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Communication must be as effective as possible as it is the key element of survival for an organization. Communication is a learned habit and can benefit all individuals internally and externally when dealing with others.
Contexts in Organizations
There are three areas of Context in Organizations and they are:
Dyadic Context - This is generally a conversation between two people. It could be a manager instructing a subordinate, or a middle manager reporting to a senior manager.
Small Groups - This is when a small group of people come together and share information. They could for example discuss new sales targets; incentives for an individual department or how to project manage an expansion.
Large Groups - This is when the whole company gets together for a function or general meeting.
The Eternal Environment
An organizations functions within the external environment which consists of customers, suppliers, the general public, government departments and the country as a whole. Companies make decisions regarding advertising based on their ongoing studies of the external environment. This form of communication can be written or as a meeting around a table. The old style of management communication of 'I'm the boss - you do as I say' is no longer acceptable and managers are now being encouraged to have a two-way communication or negotiating meetings.
Tabulate the difference between one-way and two-way communication (5)
Boss to employee
Boss and employees
Manager: Rob, I am sending you a report and I want feedback by tomorrow morning or else there will be trouble
Manager puts down telephone without waiting for employee response.
Manager: Rob, I'd like to send you a report to look over and give me feedback on. Are you very busy at the moment?
Employee: Ok Sean. When do you need it by as I'm busy with two other reports
Manager: When will you be finished with those Rob?
Employee: I recon on Thursday Sean - is that ok?
Manager: That's fine; Rob, can you do this by Monday for me?
Employee: Yes, I will get back to you by Monday with the report and we can discuss the results then.
Manager: thanks Rob. Chat to you on Monday - Bye.
In this instance the employee does not have a chance to respond
Here the employee has a chance to let the manager know he has other tasks and negotiates some
more time to finish his current tasks.
QUESTION 3 (30)
You have recently been appointed as a Human Resource Manager.
Prepare a talk to present to the department in which you explain 'Levels of communication in organisations'.
Good Morning Colleagues,
My Name is Tracy and I have recently been appointed as the HR manager for the group.
In my first few weeks here, I have discovered that the major hurdle that is preventing the various departments from working effectively and efficiently together is poor or non-existent communication. Having approached exco to discuss my observations, I recommended that I facilitate a lecture type meeting with all staff to discuss the various levels of communication within our business and to provide some solutions as to how best you can use this information this morning to increase your own business effectiveness and the overall performance of the business - which as you know has been in decline over the last 6 quarters.
As you know, the CEO recognised that the business management model was too tall, there were too many levels of authority to go through to not only get decisions made, but to communicate effectively from the bottom of the business to the top of the business and from the top of the business to the bottom of the business. Not only was this creating frustrations among the various departments, but was hampering growth and the ability to respond effectively to problems identified within the business. In response to this, you will note that the management structure has been changed to a one level flat structure to enhance organizational communication flow and allow rapid change to market changes and needs within the business. Mangers who have created bottle necks with communication and decision making are currently under training on the very thing I am talking to you about today - Levels of communication within the business. It is important that each of the managers and staff look at their own departments and ensure that they have not created barriers for departmental communication flow to take place.
One of the best tools we have to open the conversation around internal improvements to our business will be driven through small group communication. I have tasked each manager to get their staff together in the Monday morning green meetings - which I rolled out last week, and look critically at the department and see how you can improve communication flow within the department. Use the opportunity within the departments for smaller groups of associated skills - such as the debtors clerks - to look at ways of communicating better with each other to enhance interpersonal communication. In this modern day and age, we are so locked into e-mail and face book or text message communication that we have forgotten to speak to each other interpersonally. It is here that the cohesive team happens when staff members not only talk to each other but listen to each other. It is one thing to transfer information and talk at each other but its an entirely different thing to communicate with each other with understanding, empathy and sensitivity. A lot of the strife I deal with as the HR manager stems simply from misunderstanding amongst staff members and unclear communication.
One of the most important elements of communication I want to highlight today is the Intrapersonal communication taking place within the organization. This is simply the communication and messages you have with yourself in your own Head Space. It is one of the killers of good culture within a business. Jumping to conclusions inside your head can lead to a lot of assumptions which are generally expressed in negative thought and behaviour. Take for example a staff member who greets you every day but walks past you on this particular morning, does not greet you nor speaks to you throughout the day and the rest of the week. Your mind jumps to the conclusion that this person is cross with you or ignoring you because of something- you are not sure of the something - but its because of something. This leads to aggravation and false conclusions in your head which you do not discuss interpersonally with the person and a rift settles between you and that person. If however you practice open communication fostering through continuous inter personal communication, you would have found out that that staff members mom had a heart attack the night before, does not have a medical aid and is intensive care and may die. It is vital that you encourage strong intrapersonal communication in your head to ensure you stay positive and confident. Poor self speak leads to insecurity, low self confidence and low self image. This has a direct effect on office well being and communication efficiency
You will notice in the company Mass Communications in newspapers, magazines and on TV that we are highlighting the strength of our brand because we talk to our customers and provide them with the products and services they want. This is a specific strategy by the company to highlight what we have always done best as a company despite our internal communication hiccups. In the same way, the CEO is conducting public communication sessions with the other divisions of the business and the shareholders to inform them of the planned changes in the wake of the corporate management re-structure and how they plan to move this wonderful company from its current position to top of mind in the market. This organizational communication session is to improve our internal communication and will be followed up be departmental training and workshops which I will conduct over the next 2 quarters.
