Analysis Into The Development Of Subtitles English Language Essay

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Generally, people get confuse and simply said that subtitles mean the textual version of the dialogue that normally appeared at the bottom of the screen. Meanwhile, from the official Oxford Dictionaries truly translate the meaning of subtitles as a caption appeared at the bottom of a cinema screen that transcribe the dialogue from the actors. The invention of subtitles came not too long after the invention of film. Subtitles actually play a rule to convey the narrative of the actors to the audience in order to enhance their understanding about the film.

The history of film literature serves a detailed account of the introduction of subtitling in the media and cinema. In the era of silent cinema, intertitles disturbed the course of the film every seconds to support additional information to the audience. Then, it was quite easy to replace the original language titles into the local text. But, with the invention of sound in the early 1920s, the US studios quickly understood that one could not force audience to watch films in a language that they did not understand.

Therefore, The Jazz Singer (1927), even if this first ever sound film was publish in non-English spoken countries with subtitles US Film Studios shortly began to promote subtitling widely around this world. Then, after that year, Italy followed suit, and finally, on August 17, 1929, another Al Jolson film, The Singing Fool, opened in Copenhagen, fitted with Danish subtitles. (Gottlieb, p. 216). A first step taken by Paramount Pictures acquired the Des Reservoir studios in Joinville-le-pont situated at outside Paris in 1929. In the 1930s, the studios were used to dub Paramount Films into fourteen European languages.

As time passed by, media channel plays the most vital role regarding to the development of subtitles. Nowadays, subtitles can be exist in one of this three various types. The first and foremost is hard or generally known as open subtitles or hardsubs such as karaoke. Then, the second is closed subtitles or prerendered which function as a separator of the video frames that are overlapped from the original video stream while

accessing. Finally, soft type that needs the typical format and player support to introduce text encoding troubles if various languages are used.



What is subtitles? Subtitles is a textual versions of the dialog in the films, drama, sitcom and television programs. It usually displayed at the bottom of the screen when we watch films. It can be both in white or yellow colours. We can see it in most of the movies that we watch in cinema or television. They either can be in form of written translation of a foreign language, or written form of the dialog in the same language without or with added information in the subtitles to help the audiences who are deaf and have difficulties in hearing who want to follow the dialog or for the people who did not able to understand the language in the movie or which have problem recognizing the accent. It can help those people to understand the movies or the television programs much more better. Television teletext subtitles, are hidden unless it is requested by the viewer from menu because it sometimes can disturb audience's view of the movie .For example, in Astro we can have this function and we can choose whether to turn on the subtitles or not and change the language of the subtitles. It always carries extra sound representations especially for deaf and difficulties in hearing viewers. Teletext subtitle is a language that follows the original audio of the films, except in multi-lingual countries like country in Africa which have different type of language where the broadcaster could only provide the subtitles in additional languages on another pages.

Sometimes, mainly at film festivals for example Cannes film festival in France, the subtitles may be shown in separated display below the screen, thus it can saving the film producer from making another subtitled copy for perhaps just one showing. Television subtitling for whose are the deaf and difficulties in hearing is also referred as closed captioning in certain countries. Subtitles can be used in translating a dialog from a foreign language to the native language of the viewers. It is the fastest and the cheapest method in translating the content, and it is usually being praised for the possibility of viewers to hear the original dialog of the actors. It is important to make the viewers enjoy the movie by understand the storyline without any obstacle.


One of the positive effect of the using of subtitles is listeners can learn how to interpret an ambiguous phoneme on the basis of disambiguating lexical contexts. Next, the advantages of subtitles is, listeners can deal with an unfamiliar foreign regional accent. Furthermore, subtitles help to indicate which words are being spoken. Therefore, watcher can learn about foreign speech sounds. In this world, they are many type of style in speaking and foreign -accented speech. By the present of the subtitles, it is easier for people from different accent to learn the lexical retuning of the native languages. As example, in adaption to the native languages, listeners perhaps able to determine what word that has been said and also may able to imagine by the sound of the words. In research that has been done, people not only can learn about unusual regional accents, but also a one mechanism of lexically-guided in perceptual learning.

Another advantage of subtitle is the printed English words can help to supply additional source of information about the words that being spoken. Hence, about the sounds of the word that had been heard, it can be a guide to learn the lexical of English. As example, the slang of other country's English is different sounds from British's English. In other words, there are different slang of English between other country. Therefore, by the guidance from subtitle, it is much more easier in understanding the words that been heard. Subtitle also can prevent from other people understand the words in different meaning. So, subtitles is important.

