Analytical Essay On The History Graphic Design English Language Essay

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'Creativity is essentially a lonely art. An even lonelier struggle. To some a blessing. To others a curse. It is in reality the ability to reach inside yourself and drag forth from your very soul an idea' {Lou Dorfsman, American graphic designer}. This quote is the main entrance for graphic design. It can identify and explain what graphic design is, and how to be a successful graphic designer. In another way, the following paragraphs will clarify, in details, the methods as well as the whole process that lead to graphic design.

To know the history of graphic design is the first step that you must take to be a graphic designer. Graphic design began from the first sign had been drawn on leather, bone, ivory or a piece of wood. Our ancestors started the very first sketches for expressing themselves using sign language. From the darkest caves, they lightened our way for designing logos, signs and visual communications.

"The very first written word of humankind was the beginning of Graphic Design; In addition, its native land was none other than ancient caves and caverns. The very first symbol they had sketched through cave drawings, paintings, and markings on boulders, bone, and ivory are the foremost indication and evidence where graphic design was born, nursed, nourished and grown". {Brief history of graphic design, buzzle.com}.

Through carving stones or woods, they had been able to tell us their lives and stories. Statues were made to symbolize the human being, kings, queens and famous people. Without these signs, statues and all the visual graphics we would not be able to recognize "Akhenaton, Nefertiti, Alexander the great...Etc". It is necessary to know the techniques that had been use in famous paintings. Memorizing the painting and its artist helps you expand and enrich your visual memory, and the more you look and see, the more you benefit from those artists. So many artists that help you enrich your imagination such as {Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt, William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds and Claude Monet. In addition, of the variety of art movements those include many artists and painters, for example: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, American Realism, Fauvism, Cubism and Surrealism. Through these movements, you will be introduced to many different kinds of paintings, drawings, sculptures, graphics and statues. You will have a reliable start, if you enlarge your mind and your visual communication by learning this useful history.

The second step is to have an extended introduction to graphic design. It is important to know the color wheel and to be able to draw it as well as the grayscale rows; you can make it with guash or pencil. You will know how to create, mix and deal with colors. There is also a color language, for example: you cannot say red or blue unless you mean RGB {red, green, blue}, because in color language magenta=red, cyan=blue. It will be understandable for your colleagues to say CMYK or RGB, so C=cyan, M=magenta, Y=yellow, K=black, R=red, G=green and B=blue.

In addition, there are Psychological Implications of Color that tell you about the emotional responses of people to color, for example: "Red is associated with blood, and with feelings that are energetic, exciting, passionate or erotic. Most colors carry both positive and negative implications. The downside of red evokes aggressive feelings, suggesting anger or violence. Orange is the color of flesh, or the friendly warmth of the hearth fire. The positive implications of this color suggest approachability, informality. The negative side might imply accessibility to the point of suggesting that anyone can approach-- a lack of discrimination or quality". {Color, value and hue. Cornel.edu}.

The modern design requires modern computer programs, which Adobe company provided these programs such as Photoshop, Illustrator. The latest version was CS4, and every new version has its own new features and tools. Photoshop is an image-editing program. It has many tools to help you enhance any picture through retouching the damages and the Defects of it. You will have the ability to edit images using many tools like healing, patter and magic wound tool. "Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader as the commercial bitmap and image manipulation software, and is flagship product of Adobe Systems. It has been described as "an industry standard for graphics professionals". {Adobe Photoshop, Wikipedia.org}. You will learn one primitive way of designing a website and making buttons with the slicing tool.

Photoshop allows you to redraw pictures using the path tool with its extra tool. After you finish your work, you can save your work in various extinctions such as jpg, PDF, tiff or ail.

Illustrator is one of the most important programs in graphic design." Adobe Illustrator is the companion product of Adobe Photoshop. Photoshop is primarily geared toward digital photo manipulation and photorealistic styles of computer illustration, while Illustrator provides results in the typesetting and logo graphic areas of design. Early magazine ads (featured in graphic design trade magazines such as Communication Arts) referred to the product as "the Adobe Illustrator". Illustrator 88 was released in 1988 and introduced many new tools and features". {Adobe illustrator, Wikipedia.org}. You can make posters from scratch and design visit cards, brochures, book covers and an entire packaging for any product you want. It is not so hard to learn it, especially if you know how to use Photoshop, because some Illustrator tools are similar to those in Photoshop, for example: lasso, path, rectangular and shape tools. The rest of the tools are only in Illustrator like the slicing and gradient tools…etc.

