations that naturally ariseÂ as we go about managing complex and stressful projects in which we are significantly invested. As such, if we develop procedures for identifying conflicts likely to arise, as well as systems through which we can constructively manage conflicts, we may be able to discover new opportunities to transform conflict into a productive learning experience. Creative problem-solving strategies are essentialÂ to positive approaches to conflict management. We need to transform the situation from one in which it is 'my way or the highway' into one in which we entertain new possibilities that have been otherwise elusively. Consider your own work environment for a moment: What are some key sources of conflict in our workplace?, When do they tend to occur?, How do people respond to these conflicts as they arise?, When we solve problems, do we do so for the moment, or do we put in place systems for addressing these types of concerns in the future. In reflecting upon your answers to these questions, you may begin to understand what we mean by anticipating conflicts likely to arise in the workplace: Normal, healthy organizations will experience their share of conflict, and workplaces experiencing a certain amount of dysfunction will experience it in greater quantities. Anticipating conflicts is useful in either situation for transforming these situations into opportunities for growth and learning. Considerâ€¦Are there seasonal peaks in our workload that tend to occur annually? Chart the occurrence of such challenges, and consider whether they can be managed as a normal period of stress and transition. For example, a school had a large population of students who arrived after long bus rides without breakfast, who tended to arrive at school ready to fight. The school identified 10 minutes at the start of the day to give these students a healthy snack, and worked with teachers to pull out students who weren't yet ready for school before they became disruptive. After food and a little counselling, students entered their classrooms in a better frame of mind (and body) to participate. Do we have channels for expressing normal problems and concerns in a predictable, reliable manner? Staff meeting should be used as a tool for effective problem-solving in a range of situations, including anticipated conflicts. If such channels are perceived by staff as closed, unsafe, and non-productive, they will be replaced by gossip, 'end runs' and back-biting.Â
Are there certain factors in the environment that make problems worse, especially at times of conflict? Take stock of your processes for managing during stressful times. Look at how phones are routed, noise is managed, client lines are queued, distractions are managed, etc. Often, our response during times of stress is to meet less frequently, because 'we have no time to meet.' And we continue to do things the way we've been doing them, because 'we have no time to create new procedures.' This approach dooms us to repeat the same errors, rather than to learn from the opportunities. Examine your systems for managing problems, including dispute resolution systems, and use times of "harmony" to identify process improvements that can be implemented in times of stress.
Oral communicationÂ it is spoken communication. Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.
Advantages of Oral Communication there is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal, there is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken; the feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay, oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts. oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over, oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy, oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees, oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.
Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal and very organized, oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as organized as written communication, oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times, oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady, there may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials, it requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience, oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in investigation work.
Verbal communicationÂ includes rate, volume, pitch as well as articulation and pronunciation. Verbal communication also includes sign language and written forms of communication.
Non verbalÂ communicationÂ includes those important but unspoken signals that individuals exhibit, specifically: carriage/posture, appearance, listening, eye contact, hand gestures and facial expressions.
A very good example is: A man comes home late, hears from the kitchen the slamming of pots and pans and cupboard doors. He enters the kitchen, asks his wife "What's wrong, honey?" She answers, "Nothing!" as she slams another cupboard door and rolls her eyes toward the ceiling.
She has spoken the word "Nothing", but it is her unspoken communication that tells him that "nothing" is not the real answer. It is clearly communicated by her actions.
For me oral communication is the best way of communication. We can express or say what is on our mind. It is the easiest way to used in giving information in a detailed form. A truly effective communicator will train him or herself in nonverbal communication as well as verbal and oral.
Communicating skills are the skills necessary to use language to interact with others such as reading, writing, listening and speaking therefore these skills alter individual to share knowledge, ideas and feelings and to carry-over meaning among them.
Communication has many definitions. From the very simple definitions which restrain communication to the 'transmission of information' to wider thoughts about the distributing and negotiation of meaning the scope of communication. The effect of communication and interpersonal relationship is to work with harmonious relationship with the manager and the employees and to avoid conflicts.
In addition to that, the circumstances of relationships with other people in intra-communication (communicating with oneself), communicating takes place. This is where interpersonal ability gets into the picture.
Daniel Goleman uses the term 'social intelligence' to refer to our ability to 'act wisely in human relationships.' (Social Intelligence,2006). He divides social intelligence into two capabilities:
ï‚· Social awareness - denote to ability in empathy, interpreting another's ideas, feelings and intentions, and acknowledging how the social world how it works.
