Analysing The History Of European Food English Language Essay

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This brief report is about Europe's cuisine. In this report I have discussed the Italy and British's regional cuisines, the food related to the regions, the commodities use in the cuisines, the unique technique, method and the unique equipment use in these cuisines. In this report I mentioned some authentic recipes; I have cooked in the practical section and evaluation report of each recipe.

History of European food

Description

dotclear

Europe is sixth continent on the earth with 47 countries. However, it is the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasiadotclear. In shape, Europe is a collection of connected peninsulas. Two largest of them are "mainland" Europe and Scandinavia to the north, divided from each other by the Baltic Sea. Three smaller peninsulas-Iberia, Italy and the Balkans-emerge from the southern margin of the mainland into the Mediterranean Sea, which separates Europe from Africa. [historyworld, 2010]

Temperature and precipitation

The high mountainous areas of Europe are colder and have higher precipitation than lower areas, as is true of mountainous areas in general. Europe has less precipitation in the east than in central and Western Europe. The temperature difference between summer and winter gradually increases from coastal northwest Europe to southeast inland Europe, ranging from Ireland, with a temperature difference of only 10 °C from the warmest to the coldest month, to the area north of the Caspian Sea, with a temperature difference of 40 °C. [historyworld, 2010]

Religion

The majority religion in Europe is Christianity and then Islam. Other religions including Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism are minority religions.

In European cuisine is one of the oldest recipes, some to early old to date. Some mother sauces were invented in European cuisine, like béchamel sauce was mentioned in 1651 and mayonnaise sauce invented in 1756 by French region. Mustard came from Rome, Worcestershire Sauce from namesake town of Worcester in 1835. Roast beef is traditional dish of England; this is one of the oldest dish in British cuisine. Hot dog came from Germany. [europeanhistory, 2010]

Climate of Europe

Europe has a variety of climates, but most of the continent has mild weather. Europe generally has milder weather than parts of Asia and North America. Europe's mild climate is caused by winds that blow across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean. The winds affect most of the continent because no mountain barrier is large enough to block them and because much of Europe. In general, northern Europe has longer, colder winters and shorter, cooler summers than southern Europe. In addition, winters are longer and colder, and summers shorter and hotter, in the east than in the west. [worldbook, 2010]

ITALY CUISINE

italy_map

ITALIAN CUISINE

Italy is one of the oldest countries in the world, and because of geographical boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea and the Alps, Italy remained largely unchanged throughout the history. Italy is not only famous for its secret pyramids, but also for its authentic food. The Italian dishes have gained worldwide popularity due to their lip-smacking taste. A number of delicious Italian dishes are served in a number of hotels and restaurants all over the world. Italian food is mainly influenced by Romans, Greek and French flavours. Italy has own popular dish in its each and every region.

Italian cuisine is world famous. People around the world are familiar with the two popular Italian dishes pizzas and pastas. Recipes over here are known for fine ingredients such as herbs and spices. The historians believe that the history of Italian food began during the eight century BC. Because of its geographical position, Italy has direct contact with and the influence of the main ethnic and cultural areas of old Europe. Italian food of mountainous regions is a blend of French cuisine and mountain specialties. Italians are very proud of their cuisine since their food renowned throughout the world. [annamariavolpi, 2010]

Climate

The moderating influence of the sea and the protection given by the Alpine barrier from the cold north winds join to bless Italy with a temperate climate. Nevertheless, the weather varies considerably according to how far one is from the sea or the mountains. The winter is very cold in the Alps, cold and foggy in the Po Plain and the central Apennines; mild and even warm on the Ligurian coast, the Neapolitan coast and in Sicilia.

The summer is hot and dry, but the temperature is mitigated on the coast by sea breezes and in the Apennines and Alps it is pleasantly cool. In mountain areas, winter is ideal for skiing, and summer for excursions, hiking, etc. Seaside and lake resorts, with their excellent hotel facilities, have an intense tourist season in the summer, while the cities that are rich in art treasures are ideal in spring and autumn. [italiantourism, 2010]

Cuisine in the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries

The upper classes of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries enjoyed a refined cuisine. Every official event became the pretext for sumptuous feasts where the courses were abundant and the servings enormous: charcuterie hors d`oeuvres and delicate French-style soups were followed by numerous meat and fish dishes, vegetables purees, intricate sweets and fruit, all presented with the utmost care, particularly in the rapidly spreading restaurants. However, the food of the common people remained frugal and monotonous, based on bread and vegetable soups, beans, cabbages and potatoes. Cheese and eggs were widespread as were polenta and pasta made from flour and eggs.

