An Introduction To Criminology English Language Essay

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(1) What are the reasons usually given to explain gender differences in the crime rate? If males are more violent than females, does that mean crime has a biological rather than a social basis (because males and females share a similar environment)? What is meant by the term "new female criminal" and how accurate is that description?

(2) After analyzing the research on "juvenile psychopathy," explain why this construct is so controversial with regard to youth.

(3) Summarize and analyze the current academic research on the current relationship between individuals who have a mental disorder and their participation in violence. Discuss the Canadian law (NCRMD - "Not Criminally Responsible because of a Mental Disorder) associated with this construct.

(4) Although all sex offenders are not alike, theorists and researchers have identified common elements in the acquisition and maintenance of deviant sexual behavior and have rejected other elements. What are the common factors in the etiology of sex offending, and what factors are unlikely to account significantly for this offending.

Paper Guidelines

Each of the following components should be included in your paper. You may choose to use headings but you are not obligated to do so. That choice belongs to you.

Title Page

The title of your paper should convey the subject matter in 15 words or less. Do not call it anything like "Crim 101" (this gives no information about content), or "A Content Analysis" (not specific enough). Your title should capture what the paper is about. Your name, student number, title of the course, and the date should appear somewhere on this cover page.


The introduction should do exactly like that - it introduces your topic and contextualizes it within the broader literature as appropriate, states your objective and should end with an outline of what your paper discusses. Most importantly, it should provide a useful framework to the paper. My advice is to be specific about the topic you are addressing. Depending on how much literature you use in the introduction it should be about ½ page in length.

Definition of the Topic

You will need to articulate definition(s) of your topic. These may be included in the introduction or appear immediately following the introductory section. Make sure that you properly cite sources of the information.

Including Academic Sources

Academic references MUST be included throughout the paper. Outside research will strengthen your paper and demonstrate your understanding of the topic. Further it allows you to explore the ideas of others. You need to acknowledge differing views and ensure that you discuss them "critically." Remember that criticism is not necessarily negative. A critical discussion means that you consider the other sides of the arguments and perspectives you present. It often also means that you acknowledge the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments. STUDENTS MUST USE A MINIMUM OF FIVE (5) ACADEMIC SOURCES (journal articles and books) OUTSIDE OF THE TEXTBOOK. FURTHER, STUDENTS CANNOT RELY ON ONE SOURCE OR THE TEXTBOOK FOR THIS PAPER. THE TERM PAPER MUST OFFER A WELL-ROUNDED ANALYSIS USING VARIOUS ACADEMIC SOURCES.

Direct Quotes

A maximum of TWO DIRECT QUOTES will be accepted in this paper.


The conclusion should provide a nice summary of what you found. Having examined the literature and comparing it to the media sources you found, what can you conclude about your topic? Are the questions that remain unanswered? If so, be sure to discuss them briefly.

Reference Page

Pursuant to APA Guidelines, all term papers must include a Reference Page (bibliography) listed all your academic sources.


Your paper is due on or before 6:00 p.m. on August 5, 2010. LATE PAPERS RECEIVED AFTER 6:00 p.m. WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED.

1General Criteria for Grading Papers

Understanding and incorporation of course materials;

Appropriate use of outside material;

Meets instructions re: Project Guidelines provided below

Grammar, syntax, spelling, organization

Proper referencing and citations (See Instructions for Referencing in Written Assignments below)

Please note the following important points:

If you are uncertain how to reference your work, see the A.P.A. guide on the School of Criminology website at or the SFU library website at

Your paper will be graded for its content, structure, grammar, and critical thought.

1Instructions for Referencing in Written Assignments

The APA's statement that a page number is optional is not acceptable in this class. Page numbers are required for both quotations and paraphrases.

Footnotes, endnotes, references and bibliographies must be complete. Any social science or legal format is acceptable.

All other direct quotations in your paper must be in quotation marks. If you omit a few words or pages in a quotation, put the quote in quotation marks and connect the two segments by ellipses (i.e., three dots). If you change one or two words in a quotation put your word(s) in square brackets. Phrases which are direct quotes should be put in quotation marks.

