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People management can be defined as the process of controlling and monitoring of individuals. The concept of people management is widely used in organizations where the manager's most important task is to manage people. In order to increase the efficiency of the people, the manager has to lead, motivate and inspire people or the staff working under him or her. With the main purpose of managing people or the staff in the organization, human resource departments are established within the organization. These departments are specifically responsible to deal with staff in the organization. The similarity between people management and human resource department is that both recruit, train and manage people or the staff involved in the organization. To conclude the general introduction of this assignment given, there would be answers of two questions. The first question would be answered with explanation of communication process and some common forms of communication used in hospitality and tourism industry and the second question would be answered based on motivation and how organizations motivate their employees to be excel at their jobs.
Introduction (Question 1)
First of all, what is communication? In order to answer the first question given in this assignment, definition of communication is required. Communication is basically a process of transmitting information from one party to another. Communication involves the sharing of ideas, information or even feelings. While many people think of communication primarily in oral or written form, communication is in fact so much more. A knowing look or a gentle touch can also communicate a message loud and clear, as can a hard push or an angry slap. So, communication is an interaction between two or more people in which something is exchanged.
As mentioned in the introduction previously, communication is the imparting and exchange of information, ideas or even feelings which requires at least two or more people or individuals to be involved. Most of important consideration in any forms of communication is the 'degree of richness' as in whether the information or the ideas has transferred accurately and understood by the other individual or individuals by usage of proper media of communication.
In order for anything to have outcomes or to have results, there must be a process of it. The same goes for communication to be completed. It is basically divided into 3 parts of process, transmitter, message, and receiver. The transmitter and the receiver are the two main parties to be involved and in between them, the message is the main purpose or the main reason that the communication takes place. Without messages to be transferred and understood in the middle, communication cannot be completed or even be started. In other words, the message is working as a bridge in between the sender and the receiver.
The first part out of the three parts in the process of communication, the transmitters, they are basically a person or a group of individuals who send the message to the receiver. The message could be information, ideas or even feelings as mentioned above. Transmitters play a role to encode the message to transmit it to the receiver and also to choose the appropriate and selected media to transmit either written or oral, or any other media available and suitable for the message.
As for the second part, message, as mentioned, it is the main purpose of why the transmitter and the receiver exist. A message is basically formed from ideas or whatever that the sender wants the receiver to receive, has been encoded in a simpler and easier way to understand for the receiver. In order to encode the idea to the form of a message, knowledge and experience is required as it cannot be simply encoded as the message could mean a totally different meaning from its original meaning.
As receivers are the person or a group of individuals who receive the message from the sender or the transmitter, they should know how to interpret and assign the meaning according to the values and play a role of decoding, unlike the transmitter, where they play the role of encoding. Feedbacks or failures during transmitting the message are also one of the roles that the receiver plays.
To be in more detail, failures in communication could occur due to certain barriers which would be mentioned below. Due to the transmitter, there could be a failure in a sense that the transmitter is not transmitting the message clearly due to the lack of experience and knowledge or credibility or even because of the transmitter's poor communication skill. Sometimes it could be because of the receiver as well. For instance, the receiver would not or could not concentrate because of certain reasons such as that the receiver does not like the sender; in this case the listener does not like the speaker or is feeling sleepy and bored or even just refuse to face the speaker and to him or her. Sometimes external factors could interrupt the listener such as noisy environment and etc. Messages do not always make the receiver to react, in other words, the receiver could be not interested in the message itself which could also be the cause of the failure of communication. Omitted information occurs when the sender is unwilling to give all the information regarding to the topic or even the emotions of the sender or the receiver can affect the transmission of the message. Sometimes, overloading of information or lack of time also could be one of the barriers of communication. There are meant to be solutions to every problems, which goes same for the problem mentioned above. To overcome those problems, empathy is required. Empathy is basically a feeling of awareness, the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing of the feelings, thoughts or attitudes of another. In other words, it is an ability to understand what someone or the other party is experiencing and to take action to assist.
It is not what the transmitter says or intends to say, that is true or important, but rather, what the receiver understands to be true or important. If the receiver misinterprets the transmitter's meaning, it is considered as the transmitter's fault. There are basically roles of individuals for communication for the sender as well as for the receiver. First of all, even if everyone has their own perception, they should not refuse to listen or exchange ideas about the given topic just because their perception on the topic is not good. Good communication skill is required such as experience and knowledge. From the listener's or the receiver's point of view, good listening skills are required as well in a sense that the listener should concentrate when the speaker speaks and he or she should listen intelligently and catch the ideas whatever the speaker is trying to mention.