Foreign Influences

From the 17th to the 19th century many new dishes arrived from France: purees, jellies, gravies and delicate, tasty sauces such as mayonnaise and béchamel. The presentation of the food was very important and was executed with great refinement. Even English cooking found its typical dishes becoming widespread abroad: roast beef, pudding and, above all, tea which however remained less popular than coffee or chocolate (from America). The most elegant places were never without coffee, which in fact became so, popular as to give rise to venice locales where it was the most consumed drink. [ezinearticles, 2010]

Regional Italian Cuisines

Regional platters have flourished in Italy due to geographical differences.

Northern Italy

Northern Italy encompasses eight of the country's twenty regions:

Emilia-Romagna

Fruili-Venezia Giulia

Liguria

Lombardy

Piedmont

Trentino-South Tryol

Asota Valley

Veneto

Central Italy

Central Italy encompasses six of the country's region:

Abruzzo

Latium

Marches

Molise

Tuscany

Umbria

Southern Italy

Southern Italy, often referred to as the mezzogiorno, encompasses four of the country regions:

Basilicata

Campania

Calabria

Apulia(Puglia)

and the islands of:

Sicily

Sardinia

Northern Italy

Northern Italy's regions consist of Venice, Milan, provinces of Piedmont, and Lombardi.

In general, the cooking is hardy, plentiful, tasty and a direct reflection of the quality of ingredients. Many meals include large meat portions due to the abundance of lamb, veal and game. Also used are wild mushrooms and white truffles (White truffles are fungi that are similar to mushrooms. They grow underground at the roots of elm, birch, maple and oak trees. Most white truffles are found in langhe area of Piedmont) from neighbouring regions. [www.ehow.com, 2010]

Emilia-Romagna is birth place of most of balsamic vinegars. Trentino-Alto Adige cuisine is the northernmost Italian region combines Germanic, Hungarian and Italian touches, its smoked ham flavours numerous dishes, from braised cabbage in red wine to long-simmered pork stews. Cooking of Val d'Aosta, incorporates both French and Swiss (because of neighbours) influences, Stone ground cornmeal is transformed into nutty polentas, cow's milk Fontina cheese lends a lovely aroma to fritters, risottos, soups and the local bread is made of cold-hardy northern grains like rye or buckwheat. The Veneto forms parts of 'the polenta, bean and rice belt', which runs across the north of Italy, and these are important ingredients in the regional cuisine. Not surprisingly, fish is highly popular too - particularly along the coast and steams in the region. Pasta is not much popular in the Veneto, but a typical pasta of northern side is famous casonziei(pasta stuffed with pumpkin, spinach and ham). Traditional dish of Veneto is bigoli in salsa.[rusticocooking, 2010]

 

Central Italy

Central Italian food is much lighter than northern style Italian cooking. It consists of much less meat, more vegetables, and fresh cheeses (i.e. ricota).

Tuscany (Etruscan), a famous region of central Italy, is venerated as the heart and hallmark of Italian cooking. Unlike the north, Etruscan food is much lighter and less abundant in meats, reflecting the true staple of Italian food. [dinesite, 2010]

Abruzzo is one of Italy's little-known treasures; it boasts a rich repertoire of robust mountain dishes and an abundance of seafood specialties. Abruzzo is famous for cheese made from sheeps milk. The most popular cheeses are Caciocavallo and Pecorin. The Region of Abruzzo produces a high-quality, smooth and mild-flavoured olive oil due to its central location and rolling hillsides along the Adriatic Se.[www.gourmetabruzzo.com, 2010]

Lazio(Latium) region is very famous because of Rome, which is capital of Italy. In Lazio, lamb and pork are standard fare, and sheep's milk cheese is produced abundantly in small dairies. Pastas made of flour and water and a wealth of vegetables round out the Roman larder. The stuffed olives are from the Marches. In Molise Chilli and garlic lace nearly every dish with olive oil. Wild and cultivated herbs like fennel and rosemary lend a deep fragrance to roasted rabbit, suckling pig, and lamb. Tuscany people are masters at the art of understatement; their favourite aromatics (thyme, rosemary, and fennel) are used judiciously, never squandered or wasted. Ravioli and tortellini, the region's classic stuffed pastas, are filled with ricotta or potatoes and then napped with butter and sage, tomato sauce. The olive oil from this region is rather special and high quality (because of their bright green colour and very peppery oil). The trees are grown mostly in hillsides. Two varities of olives are grown: the Muraiolo and Leccino.[www.italytravelsguide.com, 2010]. Umbria is nestled next to Tuscany in central Italy. Landlocked, it relies on pork for most of its classic preparations, and its pork. Specialties of Umbria: - Guanciale (the salted and cured meat from the pig's cheek) are tossed into pasta sauces and pots of beans or peas. [rusticocooking, 2010]

 Southern Italy

Southern Italian food includes food from Pulgia, Sicily, Abruzzi, Molise, Campinia, Basilicata, and Calibria.