Although a graphic designer is not an artist, but he/she must have at least two to three free hand courses. It is important to learn the drawing basics. You will draw portraits, statues and landscapes using different kinds of pencils like HB, 2B, H or F. You will learn a strange way to see the lights and the shades areas while you are drawing by closing half of your eyes. Be responsible for every line you draw, because it is not allowed to use the eraser so much, but you are allowed to erase by different kind of eraser called putty eraser. It helps you get the best shadows ever. "The first step in learning how to draw people is to break the human figure down to its most simple element - the skeleton. There are a whole lot of bones in the human body but fortunately, with a good understanding of the skull you can use that as a measurement tool for defining most other bones of the body. An example of this is that your average male figure is 6-8 heads tall". {drawingcoach.com}.

Having one course of introduction to interior design is useful and important. You must have a clue of redecorating student's studio, villa, a house or a parking. You must be able to make building's projection and front. You will have T ruler, pencils with different sizes like 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and black fountain pens. First, you draw the projection with pencil, but make sure you draw it correctly, because you cannot erase or correct any line after you redraw it using the black pen.

A graphic designer cannot do or make anything without learning photography. You will find so much pleasure in Photography courses. The first and the second course unlike the last one, because at the third one you can edit pictures and retouch the damaged one using Photoshop. It is really another world "the camera world". There are different type of lenses such as wide, telephoto and standard. The wide lens range below 50mm, the standard is 50mm and telephoto range is above 50mm for example: 100, 150, 200mm.If you are a professional photographer, it is not allowed to use flash in your photos. You must depend on the various lights around you or settle your favorite lights. You will learn how to use aperture priority and shutter. The aperture is the lens surface and the number that appears beside it is the lens surface fraction. "Before light reaches film, it must pass through an opening called an Aperture. The aperture is like a pupil. You can control the aperture by setting the Aperture Opening, also known as an F-Stop". {photonhead.com}. The shutter is like a curtain, which you can control the seconds of opening and closing, for example: if you are facing a lack of lighting or a night vision, you can raise the number of seconds. Therefore, every time you raise the number of the seconds, the digital sensor collects extra information and save it as a picture. "The shutter blocks all light from exposing the film UNTIL you press the button. Then it quickly opens and closes, giving the film a brief flash of light. You can control the length of time the shutter remains open by setting the shutter speed" {photonhead.com}. If you are using flash, which is not professional, you will face something called red eye reduction. In addition, you will face many things like under and over exposure pictures. Those problems will be easy for you to solve at the end of the first course. "Since f-stop and shutter are both measured in stops, keeping balance is easy. If you take away 2 stops from the aperture, you can give 2 stops back with the shutter and end up with the same exposure level". {photonhead.com}.

The primitive way of animate must be taken as a graphic designer. You will learn the primitive animation called 2D {two-dimension animation}. Of course, you remember Tom and Jerry. You will be able to draw characters just like Tom and Jerry, but more simple. You will have transparent drawing table and there is a white light under it for good results. First, you must make the storyboard then begin to animate your character. Every drawing paper called frame, for example: for an animated ball, you will draw at least 30-50 frames. "Each shot in a 2D animation involves multiple single drawings of characters. Although some computer programs such as 'Anime Studio' can create characters much like puppets, which can be posed at different key frames and the computer moves the character between those key frames. To demonstrate the concept, think of a still camera that can take many photographs in rapid succession. Imagine aiming that camera at a person and taking many quick photographs as the person walks towards you. Each photograph corresponds to an individual drawing in an animation". {2D animation process, wikipedia.com}.

Another way to animate, but it has different results. It is 3D "three dimension", and there are many programs you can learn 3D. XSI "soft image" is the better one, if you are a graphic design student. "For many years, Softimage has been comfortable to lead the high-end animation market with few other competitors. Among all the three dimension software offerings it was quite expensive, but yielded amazing results that were worth the high cost. Because of the high price tag, Softimage was mainly used for film work". {Review: Softimage XSI, artliberty.com}. Even though 3D animation is harder than 2D animation, but it is more interactive and makes you create ideas that are more new. The first step is modeling everything in you clip the place, characters and the shapes. The second step is to color your design, because everything will be gray as a default, and then settle your lighting. The hardest part is to animate, because you will have to animate every muscle of your characters. Finally, the render step." The Render Tree lets you have access to a full range of lighting effects including lens flares, glows, ambient occlusion and subsurface scattering. You can also add motion blur to your rendered scenes". {Review: Softimage XSI, artliberty.com}. The computer will draw the frames for the final appearance, so every frame will take at least 1-3 seconds depending on the clip properties, for example: 1000 frame, 3-5 seconds, it will take 10-12 hours to render the clip.

