Communication involves in verbal communication and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication includes oral communication and written communication. Nonverbal communication includes voice and body movements. Combination between verbal communication and nonverbal communication can promote validity of communication. Better communication can reduce misconceptions and increases understanding and improve capacity to think deeply. Effective communication is a two-way process, which depends on catching listeners' attention and explaining the information. In communication process, 7% of information comes from words, 38% of information is from voice, and 55% of information comes from body language. Therefore, people must pay attention to what they do. Purposes of essay are to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different communication strategies and discuss the role of communication channel.
Compare and contrast the effectiveness of communication strategies
Nonverbal communication is called as body language, which is another communication method differed from verbal communication. The communication approach must depend on emotional expression, behaviors and postures, such as eye contact and information sent by gesture. Because of body language, the whole communication process is seemed to be specific and adequate(Argyle,2002). In addition, communication of body language can send more information. For example, if people lean forward and can't help nodding, the people will be very interested with the things or agree with opinions of others. Another example, if people saw the air unexpectedly, it is possible that the people do not satisfied with some ideas. Even in process of verbal communication, body language also can send message. Such as, if people breathe press out and speak much faster than usual, it shows that the people is excited or is puzzled by some questions. Besides, if people talk with faraway eyes and he dare not look into each other's face, the person is not self-confident.
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Nonverbal communication can substitute for verbal language and play a role of information carrier in some situation. it also can strengthen results of information sending. In addition, nonverbal communication is unconscious behaviors, which can show the real information and embody inner feelings of people. Compared with verbal language, nonverbal communication is visualized. It can judge real thinking and mental activity of people through observation his body language. The same nonverbal communication can not be used in all of the objects(Hinde,1972). During use, people must fully consider communication habit of the other side. Some one like body contact, some people like to eye contact and some people like oral communication. Meanings of some nonverbal communication are not clear. In general, its meaning can be judged by others.
Verbal communication is to send information on basis of language. Verbal communication has several methods, such as talks, telephone, meeting, broadcast and conversation. With development of science and technology, two people who are apart from mutually far away can talk with each other through telephone and network(Ng & Bradac,1993). Firstly, because voice, tone and speech habits are different, people must express thoughts through gesture, posture and expression; secondly, verbal communication is interactive and people can respond to after listening; thirdly, any party of communication can offer suggestions; the fourth is that time-lag of verbal communication is short; the fifth is that cost of verbal communication is lower. Nonverbal communication must meet with each other for sending information and written communication must be sent by email or others. Verbal communication can send information on any condition (Forgas, 1999). Verbal communication must clearly express people's thoughts which the words should be concise and materials should be clear. In expression respect, the whole communication must be logical and sentences can show different aspects of things. In addition, the communication should be concise and alive. On processing of data respect, people develop a habit to collect and sort out information for grasping exact information. Communicator must choose accurate vocabulary and manner of speaking for expressing information and opinions exactly.
What's more, nonverbal language and verbal language are used on the basis of different culture. The same expression and behaviour in different area express different meaning. For example, erecting your thumb in US means "excellent" "good job", but in Nigeria, this motion is rude. However, in Japan and Germany, It reflects the meaning of "Number One". However, in Spain and Iran, the same thumbs-up gesture is an insult. Holding hands express that I am obstinate and you do not have to convince me. However, in another culture, holding hands express I follow you. Furthermore, because there are many languages in the world, people should understand one foreign language for communication with customer well. In communication process, he also can use gesture language and verbal language together.
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In conclusion, compared with verbal communication, nonverbal language plays more important role. People in different countries can use nonverbal communication to communicate each other. Even they don't speak the same language. Besides, verbal communication also is important. Verbal communication is lower cost which people can share information in any condition.
The role of communication channel
Formal communication refers to information transfer and communication within organization on basis of a definite principle. For example, business correspondence in organizations, file delivery in organization, holding meeting, Information exchange between managers and employees. Advantages of formal communication are better results and easy to keep secret. The important information, file delivery and organizational decisions use the formal communication. However, formal communication is slowly, depending on transmitting. Formal communication channels include downward communication, upward communication, lateral communication and outside communication and so on.
Downward communication is the most important way in organization. The information of policies and plans is transferred by orders. If organization has several levels, the information must be transferred level to level, which lead to information missing.
Upward communication refers to transfer information on basis of written report or oral report of managers' reports. Besides, some organizations carry out some measures to encourage upward communication, such as suggestion box, symposium or attitude survey. Some managers are pleased to use "open door policy", which employees can reply to superiors. However, according to survey, the communication is not effective. Because of stake of person, communication information is often incompatible with demands of facts.
Lateral communication refers to communication in different levels and different department. Within formal communication systems, lateral communication is rare. It will spend on more labor power and physical power, using holding meeting, which communication effects are not ideal. Therefore, organization must depend on informal communication to supply its deficiency.
Moreover, informal communication channel refers to others information communication and information transferring except formal communication channel, which is not monitored by organization. Friends' party, spreading rumors and grapevine belong to informal communication channels. Formal communication is complemented by the informal communication. In many organizations, information in decision is transferred by informal communication channel. Compared with formal communication, informal communication are more flexible to adapt changes of background and minimize complexity. In addition, informal communication also can offer information which is difficult to obtain on basis of formal communication channel and it can reflect employees' ideas, attitudes and motives truly.
Informal communication channels are different from formal communication channels about objectives, times and contents, which are difficult to plan. Informal organization is formed on basis of employees' emotion demands. Informal communication is transferred by all kind of social relations. To some degrees, development of informal information adapt to demands of decisions, which are more flexible than formal information channels, such as horizontal flow and Diagonal flow and so on. In many situations, receivers value on information from informal channels. Because informal information is transferred in words, so some information, which is transferred by formal information can be transferred by informal channels. However, it is very dangerous to rely on informal communication channels excessively as the information is easy to be misinterpreted, especially, some issues related with employees, such as promotion, wages and reorganization. Organization is puzzled by these rumors. However, information has informal communication channels. To the communication channel, managers should not utterly depend on obtaining information and completely neglect it, but fix attention to factors which lead to wrong information.
In addition, informal communication has a prediction in advance model. Psychology researches that contents and forms of informal communication can be forecasted. It has several characteristics as follows: firstly, people are pleased to discuss the fresh news; secondly, people prefer to discuss employees influenced work; thirdly, people prefer to discuss employees impacted on work and so on. Managers should value these principles in informal communication channels for decreasing negative effects of rumors. Besides, a high degree of informal communication channels is a new concept in modern management theory, which refers to keep frequent information communication on basis of different methods. Therefore, an open information communication system forms in organization. The practice proves that a high degree of informal information channel can save times and avoid constrained feeling which can resolve difficulties for long term and decrease conflicts.
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In a word, effective communication must depend on different communication strategies and communication channels. Different communication strategies and communication channels have their advantages and disadvantages. Only managers use them flexible, communication can be transferred well.