The region is known for having its own unique style. Contrary to common misconceptions, Southern Italian foods from Sicily, Calibria, and Basilicata do not use tomato pastes, garlic, and oregano in excess. Actually, they implement a delicate balance of flavours and herbs, which produce light, colourful, and vivid dishes. Such as Orecchiette with Broccoli Raab and Chiancarelle con cime di rape.

[dinesite, 2010]

Campania is best known around the world for its pizza and herbs, salty capers, dried pasta, and fresh farmhouse cheeses (mozzarella). There is unique pasta called Scialatielli, prepared with flour, eggs, milk, grated Parmigiano and parsley, shaped into stout strands, and tossed with seafood and flavourful cherry tomatoes. Apulia (Puglia) kitchen is essential for three things: wheat, olive oil and fruits and vegetables cultivation. This is because most of Puglia is a flat plain, with vast acreages given over to grains, vegetables and fruit. Semolina flour is transformed into a variety of handmade pastas. The most popular pasta shape is orecchiette(little ears), known as reccchie or recchietelle in the local dialect. Other pastas are laganelle(pasta strips), fusilli(spirals), festoni(lasagne/pappardelle with one wavy edge) and strascinate or stagghiotte(ridged rectangles). There are said to be more pasta shape in Puglia than anywhere else in Italy. (Italia, 2005)

Types of cooking

Stufare - means stewing the food. In this method, the meat is cover with cooking liquid and keep on top of the stove on very slow flame. This is the slow cooking method.

Battuto - means combining of raw vegetables for sautéing. In this method normally some kind of Vegetable use for Italian sauce like carrots, onions, garlic, celery and parsley to season.

Al Dente - primarily applies to pasta that is cooked to a texture that is felt "by the tooth." Fresh pasta cannot be cooked al dente because it is too soft. The term also is used in cooking crisp vegetables.

Brasare - means to braise the food. Braising means first browning meat by sealing it and then cover with cooking liquid and cook on slow flame.

Pastasciutta - exactly means dry pasta cooked in sauces.

Cartoccio - means foil is use for baking the dish for special purpose. In this method the meat and fish is wrapped in foil apply oil and bake in oven. This method make the meal healthier and preventing the food from burn.

[cookeryschoolitaly, 2010]

Types of Cheese

Pecorino Romano- made from sheep's milk, generally aged and classified as grana. This is granular and sharply flavoured. A young ricotta pecorino is soft, white, and mild in flavour. Hard and dry cheeses are good for grating may be used in recipes calling are Parmesan cheese, especially if a sharper flavour is desired.

Pecorino Romano

Ricotta- Rich fresh cheese, slightly grainy but smoother than cottage cheese. It is white and moist and has a slightly sweet flavour.

HomemadeRicottaCheese

Mascarpone- cow's milk cheese this must be eaten fresh. Texture is like whipped butter or stiffly whipped cream. It is a delicious creamy desert cheese.

239599_MascarponeCheese

Mozzarella- mild and white fresh cheese made by the special pasta filata process. The curd is dipped into hot whey, then stretched and kneaded to the desired consistency.

untitled

Asiago d'allevo- pressed, cooked cheese made from ewe's or cow's milk. It is a firm, strong table cheese after two to six months. Cheese ripened for loonger periods of time are used for grating.

Asiago_Pressato_cheese

Dolcelatte- Smooth, creamy blue cheese, milder than gorgonzola.

dolcelatte

Stracchino- Fresh cow's milk cheese that contains about 50 percent milk fat. Its flavour is mild and delicate, similar to but slightly more acidic than cream cheese.

crescenzacheese

[typesofcheese, 2010]

Types of pasta

Pasta- In Italy the word pasta means "paste," and refers to the dough made by combining a durum wheat flour called semolina with the liquid, like; water and milk. The term pasta is used broadly and generally to describe a wide variety of noodles made from this type of dough.