Besides that, subtitle work as a medium in understanding English especially for the people who first time learning English and for the people who still not familiar to words in English. It can help those person hear, look and spell those unfamiliar words. This can increase their knowledge and strengthen English vocabulary. It can save their time to understand English words, and learner can do two thing on the same time. They can enjoying their movie and on the same time, learn more English words. Furthermore, they also can learn the true slang of English except knows new words. They also can learn to link those word that can be link such as, words that ends with vowel can link with the words that also start with vowel and words that last letter is same with the first letter of the second word also can be linking. By the way, subtitle also help in strengthen the speaking style of English.

Last but not least, subtitles help those watcher watch a certain movie for a longer time. There is a research that is done by a big company in producing video, which is PLYmedia, stating that, recently they had upload movie or video that is provided with subtitles and some of them are not. As a result the videos which is provided with subtitles caused the watcher to spend their time longer by 40%. On the other hand, the videos which is not provided with subtitle, on average shows that, the watcher only watch the video for about only 66% up to 91% of the video. Other internet research by PLYmedia, conclude that, the intensity for a subtitled video to be share among watcher was higher than unsubtitled video. The co-fouder and director of business development at the PLYmedia state that, "The results from the trial prove that subtitles and closed captioning have a substantial effect on online video viewing" .

As usual, something that have advantages, may also have disadvantages. One of the advantages of subtitles is subtitle that is in native language is provide no benefit or less benefit rather than subtitle that is in foreign language. A research has been done in investigating the true of this statement. Dutch participants has been used and were asked to watch a movie that is provide with unfamiliar English' s slang with or without subtitles. In facts, English and dutch subtitles were used. As a result, the statement above is proved. This is because, if the watch subtitles that is same with language that they always used, there would be no point in watching the subtitle. This also will not increase their grammar and vocabulary learning.

Besides that, other disadvantages of subtitles is the unfamiliar foreign vowels and consonants perhaps can be connected or linked to the native vowels and consonants. This situation will become worsen if we watch a movie that is provided with second language. As example, a person who is really fluent in Mexican Spanish, and also at the same time an American listener, watching 'El laberto de fauono'. Then he will face a problem in understanding European Spanish which he is not familiar with. This would be a problem, because it is hard for the person to cope with that situation. Even though we had agreed that subtitles is helping, but critically, subtitles in English is much more easier and convenient for people all over the world because English is an international language.


There are three different previous studies on subtitles:-

The first is A Comparative Study of the Translation of Colloquialism in English Subtitles of the Iranian Film "The Wind Will Carry Us". This study is done by Negar Eftekhari, A Post-Graduate Student of University of Isfahan, Iran.

The researcher choose an Iranian film as his research's film which entitled "The Wind Will Carry Us" or in Persian it called Bād mā rā khāhad bord directed by Abbas Kiarostami, as the subject to study on how the translator deal with colloquial expressions in this movie subtitles with a comparison between the SL version and the TL version based on Viney and Darbelnet's translation procedure. For the judging criteria to compare this two versions the researcher consider the faithfulness, naturalness, expected effects and fluency of the subtitles.

There are 7 procedures used in this movie which are borrowing, claque, literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation according to Viney and Darbelnet's translation procedure. The researcher discovered that the most frequently applied procedure in this movie according to Viney and Darbelnet's translation procedure is the 'adaptation' in changing the functional equivalence and the recreation took place in this translation procedure. To avoid confusion among the audiences who lack of background knowledge, the rewriting approaches are frequently used in this movie. The colloquial expressions in this film are altered and sometimes it lost the originality caused by the adaptation and localization procedure in making the subtitles. A translator must put more local information in the subtitles rather than more to the global information. The more local the information is, the more likely all the information in the subtitles is to be realized and easy for audiences to understand the subtitles. The most important strategy is to let the audiences fully understand the content and then they can appreciate this film. From this we can see that the translator often removes the unfamiliar and untranslatable parts which caused by the problems of comprehension in the film by rewriting the lines and adapting the scripts. Subtitles is to localize the film thoroughly by using the procedure in Viney and Darbelnet's translation procedure to avoid the audience from confused and lost when come across with unfamiliar colloquialism and the audiences will be able to understand the film and enjoy the film when watching the movie. But the translator didn't try to achieve perfection in consistency in identity while adapting the dialogues in the film. Sometimes there is no similarity in the language and culture in the movie for the translator to adapt with because it is due to the uniqueness of the source of the language and it's culture,. From this case, we can see that the translator might choose to neglect the colloquialism and re-create the lines in the subtitles.

Second previous study on subtitles is "Empirical Study of Subtitled Movies" done by Maria Bernschütz. Maria Bernschütz got her Masters with her Ph.D. in marketing from the Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary, and her another Masters in Communications and Media from the Eötvös Loránt University.