A quotation must be followed by its source and the page at which it is located. When quoting or paraphrasing cases with paragraph numbers, use the para. number (e.g. para. 142). When quoting from an article that uses paragraph numbers instead of the page number, you may use paragraph number. If using on-line articles use PDF versions whenever possible so that a page number is available. If a PDF version is not available, use the pages as they appear when the online article is printed in HTML format.

A paraphrase (a restatement of someone's idea in your words) must be followed by a reference to the source and page (or para. number, if a case and for some on-line articles) of the idea. Suggestion: if your paraphrase is almost identical to the original source, use a direct quotation. When paraphrasing you may use the paragraph number instead of the page number, where it exists. Note: The APA format which states that a page number is optional is not acceptable in this class. Page numbers are required for both quotations and paraphrases.

Provide a complete citation (name of author and article) and a website address for all material obtained from the web when a PDF version is not available. Additional information regarding web citations are found in the APA Manual referenced above.

A note about web references. The author of the website should be used within the body of the paper. The reference provided in your reference list you should include the website address. The following as an example.

British Columbia Ministry of Attorney General. (2000). Violence against Women in Relationships Policy. Retrieved April, 2003, from the World Wide Web:

Acknowledge the use of secondary sources (e.g. Smith, 1986 as quoted in Black, 1988 at 24) although whenever possible you should refer to the primary source.

Submitting the same or similar assignments in two different courses is a form of academic dishonesty, even if you wrote the paper.

I will assume that you have read and understood the above instructions. If you do not understand these instructions, please do not hesitate to discuss them with me BEFORE you hand in your paper for grading.

If you are writing your paper and taking notes or quotations from articles, books, the web, or cases, my advice is to put them in quotation marks and note the specific page numbers the first time around. If you are paraphrasing, note the page from where you have obtained the ideas. This approach will save you a lot of time and keep you from plagiarizing material.

Checklist for Final Paper

Ensure that your paper is securely fastened together. If you do not have a stapler that is adequate use a clip that is very secure and will not get caught on other papers or fall off easily.

Please do not use binders or plastic covers, duotangs, folders or other similar things in putting your paper together. These simply make the pile of papers heavier and generally cause the papers to fall all over the place when they are in piles.

Margins: between 1.00-1.25 inches

Use Arial 11 font or Times Roman 12 font only.

Your paper must be double spaced

Please do not print on both sides of the paper - I may want extra space to write comments

Number your pages

Spell check and proofread/edit: a good trick to notice spelling/grammar errors is to read the paper from the back to front

Use Canadian spellings - remember this is a Canadian university

Use paragraphs: there should be more than one paragraph on each page, separate your thoughts using paragraphs

Stay away from informal language, colloquialisms, and contractions (e.g., use children, not kids; do not rather than don't); you are writing a formal, academic paper. NOTE: it's means it is - it should not appear in your paper.

Be careful with assumptions/interpretations - you should provide evidence of your arguments with specific sources from the academic literature.

Avoid value laden language, especially when it comes to race and gender (e.g., girls refers to female children; don't use girls or ladies in reference to women; if you use men then use women, if you use male, use female).

Watch your subject/verb agreement - The verb that you use must agree with the subject of the phrase (e.g., they are going; s/he is going)

Watch your noun/pronoun agreement - If your subject is plural then a plural pronoun is required (e.g., the pronoun for participants [plural] is they; the pronoun for participant [singular] is s/he).

Note: i.e. means 'that is', e.g. means 'for example'

Don't assume I know what you mean when you use etc. If you have more to say please be specific.

Write out numbers that are less than ten and avoid starting sentences with numbers (e.g., 24 of the participants were female is better written as there were 24 female participants).

Be creative with your title and headings but ensure that they follow the general rules of grammar and proper English.

Avoid using long lists of authors and titles of books/articles in your text. This is a space filler and unnecessary with a properly cited paper and reference page. In general, identify all authors of a cited work in the first reference and replace all but the first author with "et al." for subsequent citations.

You MUST include the page number in your citations when you are quoting and paraphrasing; ensure that your citations are adequate and complete.

Direct quotes that are over 35 words or 4 lines of text should be placed in block paragraphs with .5 inch indents on both sides and single spaced.