Fettuccine- "Small ribbons" of pasta similar to spaghetti, but wider and slender, just like a ribbon. Dishes made with fettuccine - fettuccine arrabiata, fettuccine puttanesca and creamy chicken and mushroom fettuccine.

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Lasagne- Thin and flat pasta with straight or rippled edges. Lasagne con Spinaci

Penne- Tubular pasta cut on the diagonal into pieces about an inch long.penne

Macaroni- a kind of moderately extended, machine made dry pasta. Much shorter than spaghetti and hollow, macaroni doesn't contain eggs.

macaroni

Tortelloni- a larger version of tortellini, usually stuffed with ricotta cheese and leaf vegetables, such as spinach.

tortelloni

Spaghetti- Long, thin, slender pasta.

spaghetti-carbonara

Angel hair- It's like fine hair pasta, thinner and finer than spaghetti.

untitled

Ravioli- square pats dough that is stuffed.

untitled

Orecchiette- It's like a little ears pasta shaped like tiny ears or bowls.

untitled

Lucmache-Large conch shell shaped pasta suitable for stuffing.

[learncooking, 2010]

pasta_lumache

Manicotti- it's long and plain tube shell shaped pasta suitable for stuffing.

untitled

Fusilli- its shape like screws or springs.

untitled

Equipments used in Italian kitchen

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Pizza pan

Lasagne pan

Pizza rocker

Short paddle

Pasta Boiler

Pizza Roller

Pizza peel

Cheese knife

Cheese Grater

Pasta Machine

British Cuisine

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United Kingdom is of 4 parts; England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Three of them are situated on the island of United Kingdom and the fourth one i.e. north Ireland is situated on the island of Ireland and is province of United Kingdom. United Kingdom is situated in south western part of Europe continent and surrounded by the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic sea, the Irish Sea and Atlantic Ocean.

Introduction

The basis of food in Britain has gone through many changes in the last few decades. There is always the effect of some nearby countries and areas over the culture, food and traditions of Britain. Many of the dishes prepared in the sub continent which are served in the isles of Britain have their roots from that of the middle ages. The recipes and culinary were greatly influenced by the agricultural practices of Romans and Normans. In this reference we can also say that Romans have brought with them some of the fruits and vegetable like cherries, cabbage, peas which play an important part for improving the quality as well as the garnishing of the salads. Romans had also played a great part in bringing the cultivation of maize crop in the country. Stewing, stuffing, roasting and spicing have originated from that time only.

If talk about Normans, they have not only conquered Britain but also effected there eating habits, the words like mutton and beef are given by them. Collops is an old Scandinavian word used for the pieces of meat which is eaten on 25th January that is the burn night in Scotland.

When phoenicians first came to Britain for trade of tin at a very early times saffron was first introduced by them.

After the Victorian era, which introduced common customs such as the three-course meal, British food experienced a period of poor reputation, but it has recently begun to recover. British cuisine is highly indicative of the temperate climate of the country, but has also been subject to outside influences.[www.ehow.com, 2010]

      

England

England consists of low hills and plains and a coast line divided by bay, coves and estuaries. Northern England is divided into western and eastern sector by Pennine Chain which is also known as the Back Bone of England.

Roast: - England famous traditional meal is Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding which is normally eaten on Sundays. [leighinfants, 2010]

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Fish: - England being an island it has supply of both fresh water and sea water fish. Popular fish are salmon, Dover sole, mackerel, herring, turbot, oyster, eel and shrimps. Kipper is famous breakfast dish which is smoked herring. Fish and chip is the one of the famous known take away dish which consists fish like cod, haddock, and plaice batter fried with potato chip. [fishandchips, 2010]

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English breakfast: - English traditional breakfast consist of several item like bacon, homemade sausages, grilled tomatoes, grilled whole mushroom, hash brown, eggs, black pudding, baked beans and additions (fried toast, bubble and squeak). [bbcgoodfood, 2010]

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Afternoon tea: - Tea consumption increased dramatically during the early nineteenth century and it is around this time that Anna, the 7th queen of Bedford is said to have complained of "having that sinking feeling" during the late afternoon. At the time it was usual for people to take only two main meals a day, breakfast, and dinner. The solution for the Queen was a pot a tea and a light snack. So, It was Anna who introduced tea and bread and butter to England. It consist of cold sandwiches, small pastries, scones with clotted cream (for which England is famous for and which comes from south west part)[ afternoontea, 2010]