. This study is to study on how do young people perceive subtitled movies and how they respond to the subtitled films. The respondents are from Hungarian young people and Finnish young people. At the end of the research both respondents will be compared on how these young people perceive subtitled movies and their respond toward subtitled movies.

This study is conducted by using online interface of the focus group discussion which conducted on the Internet. The online interface was conducted in a chat room that allows the respondents to see one another's expressions promptly and to respond on them. In the focus group discussion, respondents were tested with popular series like "Friends" and other informative documentary subtitled like "Animals Are Beautiful People". The sample consisted from 413 third-year students from Corvinus University of Budapest which almost 63% of the students were female and 37% of them are male. The average age of the group is 21 years.

As for the results from this study we can be stressed that Hungarian young people watch the original film for the language compared to Finnish respondents, whose motivation was only focus on entertainment instead of watching the film for language like the Hungarian does. From the study we can see that the young people more prefer the cinema's movies to be subtitled compare to the others type of program and the least prefer program to be subtitled is quiz show. Most of Hungarian young people who watched subtitled movies mostly for learning the foreign language easily. While the Finnish they do not ask for dubbing because they did consider each of foreign movie as an entity. In cognitive ability aspect, there are the factors that can influence the information processing. From online focus group conversation, we can see that pictures are easy to comprehend and pictures can carry more compact information compared to text does. The shape of the subtitle is depend on the country it come form, for instance the Hungarian subtitles are harder to read, according to the respondents that have been interviewed.

The third previous study is "Foreign Subtitles Help but Native-Language Subtitles Harm Foreign Speech Perception" written by Holger Mitterer and James M. McQueen. Holger Mitterer is from Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. While James M. McQueen is from Behavioral Science Institute and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition & Behavior, Centre for Cognition, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

This study is to study whether subtitles, which provide the lexical information, support the perceptual learning about foreign speech and to know how the listener learn how to interprets unusual speech-sounds. From this we can know how much it can help the viewer to interpret the contents of the movies. This study is conducted on Dutch participants, who fluent in English were divided into six group and they have watched 25 minutes video material from either strongly-accented Australian English from Australian sitcom Kath and Kim or strongly-accented Scottish English from a British movie which is Trainspotting. In this case, each group had English, Dutch, or no subtitles. After they have watched the 25 minutes video material, all the six groups were asked to repeat again the citations from the Australian and the Scottish movie or episodes. All the groups which were exposed with the Scottish English which who were provided with no-exposure to the control data for the Australian English excerpts, and for the Scottish English excerpts. The main focus of this study is on adaptation in listening, the citations were audio only. The latter material which is particular that allowed us to assess the entire listener on how well the listeners can adapt to the both accent when they were exposed to the 25 video materials.

The outcome of this test is because of word-specific learning, the participants who had heard and seen these subtitles before have performed better than other participants who didn't heard or seen those subtitles before. From the calculation that have been made the proportion of correctly repeated for who were exposed to the English subtitles is higher compared to who heard the Dutch subtitles, no-subtitles and control. But it doesn't mean it can help us to understand better if we used the English subtitles compared to the Dutch subtitles.

4.0 MOVIES AND SUBTITLESC:\Users\User\Desktop\theuninvitedposter.jpg

4.1 Film- Uninvited.

The casting:

Emily Browning- Anna

David Strathairn- Steven

Arielle Kebbel- Alex

Elizabeth Banks - Racheal

The movie revolves from a dream dreamed by Anna (Emily Browning), about the scenery at the time of her mother died. As a solution, Anna try to refer to a phycitarist at a mental hospital, where she had been suspended. The phycitarist help Anna in recovering and give opportunity to her to went back home to her family. She is very happy to see his father (David Strathairn) and her sister (Arielle Kebbel) but on the same time, she had lock up in herself with Racheal (Elizabeth Banks) his father's fiancée. Actually, Racheal is her mother's nurse when her mother still alive and sick. Anna's mother had died in a tragic way of explosion of fire at the boathouse where her mother stayed. Anna can't really remember what had happened that night. Anna and her sister suspected that Racheal must be the backbone of this accident. After the death of his mother, Anna had experienced supernatural and scary dreams, but the question is, are these thing is true?

For us, the starting of the movie was quiet good and suspense. This theme is needed for a movie especially a horror one. The beginning of the story had make watcher become questioned and curios to know about what will happen after this. The plot of this movie was quiet good (but there must have some improvement) and watcher can follow the flow of the story. The best of this movie is, the mysterious part. Many people (watcher) will thought the story is true but their perception is totally wrong. Actually, Anna's sister had also died in the tragic night of the fire. Her sister was totally an imagination throughout the story. This make the movie become more complicated.

The setting was quiet perfect. Most of the background is at an island. In that island, placed a very big beautiful house with a garden. There was also scene in the jungle. The chosen of setting make this movie become more creepy and mysterious. Traditionally, big house is related to a mystery and ghost. The used of the big house in exactly correct and suitable.