There are some common forms of communication used in everyday life as well as in hospitality and tourism industry such as verbal, non-verbal, written, representative aural and representation visual. Verbal form of communication could be communication through speaking unlike non-verbal, which is more on eye contact, body language such as postures and gestures. Written form of communication are communication made by letters, memos or even papers stick on the board to let the others be aware of the information. Representative aural or visual form of communication is also used in hospitality and tourism industry.
Conclusion (Question 1)
Communication plays very important role in our life. Not only in hospitality and tourism industry but in everyday life, communication is necessary. Communication itself is so important that it cannot be missed in every industry and hospitality and tourism industry is not an exceptional. In order for the communication to be formed, there should be process to it which required 3 parts, as mentioned, transmitter, message and the receiver. The process will start from transmitter with the purpose of sending his or her idea by transmitting to a form of a message so that the receiver can get the meaning or the purpose of the message accurately and understand. It is also important role of the transmitter to actually choose the right and appropriate media of communication while sending the message to the receiver.
As communication takes place every time at everywhere, from my point of view about communication, it is good to actually put yourself in the receiver's shoe in order for a better communication to take place.
Introduction (Question 2)
What is motivation? In order to answer the second question given in this assignment, definition of motivation is required. Motivation is internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal. It is basically the energizer of behavior and mother of all action. Motivation is the driving force which causes us to achieve goals. Motivation is either intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for human being but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. Motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal according to various theories. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism even though motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion.
According to the dictionary, the term motivation is defined as:
The act or an instance of motivating
The state or condition of being motivating
Something that motivates; inducement; incentive
True enough, as mentioned in the introduction for this question above, motivation is the energizer of behavior and mother of all action.
Forget all those thesis type definition of motivation which is just getting more and more confusing. Motivation is a very wide term, searching for the real definition on the internet is a real frustration since it is a real wide term. Let me put in a direct form from how I understand the term motivation as an answer to this assignment question.
Motivation is simply the reason for an action and it gives purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is "WHAT drives you" to behave in a certain or in a particular way of action. It is basically your "WHY". "WHY" is a strong reason for everyone to desire something. It is not what people desire, but the strong reason people desire it. For instance, if someone wants to stop working and go into business for himself or herself, here are some possible explanations:
His or her desire - to have his or her own business.
His or her "WHY" :
to be independent
to have more time for his or her family
to have more time to pursue his or her dreams
From the example above, you can see that the "WHY" often goes beyond the physical objectives themselves. The "WHY" often satisfies a psychological need which is important. If the reason for doing something is just material for instance, to own a Mercedes or have a huge house, it is unlikely to see you through the difficult times to achieving your dreams. The "WHY" has to look beyond the physical which means that it has to be from deep within. That way when the going gets tough, the "WHY" will see through it because it is a strong and burning reason. It is a reason that will stand strong in the face of opposition.
If the reason for wanting something is strong enough, even if at the time you don't know how to achieve it, you will have to pursue it. It has often been said that when someone desire something strongly enough the whole universe conspires to bring about the circumstances, people and resources he or she will need to achieve that purpose. In other words, if the "WHY" or the reason is big enough, the "HOW" which comes after the "WHY" does not matter.
There are many ways that people get motivated but here is the most common and most effective way. First of all, you should not care so much on how you are going to get it in other words, just decide what you want. Second, be as clear as possible on what you want and setting of goals. You must have a definition of motivation that is personal to you. And think about WHY you want it as the second step. And to remember these have to be strong reasons. By carrying out these two major steps you will have sorted out your personal definition of motivation. The most important is that, your "WHY" is your personal definition of motivation.
The steps which have been mentioned above are simple steps but it is guaranteed if anyone does them they are well on their way to achieving their dreams. This is where a lot of people get stuck since they just do not know what they want. However once they know what they want, they as in anyone are ready to work to achieve it. It is because, once anyone knows what they want, they are already a winner.