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Cornish pasty: - It is a pastry from Cornwall filled with chopped meat, potatoes and vegetables which was served as a meal and lunch box. [properpasty, 2010]

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Puddings: - Puddings have been eaten for centuries but, in more recent, health-conscious times, these suet splurges have been viewed as an indulgence; an illicit tryst with times gone by. However, they are rich with history as well as calories. Name of some are - sussex pond pudding, apple dappy, Cumberland rum nicky and lord randall's pudding. Dense steamed pudding as plum pudding with brandy is England Christmas tradition.[www.channel4.com, 2010]

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Yorkshire pudding: - Earlier days it was the cheap means to fill the appetite for the poor people and was served by itself before the meal. It the staple dish of British Sunday dinner and also served as a separate course before meal and which is the traditional way of eating and is still practice in some parts of Yorkshire. [essentially-england, 2010]

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Wales

Wales consist of plain coastal area in south and ranges of mountains in middle and in north Wales. Wales's main occupation is agriculture and hence there cuisine consists of natural foods. Wales national speciality is mountain lamb and bacon from the essential food with two vegetable cultivated. e.g. leek and cabbage. 'Cawl' means a broth or soup that is cooked in iron pot on open fire made of bacon lamb, cabbage, new potatoes and leeks. . The special traditional dish of Wales is laver bread made from edible seaweed known as laver. Wales are famous for its cheese such as - cwmtawe pecorino and acorn (ewe milk and hard in texture) and Caerphilly (cow milk and hard in texture), celtic promise (cow milk and semi soft in texture). Welsh rarebit served as savoury is made from melted cheese mix with ale, beer served on toast is also traditional dish of Wales. Near costal area fishing is staple food for local market and cuisine. [Nenes Michael F. 2010]

Scallop and mushroom pie- Scallops have a delicate flavour and pleasant texture which blend well with the haddock. The sliced corals add colour to the dish, which in Ireland is usually baked and served in the individual scallop shells. However, here an ovenproof dish is used. [food culture in great Britain, 2004]

Porter cake- A rich, dark fruit-cake, which keeps very well. The original recipe used porter, a weaker variety of stout, which used to be a very popular working man's pint. However, as porter died out with the advent of bitter and is no longer produced, stout makes an admirable substitute. [food culture in great Britain, 2004]

Scotland

Scotland is situated to the northern part of United Kingdom. The Scottish land consist of mountains, gentle hills and woodland and rugged landscape of the highland in north. Scotland has simple cuisine and is more familiar with the roast like roast lamb, roast beef. It is famous for their steaks which come from Aberdeen Angus cattle known as Angus fillet. Scottish salmon is one of the best and famous worldwide. Its national dish is called Haggis which is made from the pluck - liver, lungs and heart - of the sheep, mixed with oatmeal and seasoning, stuffed into cleaned paunch and simmed. Its famous soup scotch broth is made in the pan called Scotch broth pot with main ingredient as barley cooked with lamb of beef and vegetables. Cranachan is a traditional Scottish sweet dessert recipe served with raspberries. It is also spelt Crannachan. Scottish is famous for their short bread made with butter. Scotland is world wide famous for its scotch or whisky which is only distilled in Scottish distillery, aged in Scotland in oaks barrels, then only it is said to be a scotch by law. [Nenes Michael F. 2010]

Raspberry and walnut shortbread- Two of Scotland's most celebrated foods - shortbread and raspberries come together in this recipe to make a truly mouth-watering dessert that tastes even better than it looks. [food culture in great Britain, Laura Mason, 2004]

Whim wham- This is a very simple recipe for a delicious and swiftly made trifle. It originates from the 18th century, when the word whim-wham was used to describe something light and fanciful. [food culture in great Britain, 2004]

Scotch Broth- This has been described as the national soup of Scotland and is both hearty and filling.[food culture in great Britain, 2004]

Northern Ireland is separated from Scotland by the north channel and lined by republic of Ireland in west and south northern Ireland consist of low hills and two mountains; the Mourns which stretches from south down to Strangford and Lough in the east and the Springs in the northwest. Lough Neagh is the largest lake in United Kingdom and one of the largest in Europe. The staple food is potatoes, cornmeal and oatmeal out of which potatoes was also the growth of income which fail because of famine in 1849 [Nenes Michael F, 2010]