Actually, the plot of the movie is quiet good but, towards the middle and the end of the story, it become more complicated and disgusting. As like we say, the plot for the first part is quiet good but it become worsen. So, based on my opinion the plot had spoiled my enjoyment of the film. As an example, we had stick to a character really do, and then the character was just only an imagination. It makes this movie feel like a waste of time.

Finally, the ending of the movie was so annoying because it had cause me to forget all the worthwhile earlier in the film. This was just our opinion, and maybe this was because we had seen many movie before this. Therefore, based on our experienced, we feedback this movie.

4.2 Film - National Treasure : Book Of Secrets

The casting :

Nicolas Cage - Ben Gates

Ed Harris - Mitch Wilkinson

Joel Gretsch - Thomas Gates

Diane Kruger - Abigail Chase

Justin Bartha - Riley Poole

Jon Voight - Patrick Gates

This film is directed by Jon Turtletaub, National Treasure: Book of Secrets is different from other adventure and action genre movies of this nature is its focus ultimately lands squarely on cover-ups and obscure riddles put in place by individuals within the U.S. government and doesn't stray far from the civilized world.

Ben Gates is demonstrating new information on John Wilkes Booth and missing of 18 pages from Booth's diary. then a man named Mitch Wilkinson stands up and presents one of the missing page in John Wilkes Booth's diary. Thomas Gates who is Ben's great-grandfather, is mentioned in that page. It tells that Ben's great-grandfather is a co-conspirator in murder of Abraham Lincoln who is the American's president at that time. While doing more research, in the conspiracy Ben, Abigail Chase, and Riley Poole broke into Buckingham Palace .They discovered early Native American writing on a plank. Only one symbol on the plank that Patrick Gates can identify. The symbol on the plank is Cibola (see-bowl-uh) which mean the City of Gold. To define the rest of it they have to go to Ben's mother. During the lecture about John Wilkes Booth and Thomas Gates, Mitch Wilkinson present was surprised Ben Gates and his father Patrick. He claimed that their ancestor was a conspirator in Abraham Lincoln's assassination based on the missing page from Booth's diary which he possessed. Ben is outraged and decided to prove the honor of his ancestor. He travelled together with his wife, Abigail, and his best friend, Riley Poole to France, England and Washington,USA to collect clues. But they were secretly followed by Mitch Wilkinson in their quest.

This movie was rated PG [See Full Rating]because it contain some violence and action. IT is not suitable for the children under 13 years olds and better watch it under the parent guide although it was under Walt Disney. This film was released on December 21, 2007.National Treasure: Book of Secrets is an entertaining and meaningful way to be watched by almost two hours of your leisure time. In addition, it is also a great way to know more information on government conspiracy theories, because we don't have enough of them. This film that must watch.


First and foremost, we would like to thank to God the most gracious and most merciful, we are able to finish our project successfully although there are some circumstances and problems that we have to face from the beginning until the end of project.

Therefore, from the project that we have made regarding to this subject matter, subtitles, we found that there is a lot of benefits and advantages that come up with the subtitles. As a whole, I think that the subtitles totally help us to make some improvement in our English language performance. Nowadays, English language is establish as a well-known lingua franca or the international language that vital for us to mastered by everyone in order to fulfill the current requirement for the job and work. In order to reach the qualification of standard international people, someone must be able to communicate with the other people all around the world that of course come from different races and difference mother tongue language. Luckily, we only have one establish language that is English language.

Futhermore,with subtitles we will able to improve and enrich our vocabs and also grammar itself. When we watch a movie, of course we need the subtitle in order to make we understand better, so the subtitles at that time will help you to translate the variety of vocabs including their certain slang and excerpt. The slang also can enrich our knowledge and understanding about their culture.

Moreover, some people think that subtitles in their own mother tongue language is more easy to understand compare to English language. But there are some word that cannot be translated by the mother-tongue language. For example when we watch English movies, we can see that subtitles in mother-tongue language is less accurate compare to English language's subtitles. This is because some word in other language is hard to be translated to other language. Then it is better use English subtitles because it is easy to understand by everyone.

Lastly, subtitles can also use by the deaf people to understand the movie by reading the subtitles on the screen. This is because deaf people cannot hear the dialog of the movie although they master the language. With this everyone can enjoy the movie without any problem regarding understanding the movie that they watch. The subtitles can benefit the society by improving their vocab and grammar of language that they learned.

In conclusion, the subtitle is really beneficial to the whole range of age regarding to the actual purpose, that is to enhance the understanding about the movie by translating the dialogue of the actors. Overall, we strongly agree that the subtitles provided improvement in our English language.