I trust that this brief talk has highlighted the fact that corporate communications are complex and take place on many different levels. I have spoken about :
Small Group Communication
Remember it is one thing to talk at people but its an entirely different thing to communicate with a personâ€¦ lets communicate.
Thank you and have a great day.
QUESTION 4 (15)
There is a vast difference between hearing and active listening. Unfortunately barriers occur to effective listening.
List (15) of these barriers.
The speaker's and listeners' roles in the organisation
The perceived credibility of the speaker or listener
Insensitive use of language
Effects on non-verbal behaviour
The place where listening occurs
The emotions of the speaker and listener
The type of technical language used
Jumping to conclusions
Allowing one's mind to wander
Ignoring emotions and attitudes of the speaker
Lack of co-operation
(The above was taken from SBS Business Communication 1 and Effective Communication in Organisations)
QUESTION 5 (20)
During the communication process, it is vitally important that one should choose an effective vocabulary.
One of the most overlooked aspects of communication centres around the accessibility of the message by the audience. It is very important that you choose a vocabulary to suit your audience and enable people the ability to access the ideas and information in the message and understand it as well.
All messages are shaped to facilitate a number of functions:
To convey facts
To convey opinions
To persuade the audience
Or as a means of communication in social settings.
The type of message has within it a specific set of criteria unique to that talk. No matter what the setting, or the type of communication, the following guidelines will assist in making the topic accessible to the audience.
Make sure that when delivering a message either orally or in written form that you present a clear thought or thrust in the communication. When delivering a factual report, do not confuse emotional persuasion or opinion with factual delivery. The choice of delivery language is essential for credibility and understanding. The difference is always defined by the receiver in the process. This could shape your communication to be formal, informal, consultative, casual or intimate in style. In each case the language and phrasing will take on a different structure and form for purpose.
Explain the following concepts:
How words perform a range of functions in messages - Jargon and technical speak can be very disorientating for the audience if used in the wrong type of communication and to the wrong audience. High `formal or frozen language is also often impersonal and is accompanied by long sentences, complex thoughts and more often than not, does not connect the audience with the topic. Even in an academic setting, this can be overdone and overused to make the speaker seem smart. The grammar, styling and construction of the communication must be carefully weighed. Choose familiar words that make the message easy to understand. At times the use if an intellectual word over a common word can make the message unclear. Caricaturish behaviour is harder to understand that "he behaved like a clown". Ensure that sentences are complete, tenses are consistent and that ideas don't tend to ramble on unceasingly. The audience, in both print and spoken occasions will either become lost, disorientated, confused or disinterested in the process. Avoid slang wherever possible and do not succumb to shortened versions of words such as isn't instead of is not.
Referential style - Referential style words are based on facts and proven truths. A person enquiring should be able to reference and check up on the facts stipulated. An academic or information heavy communication may be loaded with facts and references that can be verified through research and this is called a referential style communication
Emotive Style - Words are based on a personal opinion. An emotive style communication deals less with facts and more with hearts and inspiration.
How to choose a professional vocabulary - There are a range of choices and you need to select one that best suits your company. Where possible, tailor the message to the audience both for written and spoken forms and always try and keep the message simple without compromising on the quality.
QUESTION 6 (15)
Give a clear account of the concept - REPORTS
Reports are vital to any business. They are a result of an instruction that has been given out to investigate and feedback on any problem that may be found. Reports are also to be written out in a formal, impersonal and objective style with wording that is clear and that can be understood by all.
The major purposes of reports are to:
Inform - i.e. the stakeholders of where we are in terms of meeting expected budgets
Record facts - i.e. A history of the past 5 years sales to measure against and determine if there has been growth
Persuade others - i.e. to spend a little more money to secure a stand in an area at the exhibition show to ensure we attract more passing feet.
Help in decision making - i.e. to hire another employee for the maintenance team to ensure there are enough hands to increase turnaround time of servicing our items. The customer will be happier to get production going again sooner and not lose too much downtime and in turn the customer will continue to use our company.
Recommend action - i.e. received a letter of complaint involving one of our driver's reckless driving. Report on the action that was taken against the employee.
Reports are written for many different people and the writer should take into account the different cultural audiences. There are three major types of reports:
Informative - Our geyser burst and caused damage to our filing room. The report should be written to give all the facts of the situation and how these facts were obtained.
Investigative - the writer was given instruction to investigate and give a written report on why the geyser burst. Was it worn out or a blocked valve?
Feasibility - are related to investigation reports. This report should state the feasibility of salvaging any of the archived files that were in the store room. Does the store room need to be retiled, repainted, etc. What the cost would be to do this.
There are two formats of reporting which are the preliminary pages of the report and the body of the report.
The preliminary pages of the report are numbered with Roman numerals and include the following:
Title Page - the name of the subject
Acknowledgements - who was involved in helping draw up the report
Terms of reference - where you obtained your information
Summary - an overview of the full report
Table of contents a list of what you can expect to find in the report
List of illustrations - a picture, drawing or diagram that accompanies a text
Glossary - give meaning to difficult words
Definitions of symbols and acronyms - explains what various symbols and acronyms mean.
The Body of the report includes:
Introduction - this gives the reader a brief explanation of the background of the investigation. It establishes what the writer hopes to achieve with the report and tells the reader the scope and limitations of the study.
Procedure used to gather information - this will tell the reader where the information was gathered from
Conclusions - This is the opinion formed on the findings
Recommendations - Recommends the next action to taken based on the conclusions
Findings - The facts of the investigation
List of references - A list of people that had input into the investigation
Bibliography - listed in alphabetical order of surname
Appendices - detailed material attached to the back of the report as they are too big to include in the report.