The meal mainly includes meat, potatoes, and vegetables like cabbage, carrot, turnip, parsnips or peas. Irish stew is the main traditional dish made from mutton potatoes, onions and flavoured with parsley and thyme. Carrageen moss is an Irish delicacy, seaweed that is dried boiled and strained and liquid left to cool to form jelly which is very healthy food .The stout (black beer) is produced by the Guinness brewers is an Irish product which they feel proud about. Because of fastest growing economy the new Irish cuisine included river oysters, grass fed lamb cows and pigs and fresh or smoked salmon .Irish cheese making tradition is developing and the famous Kerry gold butter found around the world is made by Irish formers for hundreds of years. Some Irish cheese - Ardrahan (semi soft cheese made from cow's milk), cashel blue (semi soft cheese made from cow's milks), cooleeney (soft, mould-ripened cheese made from pasteurized milk)[Nenes Michael F. 2010]

Soda bread- Round loaves of soda bread were traditionally baked on a hot griddle over the fire and had a lovely crisp crust. The bread is moist, close-textured and delicious, with a distinctive flavour which comes from the soda and buttermilk.[food culture in great Britain, 2004]

Irish potato and parsley soup- Potatoes have been a staple part of the Irish diet for hundreds of years, and find their way into all sorts of dishes. Use a variety such as Pent and Dell or King Edward to make this thick and sustaining soup, with green flecks of parsley added for extra flavour.[food culture in great Britain, 2004]

Types of cheese

Cheddar

Oak Smoked

Probably the most consumed cheese in the world, Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard yellow to off-white, and sometimes sharp-tasting cheese.

British Brie and Camembert

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Many people are genuinely surprised when they learn that Brie and Camembert are produced in the UK, believing that these cheeses can only be made in France. In fact both are generic names referring to a recipe. If the cheese is cut before the maturing process is finished, it will never develop properly.  One of the great dessert cheese, comes in shape of wheel and is packed in a wooden box.

Stilton

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Stilton known as the 'King of English Cheeses', Stilton takes its name from a village just south of Peterborough. It is smooth and creamy with complex, slightly acidic flavour. It makes an excellent dessert cheese and is traditionally served. It is semi hard.

Garstang Blue

In essence this is a blue Lancashire cheese. It follows the traditional Lancashire cheese making process but the curd is sprayed with penicillium roqueforti blue mould before being salted and placed into hoops for light pressing. Mild, smooth and incredibly creamy this is a wonderful addition to the range of British Blue cheeses now being made. Age is around 6 weeks.

Half fat cheeses

As the name suggests, this cheese have half or less than half the fat content of the standard cheese against which it is being compared. Consequently, protein, calcium and salt levels are slightly higher.

Hereford Hop

Hereford Hop is a vegetarian round cheese made from cow's milk. The hops are crunchy, with the slightly yeasty taste associated with beer, while the cheese is mellow, sweet and buttery. Not made in Hereford but in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire.

[typesofcheese, 2010]

Recipes

8oz beef burger

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Ingredients

1each 8oz beef burger Pattie

1ea burger bun

15gm red onion

25gm mayonnaise

25gm tomatoes

0.2each little gem

150gm julienne French fries

50gm tomato relish

50 gm coleslaw

Makes 1 portion

Method

Grill burger on char-grill to order

Cut burger bun in two and toast inside faces

Deep fry fries in fryer

Spread mayonnaise and relish evenly on bottom half of bun and top with lettuce and tomato

Place the burger on top and garnish with red onion

Place burger in plate leaving the top half of bun at an angle

Arrange fries and coleslaw in the plate

New Yorker Burger

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Ingredients

2each 4oz burger Pattie

1each 7oz chicken skinless

75gm bacon

1slice Monterey jack

1portion sloppy joe topping

1ea burger bun

15gm red onion

25gm mayonnaise

25gm tomatoes

0.2each little gem

150gm julienne French fries

50gm coleslaw

Makes 1 portion

Method

Put burger patties on char grill

Coat the chicken in garlic oil, season and grill till cooked through but still juicy, cut into 3 pieces lengthways

Slice the onion and tomato finely, heat the sloppy joe

Cut the bun in half a grill till grill lines appear

Spread mayonnaise on the bottom. Build the burger in the order, lettuce, tomato, onion, burger Pattie, chicken piece, bacon, on top put sloppy joe topping

Serve with fried French fries on the side and serve coleslaw in the ramekin

Fish and chips

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Ingredients

1ea hake fillets

1ea beer batter

1ea tartar sauce

75gm mushy peas

2each lemon wedges

1ea fat chips

Makes 1 portion

Method

Pat the fish dry, put some plain flour on fish then coat in the batter getting rid of any excess, deep fry the fish till golden and cooked, drain on the absorbent paper