ï‚· Social facility - pertains to moving smoothly at the nonverbal level, self-presentation, issues and interests.
Be precise about what your represents are showing when creating to selection criteria.
Some form of written communication skills include:
ï‚· Ability to write a media release that generates message
ï‚· Ability to write a composition or concise according to the imposed structure and word length
Some form of oral communications skills include:
ï‚· Ability to response public queries by telephone
ï‚· Ability to run and take part in meetings
ï‚· Ability to make proposition.
When you consider situations where there are interpersonal skills enter the picture with:
ï‚· Different priorities and expectations that produce conflict, misunderstandings, disagreements
ï‚· Disobliging behaviours such as keep knowledge, not meeting engagements, power games
Organization found some common communication barriers
1. Perceptual Barriers:Â The most popular problem encountered is that of the different opinion between two people. Every individual give incline to a need for useful communication of the varied knowledge. Example if you're working with different individual character we have to acknowledge them and try to perceive what they are trying to express.
2. Emotional Barriers: the fear and doubt where our emotional barriers form which hold us from communicating with our co-workers is the second important barrier. We have different reaction in every situation that we encounter. To resolve this barrier we have to understand each other feelings and emotions.
3. Language Barriers:Â Language that distinguish what we would want to mean and communicate to others, May at times, work as a barrier to them. The greatest compliment we can offer to another person is by talking and effectively communicating to them in their foreign or domestic language in today's global assumption. We need to realise that the native language of employees can be different and distinct from anyone else's. In our work place we have different language and different style in pronouncing terms as a member in our team we have to understand or give them ample time to comprehend on what are u talking about for us to work in an harmonious relationship.
4. Cultural Barriers:Â The world is combined of various cultures. A cultural barrier originate when 2 persons in an organization dwell to different faith, states or countries. If someone in our workplace has different beliefs we have to respect them.
5. Physical Barriers:Â one of the important factors in building powerful and structured teams is closeness, researches imply. This kind of barrier forbids team members from good interaction with each another. Example a person cannot get the care they need because of physical problem like speaking difficulty from a stroke client they cannot tell properly to the nurse what they want or need, to resolve this problem the nurse should know all the clients need or demand before they ask.
Assessing my knowledge, skills, personal attributes and behaviour and their effect on my managerial ability will be explained with a personal SWOT analysis (Strength, Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats). This is meaningful tool for all kind of circumstances in organizations for understanding and decision-making. The Strength and weaknesses is the interior surrounding, the circumstances within and individual or the organizations. Elements relating to the skills, performance, services, reputation are the strength and weaknesses. While the factors relating to environment, competitions, society, trends are the Opportunities and Threats. These are the exterior environment, the circumstances outer organization. In my organization the strength that I have, I can easily adopt to the assigned task and flexible to work with my colleagues. I can work under pressure and motivate my subordinate to move fast or quick. I am also a good team player and effective communicator which a very important tool in my kind of job. The opportunities I have in my place of work are the training that I have attended, available to me and the knowledge I gained during my studies. The newly innovated facilities and technology development are the opportunities that my organization has. The weaknesses are the gaps capabilities and distraction. My weakness is that I can't manage to work effectively under pressure especially when I have personal issue like family problem is which affect the way I carry out my job and also my co-employees that are uncooperative. Threats are environmental effects like extreme cold weather that affects my clients and the defective equipment that being used by my co workers and not being reported to me. Since I know all my strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats I will apply them all at work for me to become a good manager and to inspire my colleagues to work with good relationship and peaceful working environment.
Based on this assessment, my priorities for further development is update training and development to improve the way I carry out my job and be more professional. I will always liase with my manager or supervisor on how I can develop my knowledge, skills, personal attributes and behaviour to improve my managerial ability.
Regular feedback from my manager, colleagues, service users, key people and others will help me to identify where I need to improve or develop to make my work better. Also self evaluation and performance appraisal will help to improve my managerial ability. Research on the internet, reading books, listening to news, attending workshops or seminars and be a very good observer will make me an efficient and effective manager who will bring about an improvement to my organisation.
In conclusion, it is important to always remember the importance of communication in organization .The methods of communication you choose could in a sense make or break the management structure of your organization and could also affect your relationship with customers, if not chosen carefully. It is vital therefore that you spend some time choosing the right methods to aid you in your management tasks.