There are many and different ways of motivating employees to excel at their jobs and it all depends on how the organization motivates their employees. If there are people who still think that the money is the number one motivator, they are definitely wrong. It is true that money is important, but if someone doesn't like their job or the way they are treated, he or she would not care how much he or she gets paid pay, that someone still won't like it. In fact, in numerous surveys the number one motivating factor to get employees to perform at their best focuses on appreciation and recognition. While money is important to employees, what tends to motivate them to perform at high levels is the thoughtful, personal kind of recognition that signifies true appreciation for a job well done. The best way to provide recognition and appreciation is through the use of rewards. To make the rewards work, there are certain basic guidelines to be followed as the first step:
1. Design rewards based on the individual's personal preferences. For instance, to reward a workaholic with a day off, it could be seen by the employee as, "What did I do wrong?" instead of a show of appreciation as it was meant to be. To really understand what is important to each employee it's essential to get to know each and every employees well and to find out what they think are important rewards from their point of view
2. Rewarding for achievements - Rewards should be based on what was actually done. For instance, if someone has given you an idea that has saved you money, that person should get a bigger reward compared to someone who just did you a small favor.
3. Timing the rewards - Rewards and recognition should be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior. Reward and recognition that come long after the achievement do little to motivate the employee.
There are many ways to motivate the employees to excel at their job without increasing their salaries or giving them bonus which is a costly mistake, too many bonus or commission checks get cashed, spend and forgotten just that quickly, which becomes quite meaningless after some period of time. There are 15 motivational factors that I will be mentioning below. Even though there are many more than the 15 factors I mention, from my point of view, these 15 are the most effective and could be commonly used.
Recognition - when someone does something well, praise them, where possible praise them in public. Whenever and wherever possible when they have done something well or made an achievement.
Training - offer employees the training they need in order to excel at their jobs.
Working environment - create the right working environment for the employees to be productive. Create a pleasant workplace and do not kill their enthusiasm with pointless rules and regulations or procedures.
Team spirit - People like working as part of a team and will often work harder to ensure their team "wins" than they would otherwise.
Feedback - Give feedback as soon as possible to show that you are interested in whatever activities that the employees are doing.
Increase employees' responsibility through delegation - If they are responsible for a task a person is more likely to ensure that it gets done and done well, even more so if the task contributes to a team effort and they can expect to receive recognition for their contribution.
Avoid Micro Managing - If you are constantly looking over your employees shoulders they will not feel trusted and will not take responsibility for the task.
Communication - Tell the employees what is going on or current news or even update them and make sure they communicate with each other.
Reduce distractions - Modern organizations are far too good at creating ways to distract their employees from actually working. If as a manager you can deflect some of these distractions, the team will be more productive and more motivated.
Goal setting - It is much easier to work towards a goal than it is to work without goals. Team goals that members of the team are responsible for are especially good.
Involve your employees in the decision making process - Let them know their expertise and opinions matter, which also shows that the manager respects the employees' opinion and decision and which also could be a part of delegation.
Criticize the behavior, not the employees - This should be obvious, no one likes being told they are wrong, therefore, do not criticize the people or the employees but the behavior.
Listen to and deal effectively with employees' complaints - Show them that you value their contribution to the business or the organization respects their feelings.
Establish a climate of trust and open communication - Make sure employees feel able to come to you with their problems. To make this work, you have to have given them responsibility and be willing to accept mistakes. You should only penalize them for making the same mistake repeatedly.
Show that you have confidence in your employees - By giving them the chance to take responsibility and to demonstrate their best work.
Conclusion (Question 2)
Understanding what motivates employees is important for any manager; understanding ways to motivate people is the most essential. Whatever mentioned above is the very basic guidelines to make the recognition and appreciation work since it works better than the money. It is a definite costly mistake to get lost in the false theory that more money equals happy employees. Cash will always be a major factor in motivating people and a solid compensation plan is critical to attracting and keeping key personnel. But the key is that additional cash is not always the only answer and in many cases not even the best answer. Too many bonus or commission checks get cashed, spent and forgotten just that quickly.
By completing this assignment, I have learnt more about the people management as the subject itself and found out more about communication and also about motivation as they were majorly involved in the two questions given for this assignment. In everyday life, communication and motivation is just things which are usually and often overlooked even though they play very important roles in our life. Without communication, we will not be able to understand or apprehend whatever the other party is trying to let us know. And even without motivation, no one would be motivated to work or what so ever, which shows that those two really play important roles in our life which cannot be overlooked.