Fry the chips till golden and cooked

Heat the peas on the pan with care

Serve on the plate taking care of presentation with the peas and tartar on the side, serve with lemon wedges

Tortilla sharer

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Ingredients

2ea tortilla wrap

80gm full fat soft cheese

40gm sour cream

15gmlime juice

30gm cheddar cheese

5gm chilies red

25gm roasted peppers

35gm slice green jalapeno

35gm plain tortilla chips

0.5each limes

75gm chili con carne

Makes 1 portion

Method

Cut the peppers into 5mm dice the chilies finely

Mix the cream cheese, sour cream, lime juice, grated cheddar, peppers, roasted pepper and jalapeno's together

Spread the mix evenly over a tortilla and sandwich with the second on top

Char grill on both sides make sure marks on the tortilla, cut that into 8 pieces and arrange on the plate

Reheat the chili con carne, place pile of tortilla chips, jalapeno and 2 lime wedges on the plate along with chili

Aubergine roulade

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Ingredients

45gm cherry tomatoes

2gm oregano

5gm garlic string

100gm fine chopped tomatoes

3gm basil

50gm ricotta

20gm mascarpone

¼ each red pepper

30gm courgettes green

20gm pecorino cheese shavings

160gm aubergine

Method

Dice the pepper and courgettes into 5mm dice, finely slice garlic, pick the basil and oregano and chop them

Slice Aubergines into 5mm slices lengthways, drizzle with the garlic oil and char grill on from both sides, until well cooked

Mix the vegetables, ricotta and mascarpone cheese together, form into 4 cylinders and wrap the aubergine around each one

Roast in the oven until heated through, add to the hot sauce and cook for a minute

Place in the centre of salad bowl and spoon the sauce around the filled aubergines, decorate with shaved pecorino cheese

 Fettuccini puttanesca

F:\BlackBerry\pictures\Camera\IMG00053-20100311-1231.jpg

Ingredients

150gmcherry tomatoes

5gm garlic string

20 gm capers

40gm red onion

1ea oil

55gm marinated olives

5gm oregano

20gm pecorino cheese shaving

5each parsley

50gm olive oil

125gm fettucini pasta

Method

Cook pasta in boiling water until al dente

Quarter tomatoes, slice onions and chop garlic

Pit and chop olives

Heat oil in wok and sauté above ingredients for approx 2 minutes

Add chopped parsley, picked oregano and cooked pasta and toss together thoroughly on heat

Serve in 10inch bowl and put pecorino shaving on top for garnish

Chicken Caesar Salad

F:\comodities\Practicals\IMG00058-20100311-1232.jpg

Ingredients

150gm Whole spit roasting chicken

0.25each Lettuce Cos

50gm Caesar dressing

50gm Cocktail mix-green and purple mix

1ea Croutons

30gm Pecorino shaving

Makes 1 portions

Method

Pull apart chicken by hand and warm slightly in salamander

Tear lettuce into small pieces

Pit olives and rough chop

Toss all of the above in Caesar dressing with croutons

Arrange in salad bowl and top with pecorino shavings

Crab Cake Salad

F:\comodities\Practicals\IMG00056-20100311-1232.jpg

Ingredients

2 x 80gm crab cakes

50gm Apples

70gm Beans Fine

40gm Soy Beans

90 gm Cherry tomatoes

0.25each Peppers Red

1ptn apple and ginger dressing

Makes 1 portions

Method

Dust crab cakes in flour and pan fry

Put crab cakes in oven for 5 minutes at 180'C

Finely slice apple and red peppers

Quarter cherry tomatoes

Toss all vegetables in dressing

Arrange salad in bowl and arrange 2 crab cakes on top of that.

Duck Salad

F:\comodities\Practicals\IMG00054-20100311-1231.jpg

Ingredients

1 ea Duck Leg

0.25each Peppers Red x Each

5gm Garlic String

40gm Soy Beans

100ml Chicken Stock

30gm Red Onion x 1kg

10 gm mint

10gm coriander

10 gm Sugar

15gm White Cashews

5gm Fish sauce

Makes 1 portion

Method

Pierce bag holding the duck and heat in a oven until meat is warm and fat melted.