You will have another hand-drawing course called illustration. At this course, you will learn different technique and different type of colors such as acrylic, oil pastel, guash or watercolor. You will draw landscapes, portraits, animals, fruits or vegetables.

The most important and needed courses are graphic design 1, 2 and 3. These courses will teach you how to design and redesign. It will correct your point of view and make you differentiate between the right posters and the wrong posters. Graphic design 1 is also a hand-drawing course using only guash. You will be given famous posters to redraw, and you will be able to design posters by your hand. Graphic design 2 and 3 you will be allowed to use computer programs like Photoshop and Illustrator to design dozens of things, for example visit card, calendar, logos, packaging, tissue boxes and posters.

Another important Adobe program called Flash will be your guide to design websites and animation. "Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform originally acquired by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since its introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page Flash components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications" {Adobe Flash, Wikipedia.com}. Flash is not similar to Illustrator nor Photoshop, it is a different kind of program that based on numerous frames. Once you open a new file, as a default, it will contain one layer, you can add extra layer if you want. Every file consists of multiple frames up to 1000. In addition, you can color your design, but be very careful that you color everything before you animate it, because if you color your designs after you animate it, you will have to color every single frame by itself, and you will end up with a clip that has mixture of unwanted and unpleasant colors. Every clip has its own frame speed. The speed of the frame measured by seconds. If you raise the seconds number, the clip will get slower and vice versa.

An entire course specialized only for colors, the definition of it and dealing with it in a professional way. In that course, you will learn the color theories definition. Which are subtractive color mixing and additive color. The subtractive color is the paint or the ink that we see it in any publication like" magazines, newspapers, posters and paintings. "Subtractive Color. When we mix colors using paint, or through the printing process, we are using the subtractive color method. Subtractive color mixing means that one begins with white and ends with black; as one ads color, the result gets darker and tends to black". {Color systems, worqx.com}. The additive color is the light source such as projectors, computers, the sun light and TVs. "Additive Color, if we are working on a computer, the colors we see on the screen are created with light using the additive color method. Additive color mixing begins with black and ends with white; as more color is added, the result is lighter and tends to white". {Color systems, worqx.com}. There is also a color temperature. We describe it as warm or cool colors. Considering magenta a very warm color and cyan a cool color. The rest of the colors depend on how much magenta or cyan in the color. In addition, you will have a little bit of science, it is about the rods and cones in the human eye. They are layers of nerve cells in the eye, and the reason of calling them like this is their shapes. The rods provide vision in low light conditions such as night vision. The cones provide vision in bright light conditions. "There are two types of photoreceptors in the human retina, rods and cones. Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels (isotopic vision). They do not mediate color vision, and have a low spatial acuity. Cones are active at higher light levels (photonic vision), are capable of color vision and are responsible for high spatial acuity". {Rods and Cones, rit.edu}.

Technical English is very useful and important for any university student. At this course, you have to memorize approximately 100-200 words and definitions from your major. For graphic design, you must know all the printing definitions, ways for folding and packaging expressions, such as hot spot: is a printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete drawdown during contact plate making, leaving a weak area of ink coverage or a visible dot gain. In addition of Graphic Design definition: it is an arrangement of type and visual element along with specification for paper, ink color printing process that when combined convey visual message. "The term graphic design can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual communication and presentation. Various methods are used to create and combine symbols, images and/or words to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result". {graphic design, wikipedia.com}. Fine paper is made specifically for writing or commercial printing as compared with course paper and industrial paper, also called: cultural paper or graphic paper. There is also multiple kind of book binding for example: perfect binding, lie flat perfect binding, case binding, side stitching and many other kinds.

As a conclusion, graphic design is an interactive major that has many exciting and entertaining methods. Although it is fun to be able to make posters, animation clip, photographs and magazines, but it is hard to have an excellent idea that can satisfy all the people around you. The great successful graphic designer is the one who can convince the audience of his/her idea and make them believe his point of view and beliefs. To make the audience believe you, you must understand their point of view and their beliefs and persuade them of your opinion.

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