In the hot chicken stock add the garlic, fish sauce and lime juice, let infuse for 5 minutes and cool

Slice the red onion very finely and mix all ingredients together in a bowl with the chicken stock

Pick the mint and chop the coriander including stalks, mix in with the rest of the salad and pour into the salad dish, arrange the duck on the top

Club Sandwich

F:\comodities\Practicals\IMG00064-20100311-1233.jpg

Ingredients

125gm whole spit roast chicken

2 bacon slice

50gm red onion

0.1each lettuce cos

75gm tomatoes

50 gm mayonnaise

3slice white/ brown bread

150gms julienne French fries

50gm coleslaw

Makes 1 portion

Method

Pick chicken and warm it in salamander

Grill 2 slices of bacon till golden and crisp

Slice half tomato and onion thinly

Toast 3 slice of bread, on the bottom slice spread the mayonnaise to cover the slice evenly

Break the spine of the lettuce and place on the bread slice followed by tomato and onion slice

Place the second slice on top

Spread the mayonnaise on the top of the second slice followed by the chicken cut into 3 pieces followed by the bacon

Place the third slice on the top, ensure the sandwich filling is even all the way through

Slice the sandwich on the diagonal, serve with a portion of French fries and coleslaw

Mussels with coriander

F:\comodities\Practicals\IMG00060-20100311-1233.jpg

Ingredients

500gm mussels

75gm cherry tomatoes

10gm coriander

3gm garlic string

2gm ginger

5gm red chilies

50gm dry white wine

25gm red onion

25gm garlic oil

100gm chopped tomatoes

Makes 1 portion

Method

Slice cherry tomatoes into quarters

Finely chop garlic, coriander, chilies, ginger and onions

Heat oil in wok and add onions, garlic, chilies, ginger and cherry tomatoes

Cook for around to minutes

Add wine and everything else and toss together in work

Cover with lid and allow to steam until mussels are open and cooked - 5 minutes approx

Remove lid and reduce liquor slightly

Serve in 10inch salad bowl

Garnish it with some picked coriander

Lamb with cous cous

G:\BlackBerry\pictures\Camera\IMG00079-20100314-1338.jpg

Ingredients

80gm cous cous

1/4each red pepper

1/4each green pepper

20gm red onion

30gm tomatoes

20gm mint

40 gm mint dressing

1each 8oz lamb Rump

Makes 1 portion

Method

Place the cous cous in a bowl and add enough cold water and just cover it, leave for 10 minutes then fluff with the fork

Dice peppers and onion into 5mm dices, cut tomatoes into quarters, pick and coarsely chop the mint and mix together

Oil and season the lamb, grill on both sides until golden colored, place in the oven at 180'C for around 10 minutes

Drizzle the sweet mint dressing over the couscous, slice the lamb into 2cm slices and arrange on top of the cous cous

Oven grinder

G:\BlackBerry\pictures\Camera\IMG00082-20100314-1340.jpg

Ingredients

60gm chorizo

1each spring onion

80gm tomatoes

75gm aubergine

5gm parsley

1ptn garlic oil

1 grinder bread

2slice of cheddar cheese

0.1each radicchio

150gm julienne French fries

Makes 1 portion

Method

Take the skin off the chorizo and cut them into 3 length ways, fry in garlic oil for 1 minute

Slice the tomato, chop the parsley and finely slice the spring onion on the angle, mix with the chorizo

Slice the grinder in two, lay the grilled aubergine on the bottom half of the grinderand top with the chorizo mix, then radicchio and cheese slice

Put the lid on, brush garlic oil on the top and bake in the oven for approx 4 minutes at 180'C

Serve whole on the plate with fried French fries

Bibliography

(2010) available from: [www.historyworld.net]

(2010) available from: [www.europeanhistory.about.com]

(2010) available from: [www.worldbook.com]

(2010) available from: [ezinearticles.com]

(2010) available from: [www.annamariavolpi.com]

(2010) available from: [www.italiantourism.com]

(2010) available from: [www.rusticocooking.com]

(2010) available from: [dinesite.com]

(2010) available from: [www.cookeryschoolitaly.com]

(2010) available from: [www.ace.mmu.ac.uk]

(2010) available from: [www.typesofcheese.com]

(2010) available from: [www.newitalianrecipes.com]

(2010) available from: [www.ntscateringequipment.com]

(2010) available from: [www.leighinfants.co.uk]

(2010) available from: [www.fishandchips.org.uk]

(2010) available from: [www.bbcgoodfood.com]

(2010) available from: [www.tastefullybritish.com]

(2010) available from: [properpasty.co.uk]

(2010) available from: [www.essentially-england.com]

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